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THE IBIS, 



QUARTERLY JOURNAL Of ORNITHOLOGY. 



EDITED BY 



PHILIP LUTLEY SCLATER, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., 

SECRETARY TO THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 




VOL. V. 1893. 
SIXTH SERIES. 

Cognovi omnia volatilia cinli. 

LONDON: 

GURNEY AND .JACKSON, 1 PATERNOSTER ROW 

(Sfccessors to J. VAN VOORST.) 

1893. 





PRINTKD BY TAV'LOR AND FRANCIS 
KED I.ION COiriiT, FLEET STIiEET. 



OyVi- ^ 



PllEFACE. 



In bringing the thirty-fifth volume of ' The Ibis ' to 
a conclusion, the Editor has but few words to say 
by way of preface. He may, however, justly con- 
gratulate his brother Members of the British Orni- 
thologists' Union on the long life of their Journal 
and on its present prosperous condition. Not only 
is the latest number a full one, but valuable 
materials are already in hand nearly sufficient to 
fill the first number for next year, and other con- 
tributions from various excellent correspondents are 
promised for future issue. The Editor trusts, there- 
fore, that he may be able to conduct the Sixth Series 
of ' The Ibis,' the sole Editorship of which he did 
not consent to undertake without very serious hesita- 
tion, to a successful end. 

Ornithology has made much quiet progress during 
the past twelve months, although there is, perhaps, 
no event of specially transcendent importance to 
be chronicled. The publication of Count Salva- 
dori's well-executed volume on the Pigeons brings 
the great Catalogue of Birds one step nearer to 
its conclusion, besides supplying us with a manual 



PREFACE. 



on this much-esteemed group manifestly " up to 
date." The appointment of Herr Ernst Hartert to 
the responsible post in this country as Curator of the 
Tring Museum will also be welcomed by Ornitho- 
logists, as bringing a most able and active recruit 
into a position where he will have great opportunities 
for doing valuable service to our beloved Science. 
Our best thanks are due to Mr. Rothschild for this 
admirable selection. 

Lastly, we must call attention to the establishment 
of the British Ornithologists' Club, which has taken 
place since we last addressed our readers, and to the 
very successful accomplishment of its First Session. 
Nearly all the working Members of our Union have 
already joined the new Association, and its prosperity 
fully justifies those who planned the scheme and 
carried it out. We have no doubt that its meetings 
and records, which we propose to continue to 
chronicle in this Journal, will be of material 
advantage to the progress of Ornithology. 

P. L. S. 

3 Hanover Square, London, W. 
Sept. 28th, 1893. 



BUITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 
1893. 



[An asterisk indicates an Original Member. It is particularly requested 
that Members will give notice to the Secretary of the Union, 10 Cliandos Street, 
London, W., of any error in their addresses or descriptions in this List, in order 
that it may be immediately corrected.] 



Date of 
Election. 

1893. Erxest L. S. Anne, Major ; Blenkinsopp Castle, Greenhead, 
Carlisle. 

1887. Frederick Charles Aplin ; Bodicote, Banbury, Oxon. 

1888. Oliver Veexon Aplin ; Bloxham, Banbury, Oxon. 

1885. James Backhouse, Jun., F.Z.S. ; llenoso, Victoria Avenue, 
Harrogate. 
5 1892. E. C. SxEUARX Baker ; District Superintendent of Police, 
Gunjong, Cachar, Assam, India. 
1879. Valentine Ball, F.R.S. ; Science and Art Museum, Dublin. 

1889. Richard James Balston, F.Z.S. ; Springfield, Maidstone, 

1890. Francis Hubert Barclay; Knott's Green, Leyton. 

1872. Hanbury B.arclat, Colonel, F.Z.S.; Tingrith Manor, 

Woburn, Bedfordshire, 
lo 1885. Hugh G. Barclay ; Colney Hall, Norwich. 

1884. Henry E. Barnes, Lieut., F.Z.S, ; Commissariat Officer, 

Ahmednagar, Deccan, India. 
1889. Gerald Barrett-Hamilton ; Kilmannock House, New Ross, 

Wexford. 
1881. Richard Manliffe Barrington, LL.B. ; Fassaroe, Bray, co. 

Wicklow. 
1893. AuBYN B. R. TREVoR-B-ArxYE, F.Z.S., St. Margaret's Mansions, 

51 Victoria Street, S.W. 
15 1884. Frank E. Beddard, M.xl., F.R.S., F.Z.S., Prosector to the 

Zoological Society of London ; Zoological Gardens, Regent's 

Park, N.W. 
1880. Edward Bidwell ; 1 Trig Lauo, Upper Thames Stieet, Lon- 
don, E.C. 
1884. Charles T. Bingham, Major (Indian Staff Corps), F.Z.S. ; 

Deputy Conservator of Forests, Moulmein, Burma. 



Date of 
Election. 

1892. The Rev. Maurice C. H. Bird, M.A. ; Bruiistcad llectory, 

Stalham, Norfolk. 

1891. P. E. Blaauw, C.M.Z.S. ; s'Graveland, Hildersum, Holland. 
20 1893. Ernest W. H. Blagg ; Greenhill, Cheadle, Staffordshire. 

1873. William T. Blanford, F.R.S., E.Z.S. ; 72 Bedford Gardens, 

Kensington, W. 

1893. George Bolam, F.Z.S. ; Castlegate, Berwick-on-Tweed. 
1878. William Borrer, M.A., F.L.S. ; Cowfold, Horsham. 

1885. William F. Brockholes ; Claughton-on-Brock, Garstang, 
Lancashire. 
25 1890. Harry Brinsley Brooke; 33 Egcrton Gardens, Kensington, W. 

1892. William E. Brooks ; Mount Forest, Ontario, Canada. 
1868. Thomas Edward Buckley, B.A., F.Z.S. ; Rossal, Inverness, 

F.B. 
1872. Sir Walter Lawry Btjller, K.C.M.G., Sc.D., F.R.S., C.M.Z.S. ; 

Wellington, New Zealand. 
1884. E. A. Butler, Lieut.-Col. ; Herringflect Hall, Lowestoft. 
30 1884, Geoffrey Fowell Buxton ; Sunny Hill, Thorpe, Norwich. 

1889. Ewen Somerled Cameron, F.Z.S. 

1888. John Duncan Cameron : Low Wood, Bethersden, near Ashford, 

Kent. 
1892. Charles William Campbell, C.M.Z.S. ; H.B.M. Consular 

Service, Shanghai, China. 
1891. John Campbell, Colonel, Governor-General of Prisons; Perth. 
35 1879. Sir Thomas David Gibson-Carmichael, Bart., F.Z.S. ; Castle 

Craig, Dolphinton, N.B. 
1888. James Carter; Burton House, Masham, Yorkshire. 

1890. Charles John Philip Cave, F.Z.S. ; Ditcham Park, Petersfield. 

1888. Walter Chamberlain, F.Z.S. ; Harborne Hall, Harbornc, 

near Birmingham. 
1884. Abel CtiAPMAN; 14 Thornhill Gardens, Sunderland. 
40 1882. Robert William Chase ; Southville, Priory Road, Edgbas- 
ton, Birmingham. 

1889. Stephenson Robert Clarke, F.Z.S.; 25 Chesham Street, 

S.W., and Croydon Lodge, Croydon, Surrey. 
1880. William Eagle Clarke, F.L.S. ; Museum of Science and Art, 

Edinburgh. 
1880. E. H. Cooper, Lieut.-CoL, F.Z.S. ; 42 Portman Square, 

London, W. 

1874. John Cordeaux ; Great Cotes, R.S.O., Lincoln. 



Date of 
Election. 

45 1888. William Wilfrid CoRDEAux ; Queen's Bays, India. 

1882, Charles B. Cory, F.Z.S, ; 8 Arlington Street, Boston, Mass., 
U.S.A. 

1892. Harold MixchellCourage; Snowdenham,Bramley, Guildford. 

1882. Philip Crowley, F.Z.S. ; Waddon House, Waddon, Croydon. 

1877. John J. Dalgleish ; Brankston Grange, Bogside Station, 

Stirling, N.B. 
5^ 1874. Charles G. Danford, F.Z.S. ; Hatszeg, Siebenbiirgen, Hun- 
gary, and Conservative Club, St. James's Street, London, 
S.W. 

1883. James Davidson ; 32 Drumsheugh Gardens, Edinburgh. 

1893. W. E. De Winton : Graftonbury, Hereford, and 38 Great 

Eussell Street, W.C. 

1889. William Henry Dobie,M.E.C.S.; 22 Upper jSTorthgate Street, 

Chester. 

1883. ScROPE B. DoiG ; Public Works Department, Bombay. 
55 1880. Arthur Dowsett, F.Z.S.; Castle Hill House, Reading. 

1805. Henry Eeles Dresser, F.L.S., F.Z.S. ; Topclyffe Grange, 
Farnborough, Beckenham, Kent. 
*Henry Maltrice Drummond-Hay, C.M.Z.S., Lieut.-Col., Royal 
Perth Rifles ; Seggieden, Perth. 

1890. James A. G. Drummond-Hay (Coldstream Guards) ; Guards' 

Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 

1878. W. Arthur Durnford, J.P. ; Elsecar, Barnsley. 

6o 1876. George Le C. Egerton, Capt. R.N. ; Bury Grange, Alver- 
stoke, Hants. 
1870. Daniel Giraud Elliot, F.R.S.E., F.Z.S. ; American Museum 
of Natural History, New York. 

1884. Algernon Elliott, Deputy Commissioner, Yeotmahl, Berar, 

H.A.D., India. 
1866. Henry John Elwes, F.Z.S.; Colesborne Park, Cheltenham. 

1879. Arthur Humble Evans, M.A., F.Z.S. ; 9 Harvey Road, Cam- 

bridge. 
65 1888. William Evans, F.R.S.E. ; 18a Morningside Park, Edinburgh. 

1891. Alfred Hast Everett, C.M.Z.S. ; care of Central Labuan Co., 

Labuau, Borneo. 

1892. William George Fairbridge ; 133 Long Mai'ket Street, 

Capetown. 
1873. Henry Wemyss Feilden, Col., C.M.Z.S.; West House, Wells, 
Norfolk, and Junior United Service Club, St. James's, S.W. 



Till 
Date oJ 
Election. 



1886. HAKOLDyruAKT Ferguson, Lieut. Nair Brigade ; Trevaudrnm, 
Travancore. 
70 1891. Leopold Field, F.Z.S. ; St. Stephen's Club, Bridge Street, 
Westminster, S.W. 

1892. Frank Finn, B.A., F.Z.S. ; Mote House, Mote Road, Maid- 
stone. 

1890. Lionel Fisher ; Kandj', Ceylon. 

1884. Henry Ogg Forbes, F.Z.S. ; 104 Philbeach Gardens, S.W., 
and care of 0. E. Janson, 44 Great Russell Street, W.C. 

1880. William Foster ; The Hill, Witley, Surrey. 

75 1887. W. W. Fowler, M.A. ; Lincoln College, Oxford. 

1865. Rev. Henry Elliott Fox, M.A. ; 12 South Bailey, 
Durham. 

1881. Percy Evans Freke ; 9 Sydenham Road, Dundrum, co 

Dublin. 
1881. Hans Gadow, Ph.D., F.Z.S. ; University Zoological Museum, 

Cambridge. 
1886. Charles William Francis, Earl of Gainsborough ; Exton 
Park, Oakham. 
80 1885. Sir Ralph Payne Gallwey, Bart. ; Thirkleby Park, Thirsk. 
1892. John Geerard ; Government Inspector of Mines, Worsley, 

Manchester. 
1879. Ernest Gibson ; care of Thos. Gibson, Esq., 1 Egliuton Court, 
Edinburgh. 
*Frederick DuCane Godman, F.R.S., F.Z.S.; 10 Chandos 

Street, Cavendish Square, London, W. 
*Percy Sanden Godman, B.A., C.M.Z.S. ; Muntham, Horsham. 
85 1874. H. H. GoBwiN-AusTEN, Lieut.-Col., F.R.S., F.Z.S.; Shal- 
ford House, Guildford. 

1884. John G. Goodchild, F.Z.S. ; Museum of Science and Art, 

Edinburgh. 
1886. William Graham, F.Z.S. ; Manor House, Crayford, Kent. 
1890. William R. Ogilvie Grant ; 26 Hereford Square, S.W. 

1885. F. H. H. Guillemard, M.A., M.D., F.Z.S. • Eltham, 

Kent. 
90 1876. Albert C. L. G. Gunther, M.A., M.D., F.R.S., F.Z.S. • 
Keeper of the Zoological Department, British Museum 
(jSTatural History), London, S.W. 
1 870. John Henry Gurney, F.Z.S. ; Keswick Hall, J^orwich, and 
Atheiueum Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 



IX 

Date ol 
Election. 

1890. Joshua Reynolds Gascoign Gwatkin ; Manor House, 

Potterne, Devizes. 

1891. George Henky Caton Haigh ; Grainsby Hall, Great Grimsby, 

Lincolnsbire. 
1887. John Pleydell Wilton Haines ; The Lodge, Gloucester. 
95 1886. Edward Hamilton, M.D.,F.L.8.,F.Z.S.; 10 Cromwell Place, 

S.W. 
1883. Lewis Yernon Harcotjrt ; Malwood, Lyndburst, Hants. 

1876. Henry Charles Harford, Major 2ud Wilts Regt. ; Glen 

Froome, Nelson Crescent, Southsea. 

1877. Edward Hargitt, F.Z.S. ; 1 Northanger Road, Streatham 

Common, S.W. 
1893. Ernst Hartert ; The Museum, Triug, Herts, 
loo 1808. James Edmund Harting, F.L.8., F.Z.S. ; Linnean Society, 
Burlington House, Piccadilly, W. 
1893. William Hartmann ; Tangley Mere, Chilworth, Surrey. 
1873. John A. Harvie-Brown, F.Z.S. ; Dunipace House, Larbert, 

N.B. 
1892. Edward Suter Hasell ; Victoria, British Columbia. 
1868. Rev. Herbert S. Hawkins, M.A. ; Beyton Rectory, Suffolk. 
105 1887. Charles T. Hebbert, F.Z.S. ; The Rhodrons, Hook, Kingston- 
on-Thames. 
1884. C. J. HoLDswoRTH ; Hill Top, near Kendal, Westmoreland. 
1877. E. W. H. HoLDSwoRTH, F.Z.S.; South Town, Dartmouth, 

Devon. 
1891. Arthur H. Holland ; Sta. Elena, Soler, F. C. al Pacifico, 

Buenos Ayres. 
1888. Herbert Knight Horsfield ; Ivy Lodge, Chapel Allerton, 
Leeds. 
110 1893. Charles Hose, F.Z.S. ; Resident, Baram, Sarawak, Borneo. 
1881. Robert James Howard; Hawkhurst, Blackburn, Lancashire. 
*WiLFRiD HuDLESTON Hudleston, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S. ; 
8 Stanhope Gardens, S.W. 
1893. William Henry Hudson, C.M.Z.S. ; Tower House, St. Luke's 

Road, Wcstbourne Park, W. 
1809. Allan Octavian Hume, C.B., C.S.I., F.Z.S.; The Chalet, 
Kingswood Road, Upper Norwood, S.E. 
115 1890. Henry Charles Vicars Hunter; 45 Lennox Gardens, S.W. 
1870. Hedworth Hylton, Lord Hylton, F.Z.S. ; Merstham House, 
Red Hill, Surrey. 



Date of 
Election. 

IbTO. Leonard Ho-nvard L. Irby, Lieut.-Col., F.Z.S. ; 14 Corn- 
wall Terrace, liegent's Park, N.W. 

1888. Frederick J. Jacesox, F.Z.S. ; 13 Westbourne Square, 

W. 
1892. Henry Ashworth James; 11 Oxford Square, Hyde Park,W. 
120 1889. Frederick Ponsonby Johnson; Castlesteads, Brampton, 

Cumberland. 
1891. Henry Hamilton Johnston, C.B., F.Z.S. ; The Residencj-, 

Zomba, British Central Africa, via Zanzibar and Chindi. 

1880. Henry Robert Kelham, Major, 2nd Bn. Highland Light 

Infaiitrj' ; Fyzabad, India. 
1882. Philip M. C. Kermode ; Hillside, Ramsay, Isle of Man. 

1891. J. Graham Kerr; Christ's College, Cambridge. 

125 1892. Francis Arnold Knight ; Brynmelyn, Weston-super-Mare. 
1882. Rev. Edw. Ponsonby Knubley, M.A.; Staveley Rectory, 
Leeds. 

1892. Thomas Geddes Laidlaw ; Bank of Scotland, Morningside 

Branch, Edinburgh, and 8 Morningside Road, Edinburgh. 

1884. Herbert Langton; 11 Marlborough Place, Brighton. 

1881. Hon. Gerald Lascelles ; Queen's House, Lyndhurst. 

130 1892. John David Digues de LaTotjche; Chinese Imperial Mari- 
time Customs, Amoy, China. 

1892. Arthur Moore Laws ; Little Clactou Lodge, near Colchester. 

1885. George Lawson, C.B. ; 36 Craven Hill Gardens, Hyde Park, 

W. 
1876. AYiLLiAM Vincent Legge, Col. R.A., F.Z.S. ; Commandant's 

Office, Hobart Town, Tasmania, and Cullenswood House, 

St. Mary's, Tasmania. 
1868. Hamon Le Strange, F.Z.S. ; Hunstanton Hall, King's Lynn, 

Norfolk. 
135 1875. Paget Walter Le Strange, Col. R.A. ; Dol-Uan, Llandyssil, 

South Wales. 

1893. Frederick Lewis ; Assistant Conservator of Forests, Ratna- 

pura, Ceylon. 

1889. Christopher John Leyland ; Haggerston Castle, Beal, 

Northumberland. 

1886. Harold Littledale, B.A. ; Vice- Principal, The College, 

Baroda. 
*TnoMAs Lyttleton, Lord Lilford, F.L.S., F.Z.S.; Lilford 
Hall, Oundle. 



Date of 
Election. 

MO 1874. John Hayes Lloyd, Col., F.Z.S. ; 95 Adelaide lluad, 
N.W. 

1889. Arthue Purvis Lotd, F.Z.S. (late Major 21st Hussars) ; 

3 Queen's Mansions, Victoria Street, S.W. 

1877. James Ltjmsden, F.Z.S. ; Arden House, Alexandria, N.B. 
1886. Eev. Hugh Alexander Macpherson, M. A. ; 11 Victoria Place, 

Carlisle, 

1875. John Wingfield Malcolm, F.Z.S. ; 7 Great Stanhope Street, 

Mayfair, W. 
145 1878. Henry Stacy Marks, R.A., F.Z.S. ; 17 Hamilton Terrace, 
St. John's Wood, N.W. 

1878. Eev. Murray A. Mathew, M.A., F.L.S. ; Buckland Dinham, 

Frome, Somersetshire. 
1S83. Edmund Gustavus Bloomfield Meade-Waldo, F.Z.S. ; Rope 
Hill, Lymington, Hants. 

1886. John Guille Millais, F.Z.S. ; 2 Palace Gate, Kensington, W. 

1879. Frederick Shaw Mitchell; Edmonton, Alberta, N. W. T., 

Canada. 
150 1892. St. George Mivart, Ph.D., M.D., F.Pt.S.; Hurstcote, Chil- 
worth, Surrey. 

1890. Thomas James Monk ; St. Anne's, Lewes, Sussex. 

1864. Alexander Goodman More, F.L.S. ; 74 Leinster Road, 
Rathmines, Dublin. 

1887. George Morgan, Lieut.-Col. ; Biddlesdcn Park, Brackley. 
1886. George Muirhead, F.Z.S.; Mains of Haddo, Aberdeen. 

155 1893. William H. Mullens, M.A., F.Z.S. ; Westfield Place, near 
Battle, Sussex. 

1892. Philip Winchester Munn ; Laverstoke, Whitchurch, Hauls. 

1885. Edward Neale ; 43 Charlotte Street, Portland Place, 
W. 

1882. Thomas Hudson Nelson ; Sandringham House, Redcar, York- 
shire. 

1876. Hugh Netill ; Newton Villa, Godalming. 

160 1872. Francis D'Arcy William Clough Newcome ; Feltwcll Hall, 
Brandon, SuiFolk. 

*Alfred Neavton, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., Professor of Zoology 
in the University of Cambridge ; Magdalene College, Cam- 
bridge. 

*Sir Edward Newton, K.C.M.G., M.A., F.L.S., C.M.Z.S. ; 
23 Wellington Esplanade, Lowestoft. 



Date of 
Election. 

1891. DiGBY Seys Whitlock Nicholl, F.L.S., F.Z.8. ; The Ham, 

Cowbridge, Glamorganshire. 

1886. Howard Hill John Nicholls, M.R.C.S. ; The Moat, East- 

bourne. 
165 1876. Francis NicnoLsoN, F.Z.S. ; Oakfield, Ashley Ed., Altrin- 
cham. 

1887. George Cameron Norman, F.Z.S. ; 68 Lombard Street, E.G. 

1882. Eugene William Gates, F.Z.S. ; Toungo, Burma. 

1892. Fergus Menteith Ogilvie, M.A., F.Z.S. ; Sizewell House, 

Leiston, Suffolk. 
1889. Bertram Savile Ogle ; Hill House, Steeple Aston, Oxford. 
170 *Sir John W. P. Campbell-Orde, Bart., F.Z.S., late Captain 

42nd (lloyal Highland) llegiment; Kilmory House, 
Lochgilphead, Argyllshire, N.B. 

1883. Henry Parker, C.E., F.Z.S., Irrigation Officer, P.W.D. ; 

Kurunegala, Ceylon. 
1880. Thomas Parkin, M.A., F.Z.S. ; Fairseat, High Wickham, 

Hastings. 
1891. Robert Patterson; Tilecote, Malone Park, Belfast. 

1884. R. Lloyd Patterson, F.L.S. ; Croft House, Holywood, co. 

Down. 
175 1891. Henry J. Pearson; Bramcote, Beeston, Notts. 
1891. Frank Penrose ; 4 Harley Street, W. 
1886. E. Cambridge Phillips ; The Elms, Brecon. 
1886. E. Lort Phillips, F.Z.S. ; 79 Cadogan Square, S.W, 

1888. George Thorne Phillips ; Wokingham, Berkshire. 
180 1893. Thomas Digby Pigott, C.B. ; 5 Ovington Gardens, S.W. 

1883. Thomas Mayer Pike, M.A. ; care of R. H. Porter, 18 Princes 

Street, Cavendish Square, W. 
1888. Mervyn Owen Wayne Powys, B.A., F.Z.S. ; Oriental Club, 

Hanover Square, W. 

1893. William Plane Pycraft ; Department of Comparative 

Anatomy, University Museum, Oxford. 
1888. Charles Robert Eustace Radclyffe ; 1st Life Guards, and 

Hyde, Wareham, Dorset. 
185 1872. R. G. Wardlaw Ramsay, Major, F.Z.S.; Tillicoultry House, 

Tillicoultry, N.B. 
1879. Herbert Evelyn Rawson, F.Z.S. ; Fallbarrow, Windermere. 
1888. Robert H. Read ; care of Sir John Fowler, 2 Queen Square 

Place, Westminster, S.W. 



Date of 
Election. 

1877. Savile G. Reid, late Capt. R.E., F.Z.S. ; Fi-oyle House, Alton, 

Hants. 
1893. Percy Rendall, M.D,, F.Z.8. ; Eureka City, Barberton, South 

African Republic. 
190 1893. The Hon, L. Walter Rothschild, F.Z.S. : Tring Park, Tring, 

Herts. 
1883, William Herbert St. Quintin, F.Z.S. ; Scampston Hall, 

Rillington, Yorkshire. 
*Osbert Salvin, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S. ; 10 Chandos Street, 

W., and Hawksfold, Fernhurst, Haslemere. 

1870. Howard Saunders, F.L.S., F.Z.S, ; 7 Radnor Place, Hyde 

Park, W, 
*PniLip LiJTLEY Sclater, M,A., Ph.D., F.R.S. ; Secretary 
to the Zoological Society of London, 3 Hanover Square, 
W., and Odiham Priory, Winchtield. 
195 1891. William Luxley Sclater, M.A., F.Z.S. ; Eton CoUego, 
Windsor. 

1881. John Scully, F.L.S., F.Z.S., Surgeon-Lt.-Col. ; care of 
Messrs. H. S. King & Co., 65 Cornhill, E.C. 

1873. Henry Seebohm, F.Z.S. ; 22 Courtfield Gardens, S.W. 

1889. Humphrey Patricius Senhouse, B.A. ; The Fitz, Cocker- 
mouth, Cumberland. 

1871. Richard Bowdler Sharpe, LL.D., F,L.S,, F.Z.S, ; Senior 

Assistant, Zoological Department, British Museum (Natural 

History), South Kensington, S.W. 
200 1886. William Carstairs Shaw ; Bank of Madras, Madras. 

1870. G. Ernest Shelley, F.Z.S., late Captain, Grenadier Guards; 

10 Thurloe Square, S.W, 
1865. Rev, Charles William Shepherd, M.A., F.Z.S.; Trotters- 

clilfe Rectory, Maidstone, Kent. 

1881. F. B. Simson, F.Z.S. ; Broom Hill, Spratton, Northampton. 

1882. Rev. Henry H. Slater, M.A,, F.Z.S, ; Thornhaugh Rectory, 

Wansford, Northants. 
205 1864. Rev. Alfred Charles Smith, M.A. ; Old Park, Devizes, 
Wilts. 

1881. Thomas Southwell, F.Z.S. ; 10 The Crescent, Chapel Field, 
Norwich, 

1893. Samuel S. Stanley; 3 Regent Grove, Leamington, Warwick- 
shire. 

1875. A. C. Stark. 



Bate of 
Election. 

1889. William Stoate ; Belmont, Burnham, Somerset. 
2IO 1893. Charles SroNnAM, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S. ; 4 Harlcy Street, 
Cavendish Square, W. 

1881. Robert WiiiGnT Siuddt, Col. (late Manchester Regiment) ; 

Waddeton Court, Brixham, Devon. 
1887. Frederick: William Styan, F.Z.S. ; Ben Craig, Bayham Road, 

Sevenoaks, and Shanghai, China. 
1887. John Swinburne ; Beauregard, Hauteville, Guernsey. 

1882. Charles Swinhoe, Col. Bombay Staff Corps, M.A., F.L.S., 

F.Z.S. ; Avenue House, Cowley Road, Oxford. 
215 1884. William C. Tait, C.M.Z.S. ; Oporto, Portugal. 

*Edward Cavendish Taylor, M.A., F.Z.S. ; 74 Jermyn Street, 
S.W. 
1873. William Bernhard Tegetmeier, F.Z.S. ; 16 Alexandra 
Grove, North Finchley, N. 

1889. Edward Priaulx Tennant; 40 Grosvenor Square, W., and 

The Glen, Innerleithen, N.B. 
1886. Horace A. Terry, Captain (Oxfordshire Light Infantry) ; 

Burvale, Walton-on-Thames. 
220 1891. William Blundell Thornhill ; Castle Cosey, Castie Belling- 

ham, Ireland. 
1893. Dixon L. Thorpe ; 41 Aglionby Street, Carlisle. 

*Rev. Henry Baker Tristram, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., C.M.Z.S., 

Canon of Durham ; The College, Durham. 
1864. Henry Morris Upcher, F.Z.S. ; Sheringham Hall, Norfolk, 

and Feltwell Hall, Brandon. 

1890. Stephen Venour ; Fern Bank, Altrincham, Cheshire. 

225 1881. William WiLLOTJGHBY Cole Verner, Major (Rifle Brigade); 
Junior United Service Club, S.W. 
1884. A. S. Verey ; Heronsgate, near Rickmansworth. 

1891. C. W. DE Vis, Queensland Museum, Brisbane; care of Williams 

and Norgate, 14 Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, W.C. 

1880. H. D. Wade-Dalton, Col. 2nd Batt. Middlesex Regiment, 

Quetta. 

1881. Thomas, Lord Walsingham, F.R.S., F.Z.S. ; Merton Hall, 

Thetford, Norfolk. 
230 1874. Charles Bygrave Wharton, F.Z.S. ; HounsdoAvn, Totton, 
Hants. 
1878. Henry Thornton Wharton, M.A., F.Z.S, ; Madrcsfield, 
Acol Road, Priory Road, West Hampstead, N.W. 



XV 



Date of 
Election. 



1891. Benjamin Ingham Whitaker ; Hesley Hall, Tickhill, llothor- 

ham. 
1881. Joseph "Whitaker, F.Z.S.; Rainworth Lodge, Mansfield, Notts. 
1891. Joseph J. S. Whitaker ; Malfitano, Palermo, Sicily. 
-35 1887. Jeffert Whitehead ; Southwood, Bickley, Kent. 

1888. Charles Joseph Wilson; 16 Gordon Square, W.C. 

1887. Scott Barchard Wilson, F.Z.S. ; Heatherbank, Weybridgo 

Heath, Surrey. 
1891. Frank Withington; liancho Salispuedes, Apertado de Torres 

111, Tuxpan, Mexico. 

1875. Charles A. Wright, F.L.S., F.Z.S. (Knight of the Crown of 

Italy) ; Kayhough, Kew-Gardens Road, Kew, S.W. 
240 1871. E. Perceval Wright, M.D., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Professor of Botany 
in the University of Dublin. 
1891. Thomas Weight, M.D. ; Castle Place, Nottingham. 

1876. Claude W. Wyatt ; Adderbury, Banbury. 

1889. James B. Young, Commander B.N. ; Rodwell, Weymouth. 
1878. John Young, F.Z.S. ; 64 Hereford Road, Bayswater, W. 

245 1877. J. H. Yule, Major (Devonshire Regiment); 41 Eaton Rise, 
Ealing, W. 

Extra-Oid'niarij Member. 

1860. Alfred Russel Wallace, F.Z.S. ; Corfe View, Parkstone, 
Dorset. 

Honorary Members. 

1886. Thomas Ayres ; Potchefstroom, Transvaal. 

1860. Dr. Eduard Baldamus ; Moritzwinger, No. 7, Halle. 

1890. Hans, Graf von Berlepsch, C.M.Z.S. ; Mlinden, Hanover. 
1860. Dr. Jean Cabanis, C.M.Z.S., Friedrichshagen, bei Berlin. 

5 1870. Dr. Otto Finsch, C.M.Z.S. ; Delmenhorst, near Bremen, 
1880. Heinrich Gatke, C.M.Z.S., Heligoland. 
1860. Dr. GusTAV Hartlaub, F.M.Z.S., Bremen. 
1860. Edgar Leopold Layard, C.M.G., F.Z.S., Budleigh Saltcrton, 

Devonshire . 
1893. Dr. Anton Reichenow ; Museum fiir Naturkunde, Invuliden- 
strassc, Berlin. 
10 1890. Count ToMMASo Salvadoki, M.D. , C.M.Z.S. ; Roj-al Zoological 
Museum, Turin. 



Date of 

Election. 

Foreign Members. 

1890. Joel Asaph Allen, C.M.Z.S. ; American Museum of 
Natural History, Central Park, Neiv York. 

1872. Prof. J. V. Barboza du Socage, C.M.Z.S. ; Royal Museum, 

Lisbon. 

1880. LoTJis BuKEATJ, M.D. : Ecole de Medecine, Nantes. 

1873. Prof. Robert Collett, F.M.Z.S. ; Director Zoological Museum, 

Christiania. 
5 1872. Dr. Elliott CouES, C.M.Z.S. ; Smithsonian Institution, TFosZt- 
ington, D. C. 

1875. Marchese Giacomo Doria, F.M.Z.S., Genoa. 

]872. Dr. Victor Fatio, C.M.Z.S., Geneva. 

1872. Dr. Henry Hillter Giglioli, F.M.Z.S.; Real Instituto di 
Studi Superior!, Florence. 

1872. George N. Lawrence, C.M.Z.S. ; 45 East 21st Street, New 
York. 
lo 1872. Baron De Selys Longchamps, Liege. 

1866. Dr. Julius ton Madarasz; National Museum, Buda-Pesth. 

1872. Dr. A. J. Malmgren, Helsingfors. 

1883. Prof. Otuniel Charles Marsh, C.M.Z.S. ; Yale College, New- 
haven, U.S.A. 

1881. Dr. Adoiph Bernhard Meyer, C.M.Z.S., Director of the Royal 

3i[useum, Dresden, 
1$ 1872. Dr. A. von Middendoref, Dorpat. 

1872. Prof. Alphonse Milne-Edwards, C.M.Z.S. ; Jardin desPlantes, 

Paris. 
1890. M. Emile 0[jstalet, C.M.Z.S. ; Muse'um d'Histoire Naturelle, 

Jardin dcs Plantes, Paris. 
1872. Prof. GusiAV Radde, C.M.Z.S., Tiflis. 
1880. Robert Ridgway, C.M.Z.S. ; Smithsonian Institution, ^Vash- 

ington, B.C. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. V.— SIXTH SERIES. 

(1893.) 



Number XVII., January. 

Page 

I. List of Birds collected by Mr. Alexander Whyte, F.Z.S., 
in Nyassaland. By Captain G. E. Shelley, F.Z.S. With a 
Preface by The Editor. (Plates I.-III.) 1 

II. On tlie Osteology, Pterylosis, and Muscular Anatomy of 
the American Fin-foot (lleUotviis siirinamensis). By Frank 
E. Beddard, M.A., F.R.S., Prosector to the Zoological Society 

of London, Examiner in Biology to the Roy. Coll. Surg. ... 30 

III. On the Extinct Giant Birds of Argentina. By R. 
Lydekker 40 

IV. Notes on the Birds of the Loo-Choo Islands. By Henry 
Seebohm 47 

V. On Five apparently new Species of Birds from Hainan. 

By F. W. Styan, F.Z.S 54 

VI. On the Birds of Aden. By Lieut. H. E. Barnes, F.Z.S. 
(Plate IV.) 57 

VII. Comparative Notes on the Swifts and Humming-birds. 

By H. W. Shupeldt, M.D., C.M.Z.S 84 

VIII. Notes on Collecting in Kona, Hawaii. By R. C. L. 
Perkins, B.A 101 

IX. Descriptions of Three new Birds from the Sandwich 
Islands. By the Hon. Walter Rothschild W2 

SER. VI. VOL. V. b 



XVUl CONTENTS. 

Page 

X. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. Nos. I.-III. 114 

XI. Notices of recent Ornithological Publications : — 

1. Allen on the Woodpeckers of North America . . .124 

2. Allen on Birds from Venezuela 125 

3. Allen on a new Gallinule 125 

4. Bendire's Life- Histories of North-American Birds . . 126 

5. Bocage on Birds from Benguela 126 

6. Bocage on Birds from Dahomey . 127 

7. Buller on New-Zealand Birds 127 

8. Buller on Apteryoc maxima 127 

9. Biittikofer on the Genus Tatare 128 

10. Biittikofer on TJiamnolcea nir/ra 128 

11. Biittikofer on Birds from Liberia 128 

12. Biittikofer on a Sumatran Weaver-bird 129 

13. Biittikofer on Birds from Flores, Sumba, and Rotti . 129 

14. Cherrie on two new Tyrannidce 129 

15. Clarke's Report on the Great Skua 129 

16. Collett on the Birds of Arctic Norway 130 

17. D'Urban and Mathew's 'Birds of Devon' . . . . 131 

18. Evans on the Birds of the Melrose District .... 132 

19. Evans on the Grebe of Ross- shire 133 

20. Forbes on Extinct Birds of New Zealand .... 133 

21. Forbes on Cyavorliamplms erytJirotis 133 

22. Godman and Salvin's ' Biologia Ceutrali-Americana ' . 134 

23. Hamilton on Moas' Gizzard-stones 134 

24. Hamilton on the Genus Aptornis 135 

25. Hartert on a new Bairachostomus 135 

26. Hartlaub on Birds from China 135 

27. Harvie-Browu and Buckley on the Fauna of Argyll 

and the Inner Hebrides 136 

28. Hutton on the Moas 137 

29. Junker's Travels in Africa 137 

30. Macpherson and Ferguson's ' Vertebrate Fauna of 

Lakeland' 138 

31. Merriam on Geographical Distribution in North 

America 139 

32. Meyer on Birds from Kaiser-Wilhelms-Land . . 140 

33. Meyer on the Birds of Sumba 141 

34. Meyer and Helm's Sixth Report on the Birds of Saxony 141 



CONTENTS. XIX 

Page 

35. Nicolls and Eglingtou's 'Sportsman in South Africa' 141 

36. North on Australian Nests and Eggs 142 

37. Parker on the Development of Aptei-yx 143 

38. Quelch on the Birds of Prey of British Guiana . .143 

39. Eegalia on the Claws and Spurs of the Bird's-hand . 144 
4(J. Report of the International Ornithological Congress 

at Budapest 144 

41. E,hoads on the Birds of Texas and Arizona .... 147 

42. Ridgway on the Humming-birds 147 

43. llidgway on two new Subspecies of Basileutenis . . 148 

44. Scott's ' Notes on the Birds of Florida ' 148 

45. Stone on the Birds of West Greenland ] 49 

46. Suchetet on Wild-bred Hybrids 149 

47. Winge on Birds observed at the Danish Light-stations 150 

XII. Letters, Extracts, Notices, &c. 

Letters from Heer E. E. Blaauw; Heer H. W. de Graaf ; 
Mr. H. E. Dresser ; and Mr. W. B. Fairbridge. Report of the 
British Museum for 1892; The Bird-collections in the Oxford 
University Museum : The Godwin- Austen Collection of Birds ; 
Birds of Antigua, W.I. ; The Preservation of Native Birds in 
New Zealand ; Surnames taken from Birds ; New Ornithological 
Periodical ; Prince Albert's Lyre-bird in Captivity ; The 
British Museum Catalogue of Birds ; Naturalists Abroad and at 
Home. Obituary : Harry Berkeley James and Robert W. 
Shufeldt . , 150 



Number XVIII., April. 

XIII. On the Birds of Aden. By Lieut. H. E. Barnes, F.Z.S. 165 

XIV. On the Occurrence of the Sharp-tailed Sandpiper 
{Tringa acuminala) iu Norfolk. By Henry Seebohm. With 

an Appendix by The Editor. (Plate V.) 181 

XV. List of Birds observed in the Canary Islands. By E. 

G. Meade- Waluo 185 

XVI. On a remarkable new Finch from the Highlands of 
Bolivia. By Hans, Graf von Beklepscii. (Plate VI.) . . . 207 



XX CONTENTS. 

Page 

XVII. Remarks on the Birds of the Gilbert Islands. By 

L. W. WiGLESWORTH 210 

XVIII. On the Bird indicated by the Greek 'AXKvwy. By 

H. B. Tkistkam, D.D., F.E.S .215 

XIX. On the Species of Zosterojys found in the Island of 
Java. By Henry Seebohm, F.Z.S 217 

XX. On the Species of Merula found iu the Island of 
Java. By Henry Seebohm, F.Z.S 219 

XXI. Notes on Birds observed during a Collecting Expedition 

to Eastern Africa. By Frank Finn, B.A., F.Z.S 223 

XXII. On some Genera of Oriental Barbets. By W. T. 
Blanfoed, F.R.S 234 

XXIII. On Acredula caudata and its allied Forms. By H. 

E. Dresser, F.L.S., F.Z.S 240 

XXIV. Notes on ParamytJiia montiuni and Amalocichla 
sclateriana. By The Editor. (Plate VII.) 243 

XXV. Note on the Proper Use of the Generic Terms 
Certhiola and Ccereha. By The Editor 246 

XXVI. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. Nos. 
IV.-VI 248 

XXVII. Notices of recent Ornithological Publications : — 

48. Biittikofer on the Species of Eliipidura 265 

49. Cory's ' Catalogue of West-Indian Birds ' . . . . 266 

50. Godman and Salvin's ' Biologia Centrali-Americana ' . 267 

51. Hartlaub on four rare Rails 267 

52. Lilford's ' Coloured Figures of British Birds "... 268 

53. Martorelli on the Migration of Birds 268 

54. Middeudorff on Bird-life on the Russian Lighthouses . 268 

55. Mockler-Ferry man's Voyage up the Niger .... 269 

56. North on the Nesting of Manucodia 269 

57. North on Additions to the Tasmanian Avifauna . . 269 

58. Pigott on London Birds 270 

50. Schalow on Pratincola ruhkola in N.E. Germany . . 270 



CONTENTS. XXI 

Page 

60. Shufeldt on the Fossil Birds of the Oregon Desert 

Region ^70 

61. Stcjneger on Additions to the Japanese Avifauna . . 272 

62. Stejneger on Mr. Henson's Collection from Yezo, Japan 272 

63. Thomson's ' British New Guinea ' 273 

64. Traquair's Address to the lioyal Physical Society . . 275 

XXVIII. Letters, Extracts, Notices, &c. : — 
Letters from Mr. John M. Cook ; Prof. R. Collett ; Mr. W. G. 
Fairbridge ; Count T. Salvadori ; Mr. Henry 0. Forbes ; Mr. 
John Whitehead ; and the Hon. Walter Rothschild. The 
Preservation of the Native Birds of New Zealand ; News of 
Ornithologists Abroad ; The Humming-birds of Paraguay ; 
The Sheathbill in Ireland ; New British Polar Expedition. 
Obituary : The Rev. F. 0. Morris ; Henry Whitely .... 275 



Number XIX., Juli/. 

XXIX. On the Birds of the Islands of Aruba, Curac^ao, and 
Bonaire. By Ernst Hartert. (Plates VIII., IX.) .... 289 

XXX. On the Collection of Raptorial Birds in the Norwich 
Museum. By J. H. Gurney 338 

XXXI. Notes on the Nesting of some Shetland Birds. By 
Ernest W. H. Blags, M.B.O.U 350 

XXXII. On the Cause of Variation in the Shape of the Eggs 

of Birds. By Henry Seebohm 359 

XXXIII. On a Point in the Mechanism of the Bill in Birds. 
By W.P. Pycraft, Anatomical Department, University Museum, 
Oxford 361 

XXXIV. Swifts and Humming-birds. By Frederic A. 
Lucas 365 

XXXV. On the Occurrence of AVhite's Thrush in European 
Russia. By Dr. M. Menzbieu, Professor in the University of 
Moscow 371 



Page 

XXXVI. On the Nest aud Eggs of Gerygone magnlrostris, 
Gould. By Alfred J. Xoeth, F.L.S 373 

XXXVII. Notes oa the Synonymy of some Palaearctic Birds. 

By H. E. Dressek, F.Z.S., E.L.S 375 

XXXVIII. On the Avifauna of Mount Dulit and the Baram 
District, in the Territory of Sarawak. By ChxVeles Hose, F.Z.S. 
(Plates X., XL) " 381 

XXXIX. On the Birds of Hainan. By F. W. Styan, F.Z.S., 
M.B.O.U. (Plate XII.) ' 424 

XL, Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. Nos. 
VII.-IX 437 

XLI. Notices of recent Ornithological Publications : — 

65. Agassiz on the Progress of the Museum of Compara- 

tive Zoology 451 

66. Biittikofer on a Species of Bhipidura 451 

67. Biittikofer on Merula javanica and its allies , . . 452 

68. Chapman on Cuban Birds and on the Origin of the 

Antillean Avifauna 452 

69. Chapman and Buck's ' Wild Spain ' 453 

70. CoUett on Lanius excuhitor and allied forms . . . 454 

71. Collett on Birds from the New Hebrides 454 

72. Foster's Bibliography of American Naturalists . . . 455 

73. Giglioli and Manzella on Italian Birds 455 

74. Gordon on ' Our Country's Birds ' . 456 

75. Harvie-Brown on the Birds of the Shetlands . . . 456 

76. Hudson's ' Idle Days in Patagonia ' 457 

77. Koenig on the Birds of Tunis 457 

78. Le Souef on the Nesting of PtilorJiis victories . . . 459 

79. Lorenz on the Birds of Austro-Hungary 459 

80. Meyer on Aquila rajxix from Astrachan 459 

81. Salvador! on a new Fruit-Pigeon 460 

82. Satounine on the Birds of Moscow 460 

83. Sharpe's ' Monograph of the Paradiseidce ' . . . . 461 

84. Sharpe's Index to Gould's Bird-Books 461 

85. Stolzmann on the Ornithology of Transcaspia . . . 462 

86. Wilson aud Evans's 'Aves Hawaiienses' 463 



CONTENT.S. XXUl 

Page 
XLII. Letters, Extracts, Notices, &e. 

Letters from Mr. 11. Lloj^d Patterson ; Dr. Otto Finsch ; 
Hear F. E. Blaauw : Count T. Salvador! ; Mr. A. H. Holland ; 
and Mr. F. W. Stjan. The Crocodile and its Bird ; Anniversary 
Meeting of the British Ornithologists' Union, 1893; Pants 
colhtti, Stejneger; Bailly's ' Ornithologie de la Savoie;' 
Tristram's Grakle in Captivity; Great Bustards in the Zoo- 
logical Society's Gardens ; Ornithologists on their Travels. 
Ohituary : M. Olphe-Galliard and Mr. W. R. Davison . . . 463 



Number XX., October. 

XLIIT. On the Egg of the Empress Augusta - Victoria's 
Paradise-bird. By Dr. A. B. Meyer. (Plate XIII.) . . .481 

XLIV. Field-Notes on the Birds of Estancia Sta. Elena, 
Argentine Republic. By A. H. Holland. With Remarks by 
P. L. SCLATER 483 

XLV. A Review of the Species of the Family Pittidce. By 
John Whitehead 488 

XL VI. Notes on certain Species of New-Zealand Birds. By 
W. W. Smith, Ashburton, N. Z 509 

XLVII. A List of the Birds inhabiting the Chatham Islands. 
By H. 0. Forbes, F.R.G.S., M.B.O.U. (Plates XIV., XV.) . .521 

XLVIII. Bornean Notes. By R. Bowdleb Shaepe, LL.D., 
F.L.S., &c 546 

XLIX. On the Mechanism of the Upper Mandible in the 
Scolopaddo'. By R. W. Shtjfeldt, M.D., C.M.Z.8 563 

L. On the Validity of Chrysotis canifrons. By Geo. N. 
Lawrence 566 

LI. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club, No. X. . 567 

LII. Notices of recent Ornithological Publications : — 

87. Barboza du Bocage on the Birds of Angola . . . 576 

88. Bryden on South-African Birds 577 



XXIV CONTENTS. 

Page 

89. Elliot's Monograph of the Pittida' 578 

90. Fisher on the Hawks and Owls of the United States. 578 

91. Fisher on the Birds of the Death- Valley Expedition. 580 

92. Hatch on the Birds of Minnesota 581 

93. Helms on the Birds of South Greenland .... 581 

94. Hudson's ' Birds in a Village ' 581 

95. Keeler on the Colours of Birds 582 

96. Lorenz's Ornithological Excursion to the Lower - 

Danube 583 

97. Meyer on a new Subspecies of Ooura 583 

98. A. Newton and Gadow's ' Dictionary of Birds ' . . 584 

99. E. Newton and Gadow on Fossil Birds' Bones from 

Mauritius 584 

100. North's Oological Notes on Australian Birds . . . 585 

101. Oustalet on Birds from the Congo 586 

102. Pavesi on a Hybrid Duck .' . 586 

103. Pigott's London Birds and other Sketches .... 586 

104. Eeichenow on the Birds collected by Dr. Stuhlmann 

in East Africa 587 

105. Salvadori's Catalogue of the Pigeons 587 

106. Salvadori on Merula alpestris 589 

107. Shufeldt on the Position of Chionis 589 

108. Shufeldt on Hesperornis 590 

109. Swann on the Birds of London 590 

110. Whitehead on the Exploration of Kina Balu . . . 590 

LIU. Letters, Extracts, Notices, &c. : — 

Letters from Sir John Campbell-Orde ; Mr. W. P. Pycraft ; 
Mr.W. L. Sclater ; and Mr. J. A. Harvie-Browu. Turacin; Notes 
on the Birds of Chili ; Mr. Perkins's Progress in the Sandwich 
Islands ; The Bird-collection in the University Museum, Cam- 
bridge ; The Collection of Austro-Hungarian Birds at Vienna ; 
Dr. P. Leverkiihn. List of Ornithological Works in course of 
Publication and Dates of the last Parts issued 592 

Index of Scientific Names 599 

Index of Contents 617 

Titlepage, Preface, List of Members, and Contents. 



THE IBIS. 



SIXTH SERIES. 



No. XVII. JANUARY 1893. 



I. — List of Birds collected by Mr. Alexander Whyte, F.Z.S., 
in Nyassaland. By Captain G. E. Shelley, F.Z.S. 
With a Preface by The Editor. 

(Plates I.-III.) 

a. P^'eface. By The Editob. 

In the ^ Proceedings' of the Zoological Society of London 
for 1891 * will be found a report of the discussion on the 
new territory called '' British Central Africa/' which was 
held by the Society on May 5th of that year, and which 
mainly served to show how little was our knowledge of the 
fauna of this extensive region. It was then announced on 
the part of Mr. H. H. Johnston, C.B., F.Z.S., H.B.M. 
Commissioner, that he wished to make a thorough examina- 
tion of the fauna, flora, and geology of the new district 
under his charge, and for that purpose had engaged 
Mr. Alexander Whyte, F.Z.S., to accompany him as Natu- 
ralist and to dcA'ote himself to the scientific exploration of 
the country. A few days after the meeting in question, 
Mr. Whyte and the rest of Mr. Johnston's Staff, under the 

* Soe P.Z. S. 1891, p. 301. 
SER. VI. VOL. V, B 



2 Capt. G. E. Shelley on Bids 

commaud of Capt, B. L. Sclater, R.E.^ F.R.G.S.^ proceeded 
via Zanzibar to Nyassaland, and have since that period been 
actively engaged in the discharge of their respective duties. 

Before he started INIr. Johnston had arranged with the 
British South Africa Company, within whose territories 
British Central Africa is situated, that the Natural History 
Collections made by Mr. Whyte should be handed over to 
my care. In June last I had accordingly the pleasure of 
receiving the first instalment. This embraced about 30 
specimens of Mammals, 430 of Birds, and 90 of Reptiles and 
Batrachians, besides other objects. My friend Capt. G. E. 
Shelley, F.Z.S., one of our leading authorities on Ethiopian 
Ornithology, kindly undertook to determine the birds for 
me, and has furnished me wdth the following list. 

Capt. Shelley points out that the Nyassaland collection is 
of special interest with regard to the question of the zoological 
boundaries between Eastern and Southern Africa. It is a 
well-established fact that the Quanza River forms a very 
strongly marked barrier between the faunas of Western and 
Southern Africa, probably owing to the great dissimilarity 
in the landscape of the opposite banks of that river, but such 
does not seem to be the case with the River Zambesi. It 
appears to him, after examining this collection, that the 
most natural boundary for the South-African Zoological 
Subregion, on the eastern side, will include the highland 
districts which border the watershed of the Zambesi and 
Lake Nyassa. Thus the South-African Subregion will extend 
on the north to about 10° S. hit., and on the east over the 
high border-land between Lake Nyassa and the coast, leaving 
a great portion of the province of Quilimane in the East- 
African Subregion. 

The present collection of 430 specimens was made by 
Mr. Whyte principally in three localities in the Shire 
Highlands — Mount Milanji, Mount Zomba, and Mpimbi. 

] . Mount INIilanji, as we learn from Mr. Whyte^s report 
on it to Mr. Johnston *, is a large mountain mass in the ex- 

* See abstract of this Report in ' Nature/ vol. xlvi. p. 482 (loth Sept., 
1892). 



collected in Nyassaland. 3 

treme south-east corner of Nyassaland, drained on the west 
by the head waters of the Ruo, one of the affluents of the 
Shire, and on the east by the Lukuga and other smaller 
streams, which run into the Indian Ocean north of the Zam- - 
besi. It is described by Mr. Whyte as an isolated range of, 
for the most part, precipitous mountains, the main mass 
forming a huge natural fortress of weather-worn precipices 
or very steep rocky ascents, sparsely clothed with vegetation. 
Many of its gullies and ravines are well wooded, and in some 
of them fine samples of grand African virgin forest are met 
with. Mr. Whyte's ascent, on the 2()th of October, was 
made up the south-east face of Milanji, over steep grassy 
hills and across rocky streams, full of large water-worn 
granite boulders. Further on precipices were encountered, 
and it was necessary to clamber up, holding on by tufts of 
grass, roots, and scrub, after which a wooded gorge was 
entered and welcome shade was obtained from the forest 
trees. 

Here an interesting change in the vegetation was at once 
perceptible, the plants of the lower slope being mostly re- 
placed by other species. These in many cases approached 
the flowers of temperate climes, such as brambles and well- 
known forms of PapiHonace<s and Composite. Ferns, too, 
became more numerous, and now and again were encoun- 
tered perfect fairy dells of mosses, selaginellas, and balsams, 
with miniature water-falls showering their life-giving spray 
on the little verdant glades, while overhead hoary lichens and 
bright festoons of elegant long-tasselled lycopods hung 
from the moss-covered trees. After they had passed through 
some dense thickets of bamboo, and climbed up an ugly 
barrier of precipitous cliff's, another hour's ascent, the latter 
part of which was through a steep grassy glen, brought 
Mr. Whyte and his companions to the highest ridge of 
Milanji, about 9300 feet above the sea-level. 

Hence was a splendid view over rolling hills of grassy 
sward divided by belts of dark-green forest, and the clicnate 
Avas found to be delightfLilly cool and bracing, with a clear 
dry atmosphere of about ()()° Fahr. Altogether two weeks 

b2 



4 Capt. G. E. Shelley on Birds 

were spent at three different sites on this high plateau, and 
good collections of its natural history were made, although 
rain and mist occasionally interfered with the operations of 
the naturalists. 

The flora of the mountain proved to be of great interest, 
being quite distinct from that of the surrounding plains, and 
even from that of the lower slopes. Tree-ferns were found 
to attain a great size in the damp, shady forest, and one was 
measured 30 feet in height and 2 feet in diameter at its base. 
The display of wild flowers is described as " gorgeous. ^^ 
Creamy-white and yellow heliclirysums, mingled with purple 
and blue orchids and irises, and graceful snow-white ane- 
mones were all blooming in wild profusion, and rearing their 
heads from a bed of bright green grassy sward. But the 
most striking botanical feature of the plateau of Milanji was 
the cypresses, formerly apparently quite abundant, but now 
confined to a few of the upper ravines and valleys, where the ' 
annual bush-fires, which take place in the dry months of 
August and September, cannot reach them. In some places 
hundreds of these giant trees thus destroyed lay prostrate, 
piled one above another in eveiy stage of destruction. One 
of these dead conifers was found to measure LiO feet in 
length and 5^ feet in diameter at 5 feet from its base. The 
foliage of this cypress is juniper-like. The timber, of a dull 
reddish-white colour, is of excellent quality and easily 
worked. Eipe cones of this fine tree were procured, and, as 
stated in a subsequent letter, have already germinated in the 
experimental garden at Zomba"^. 

The fauna of the mountain was found to be of nearly 
equal interest to the flora, but in the short space of time 
available it was not possible to make so nearly a complete 
collection. Raptorial birds were very scarce, but Passeres 
were plentiful. The grassy lands of the summits were 
tenanted by a small^ dark brown Quail, a Pipit, two Grass- 

* This so-called " cypress " is a new conifer of the genus Widdring- 
tonia, -sTliich will be described as Widdringtonia uhytii in a paper upon 
the plants collected by Mr. Whyte, now Ijeing prepared in the Botanical 
Department of the Briti.-li Museuni. 



collected in Nyassaland. 5 

Warblers, and tlie ubiquitous Great-billed Raven {Corvultur 
albicuUis), which, however, was not so numerous as on the 
plains below. In the adjoining forest bird-life was abundant. 
Bulbuls, Flycatchers, Warblers, Finches, and Honey-birds 
joined in chorus in celebrating the springtime and nesting- 
season, which was then in full progress. Altogether about 
200 specimens of birds were obtained. Of mammals few 
were met with. The beasts of prey consisted of the 
leopard, the spotted hysena, the serval, and an ichneumon. 
Examples of three species of Muridce were also obtained, and 
a little antelope, probably of the genus Neotragus, was 
observed, but not procured. A few snakes were likewise 
met with. 

2. Mount Zomba is more nearly in the centre of the Shire 
Highlands, between the Upper Shire and Lake Sliirwa. It 
rises to a height of about 5133 feet, and foi'ms the water- 
parting between the Shire and the Shirwa Basin. Upon its 
slopes is placed the British Residency of Zomba, at a height 
of 2971 feet, and here, it is said, will be the future capital 
city of Nyassaland. 

Capt. Sclater, writing from Blantyre on May 29th last 
year, speaks of it as follows : — '' To-day we have been up to 
the top of Zomba. It is a very extraordinary feature of this 
country that nearly all the mountains are simply huge tables, 
Avith precipices all round. Zomba is one of these, also 
Milanji, and others; very few really rise to peaks. On the 
top of Zomba we found the climate and flora like those of 
the Cape. The general plateau is from 4000 to 5000 feet 
above the sea-level ; it is covered with short grass and 
clumps of trees, similar to Milanji; the difference is that 
there are no cedars ^ and much less forest ; the soil also is 
better. There is one fine large valley (that of the stream 
running down by the Residency) which formerly was thickly 
])opulated; but some thirty years ago all the people were 
sold and made slaves of by the invading Yaos, so that it is 
now uninhabited." 

"* /. r. NN'iddi'in^'loiiin.s : see Iboluoto, p, 4, 



G Capt. G. E. Slielley on Birds 

3. Mpimbi is the port of Zomba on the Upper Shire, 
wheuce there is steam-navigation to Lake Nyassa. 

Capt. Shelley refers the 430 specimens of birds collected by 
Mr. Whyte in these three localities to 134 species, of which, 
as will be seen by his list, he considers twelve to be new 
to science. 

Amongst these of special interest are the two new Barbets, 
Melanobucco zomba and Smilorhis tvhytii, both from Mount 
Zomba, and the new Thrush Turclus milanjensis, from Mount 
Milanji. The new Callene anomala, from Mount Milanji, is 
also a very noticeable form. 

Of the 134 species recorded by Capt. Shelley, 47 are of 
somewhat wide range or are migrants over the whole of 
Africa. Of the remaining 87, there are 45 which may be 
said to belong to the South-African Subregion, 19 are East- 
African, while 23 may be said to be characteristic of the 
Zambesi and Sliire districts. 

Of these 23 species, several find their nearest allies in 
Angolan species, while there is also a distinct element of the 
East-African mountain fauna, shown by the occurrence of 
such forms as Xenocichla fuscicejjs, Pachyprora dimorpha, 
and Trochocercus albouotatus. 



b. List of Birds. By Capt. Shelley. 

1. Melierax gabar. 

Melierax gabar, Sharpe, ed. Layard's B. S. Afr. pp. 19, 795 ; 
id. Cat. i. p. 89. 

No. 9. Zomba, Sept. 

2. ASTURINULA MONOGRAMMICA. 

jisturinula monogrammica, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 42; id. 
Cat. i. p. 275. 

No. 8, ^ . Zomba, Aug., Sept. 

3. LOPHOAETUS OCCIPITALIS. 

Lophoaetvs occipitalis, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 41 ; id. Cat. i. 
p. 274. 

No. 92. Zomba Plateau, 4000 feet, March. 



collected in Nyassaland. 7 

4. MlLVUS .EGYPTIUS. 

Milvus (sgyptius, Sliarpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 49^ 798; id. Cat.i. 
p. 320. 

No. 17, cJ. Zomba, Sept. 

5. Falco minor. 

Falco minor, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 57 ; id. Cat. i. p. 383, 
pi. 12. 

No. 16. Milanji Plains, 4000 feet, Nov. 4. 

6. Glaucidium capense. 

Carine capensis, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 77, 802, pi. 3. 
Glaucidium capense, Sharpe, Cat. ii. p. 223. 
No. 96. Zomba, Dec. 1. Two specimens, probably adult 
male and female. 

7. COSMETORNIS VEXILLARIUS. 

Cosmetornis vexillarius, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 89, 803 ; 
Hartert, Cat. xvi. p. 595. 

Nos. 24, 94. Zomba, Sept. 29, Jan. 9, 11. 

8. Merops apiaster. 

MerojJS apiaster, Sliarpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 95, 804 ; id. Cat. 
xvii. p. 63. 

Nos. 43, 68. Zomba, Nov. 3, Feb. 19. Three specimens, 
all in moult. 

9. Merops superciliosus. 

Merops superciliosus, Sharpe, Cat. xvii. p. 70 (nee Sharpe, 
B. S. Afr. pp. 97, 804) ; Reiclien. J. f. O. 1889, p. 276. 
No. 60. Zomba, Sept. 6 and 28. 

10. Melittophagus meridionalis. 

Merops pusillus, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 100, 805. 

Melittophagus meridionalis, Sharpe, Cat. xvii. p. 45, pi. 1. 
fig. 4. 

Nos. 42, 49. Zomba, Sept. 5. Milanji Plateau, 6000 feet, 
Oct. 21. 

11. CORACIAS CAUDATUS. 

Coracias caudatus, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 104, 805; id. 
Cat. xvii. p. 21. 

No. 74. Zomba, Sept. 19. 



8 Capt. G. E. Shelley on Birds 

12. EUKYSTOMUS AFER. 

Eurystomus afer, SharpOj B. S. Afr. pp. 106,806; id. Cat. 
xvii. p. 30. 

Nos. 58-9. Zomba, Sept. 4; Milanji, Oct. 31. 

13. Ceryle rudis. 

Ceryle rudis, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 110, 807; id. Cat. 
xvii. p. 109. 

No. 78. Mpimbi, Upper Shire, Feb. 28. 

14. Halcyon orientalis. 

Halcyon orientalis, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 116, 807; id. Cat. 
xvii. p. 238. 

No. 58. Zomba, Sept. 2 and 18. 

15. Halcyon chelicutensis. 

Halcyon chelicutensis, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 117, 807; 
id. Cat. xvii. p. 239. 
No. 46. Zomba, Sept. 

16. Halcyon cyanoleuca. 

Halcyon cyanoleuca, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 120, 803 ; id. 
Cat. xvii. p. 245. 

No. 70. Zomba, Feb. 11. 

17. LOPHOCEROS melanoleucus. 

Tockus melanoleucus, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 127. 
Lophoceros melanoleucus, Grant, Cat. B. xvii. p. 399. 
No. 12, ^ . Zomba, Aug. 

18. Ufupa africana. 

Ujmpa africana, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 134, 808 ; Salvin, 
Cat. B. xvi. p. 14. 

No. 19, c? . Zomba, Sept. 2. 

19. IrRISOR VIRIDIS. 

Irrisor erythrorhynchus , Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 138, 808. 
Irrisor viridis, Salvin, Cat. B. xvi. p. 17. 
No. 21. Milanji, Dec. 11. 

20. Rhinopomastes cyanomelas. 

Rhinopomastes cyanomelas, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 138, 809; 
Salvin Cat. B. xvi. p. 24. 



collected in Nyassaland. 9 

Irrisor cyaaomelus, E/eiclien. J. f, O. 1889; p. 276. 
No. 22. Zomba, Aug. and Sept. 

21. Gallirex chlorochlamys. 

Conjthaix porphiji-eolopha, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 142 
C' Zambesi ''). 

Gallirex chlorochlamys, Shelley, Cat. B. xix. p. 447. 

No. 2, ^ . Zomba, Aug. 12. This and the following species 
are not known to occur south of the Zambesi. There is 
a specimen of this beautiful bird now living in the Zoolo- 
gical Society's Gardens, presented by Miss Dolly Kirk in 
1889j and a second has been recently received from British 
East Africa. 

22. TURACUS LIVINGSTONII. 

Corythaix livinffslonii, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 143. 
Turacus livingstoni, Shelley, Cat. xix. p. 439. 
Nos. 1^ 43. Zomba, Aug. and Sept. Twelve specimens of 
both sexes, showing that they are perfectly alike in plumage, 

23. Pachycoccyx validus. 

Pachycoccyx validus, Shelley, Cat. xix. p. 225. 
No. 13, cJ. Zomba, Sept. 3. This is the most southern 
known locality for the present species. 

24. CUCULUS CLAMOSUS. 

Cuculus clamosus, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 150, 809; Shelley, 
Cat. xix. p. 260. 

No. 102. Zomba, Dec. 9, Jan. 15 and 29. 

25. Chrysococcyx cupreus. 

Chrysococcyx cupreus, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 153, 809; 
Shelley, Cat. xix. p. 285. 

Nos. 88, 89. Zomba, Dec. 10 ; Mpimbi, Upper Shire, 
Feb. 10. 

26. Chrysococcyx klaasi. 

Cuculus klaasi, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 155. 
Chrysococcyx klaasi, Shelley, Cat. xix. p. 283. 
No. 53, (^ . Zomba, Sept. 21. 



10 Capt. G. E. Shelley on Birds 

27. COCCYSTES CAFER. 

Coccystes cafer, Sharpe^ B. S. Afr. pp. 158, 810 ; Shelley, 
Cat. xix. p. 221. 

No. 34. Zomba, Jan. 10. 

28. Coccystes hypopinarius. 

Coccystes jacobinus, Sharpe, B. S. Afr, pp. 158, 810 (part). 

Coccystes hypopinarius , Shelley, Cat. xix. p. 220, pi. 11. 
fig. 2. 

No. 35. Zomba, Jan. 15. This is a well-marked specimen 
of this southern race. 

29. Centropus natalensis. 

Centropus super ciliosus, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 163, 810 
(part) . 

Centropus natalensis, Shelley, Cat. xix. p. 362. 
Nos. 4, 36. Zomba, Sept. 2 and Jan. 23. 

30. Indicator variegatus. 

Indicator variegatus, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 167, 810; 
Shelley, Cat. xix. p. 7. 

No." 49, $ . Zomba, Sept. 29. 

31. Melanobucco zomb<e, sp. n. 

Similis M. torquato, sed fronte, facie laterali, et gutture 
maculis albicantibus nee rubris ornatis distinguendus. 
Long. tot. 5 "5 poll., alse 3*5. 

Nos. 18, 25. Zomba, Aug. and Sept. Three specimens. 

Similar to M. torquatus, but differs in having whitish 
instead of bright scarlet feathers on the head and throat. 
Total length 5*5 inches, culmen 1, wing 3*5, tail 2'35, 
tarsus 0*85. 

In the British Museum there are two other specimens of 
this species, collected by Sir John Kirk on the Zambesi. 
One of these has the pale portions of the head and throat 
strongly shaded with pink. Sir John Kirk also procured 
two typical examples of M. torquatus from Tete and Shu- 
panga, which are now in the same collection. Last year, 
when I catalogued the specimens of this family for the 
British Museum, I looked upon this form as a mere acci- 
dental variety, but its re-occurrence in both of the present 



collected in Nyassaland. 11 

collections forces me to regard it as a species distinct from 
both M. torquatus and M. irroratus. 

32. Smilorhis leucotis. 

Smilo7'his leucotis, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 177; Shelley^ Cat. 
xix. p. 37. 

No. 19. Milanji Plains, 4000 feet, Oct. 27. 

33. Smilorhis whytii, sp. n. (Plate I.) 

Similis S. leucofl, sed pectore brunneo distinguenda. Long, 
tot. 6*7 poll., alae 3'5. 

No. 24, ? . Zomba, Sept. 1. 

Head and neck black ; feathers of the forehead and crown 
without elongated shafts, and many of them having very 
minute white tips ; rictal bristles white ; a broad white band 
on the cheeks beneath the bare skin of the sides of the head ; 
a fairly large white chin-patch; body above and beneath 
brown, with partial pale edges to the feathers, and passing 
into white on the centre of the abdomen, thighs, and under 
tail-coverts ; wings dark brown, with a patch of white on 
the least wing-coverts, and with partial white edges to 
greater wing-coverts and quills, most conspicuous about half- 
way down the latter; under wing-coverts and inner margins 
of the quills white ; tail dark brown with an ashy shade ; 
bill and legs black. Total length 6*7 inches, culraen 0*7, 
wing 3"5, tail 22, tarsus 0*9. 

This Barbet may be distinguished from S. leucotis by its 
brown breast. I name it after Mr. Alexander Whytc, F.Z.S., 
who, by the present collections, has added much to our 
knowledge of East African Ornithology. 

34. Campothera smithii. 

Campothera smithii, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 184, 812; 
Hargitt, Cat. xviii. p. 101. 

No. 64, ? juv. Zomba, Sept. 1. This is the first example 
of the present species recorded from north of the Zambesi. 
It is a young bird, very difficult to determine, but Mr. 
Hargitt thinks that it must belong to C. smithii. 

35. Campothera malheubii. 

Campothera malherbii, Hargitt, Cat. xviii. p. 96. 



12 Capt. G. E. Shelley on Birds 

No. 65, ^ ad. Zomba, Sept. 3. Also recorded for the 
first time from so far south. 

36. Dendropicus zanzibari. 

Dendropicus zanzibari, Hargitt, Cat. xviii. p. 297. 

No. QQ. Zomba, Aug. 25. This is an immature bird. It 
is the first example of the present species recorded from a 
district so far south on the East Coast. 

37. PffiOCEPHALUS ROBUSTUS. 

Psittacus robustus, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 194. 
Poeocephalus robustus, Salvad. Cat. xx. p. 363. 
Nos. 21, 98, ? ad. Zomba, Sept. 

38. PCEOCEPHALUS FUSCICAPILLUS. 

Psiitacus fuscicajnllus, Sliarpe, B. S. Afr. p. 197. 

Poeocephalus fuscicapillus, Salvad. Cat. xx. p. 368. 

Nos. 20, 97, cJ ? ad. Zomba, Aug., Sept., and December. 

39. TURDUS MILANJENSIS, Sp. D. 

T. similis T. oUvaceo, sed saturatior ; gutture valde nigro 

striato, et hypochoudriis saturate olivaceo-griseis cum 

pectore concoloribus, minime aurantiacis, distinguendus. 

Long. tot. 8"5 poll., alee 4'7. 

No. 15. Milanji Plateau, 6000 feet, Oct. 25 and 27, Nov. 1. 

Mr. Whyte has sent home seven fine specimens of this 

species, with a note that it is the '^ Common Thrush of the 

Milanji Plateau, and has a sweet song." 

Similar to T. olivaceus, but with the throat rather more 
strongly striped with black ; crop, sides of the body, and out- 
side of the thighs olive-brown ; centre of the breast orange- 
chestnut ; under' tail-coverts olive-brown with broad white 
shaft-patches ; under wing-coverts and inner margins of the 
quills orange. Total length 8*5 inches, culmen 1, wing 4*7, 
tail 4'2, tarsus 115. 

40. TuRDUS LIBONYANUS. 

Turdus libonyanus, Smith ; Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 199, 813 ; 
Seebohm, Cat. v. p. 229. 

No. 31. Zomba, Aug. and Sept. This is the most 
northern locality yet known for both this and the next 
species. 



collected in NyassuUiiid. 13 

41. TURDUS GURNEYI. 

Turdus gurneyi, Hartl. ; Sliarpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 20.2, 813. 

Geocichla gurneyi, Scebohm, Cat. v. p. 170. 

No. 14, ? . Zoniba, Sept. 1 ; Milanji Plateau, 6000 feet. 
" Rme." Oct. 30. 

These specimens quite bear out the characters given by 
Mr. Seebohm for distinguishing this species from the closely 
allied T. piaggii. 

42. Xenocichla fusciceps, sp. n. 

X. simil's X. nigi'icipiti, sed pileo fusco-schistaceo nee 
nigro, hypochondriis sordide nee Isete olivaceis et sub- 
caudalibus olivaceis flavido marginatis distinguenda. 
Long. tot. 7-7 polh, alte 3*8. 
No. 4. Milanji Plateau, Oct. and Nov., 4000-6000 feet. 
Differs from X. nigriceps in having a grey crown and 
hinder neck, contrasting with the olive-green of the re- 
mainder of the upper parts, as in A^ nigriceps. There is a 
greyish or whitish spot on the upper and under eyelids ; 
under surface ashy grey, with the sides of the head slightly 
darker grey and the centre of the breast lighter; flanks 
dusky olive-greenish; under tail-coverts dusky olive, edged 
with pale olive-yellow; under wing-coverts and inner margins 
of the quills pale yellowish buff. Total length 7'7 inches, 
culmen 0'7, wing 38, tail 3, tarsus 1. 

This species resembles X. nigriceps (Shelley, P. Z. S. 1889, 
p. 362) in having a rather short stout bill, very unlike the 
long bill of X. flavostriata, Sharpe, which is its nearest 
South- African representative. 

43. PVCNONOTUS LAYAHDI. 

Pycnonotus layardi, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 815 ; id. Cat. vi. 
p. 132. 

No. 30, S ? <itl. Zomba, Aug. and Sept. 

44. Crateropus kirki. 

Crateropus kirkii, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 213, 815 ; id. Cat. 
vii. p. 474 ; Shelley, This, 1884, p. 46. 
No. 73. Zomba, Sept. 



14 Capt. G. E. Shelley on Birds, 

45. COSSYPHA NATALENSIS. 

Cossypha nataltnsis, Sliarpe, B. S. Afr. p. 223; id. Cat. 
vii. p. 37. 

No. 26. Milanji Plateau, Dec. 

46. Cossypha caffra. 

Cossypha caffra, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 224, 816; id. Cat. 
vii. p. 39. 

No. 24, Milanji Plateau, 6000 feet, Nov. 17. These spe- 
cimens belong to the slightly darker race which is found on 
Kilimanjaro. 

47. Cossypha heuglini. 

Cossypha heuglini, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 227, 817; id. 
Cat. vii. p. 41. 

Nos. 41, 63, 26. Zomba, Aug. and Sept; Milanji, Dec. 

48. Callene anomala, sp. n. 

C. olivaceo-brunnea : supracaudalibus et cauda rufescen- 
tibus : pileo paullo saturatiore : fascia superciliari antice 
albida, postice cinerea : gutture conspicue albo : pec- 
tore cinereo : abdomiiie albo: subcaudalibus auran- 
tiacis : hypochondriis et subalaribus olivaceis. Long, 
tot. 6'5 poll., alee 3*15. 
No. 4. Milanji Plateau, 6000 feet, November. Three 
specimens. 

Forehead, sides of the crown, cheeks, and lores grey, darker 
in front of the eye ; the broad grey eyebrow inclines to white 
in front ; ear-coverts, sides of the neck, and upper parts 
generally uniform brown, with a rufous shade on the back, 
passing into bright chestnut on the upper tail-coverts ; wings 
dark brown, with the lesser coverts grey and with the edges of 
the other feathers washed with olive-shaded brown like the 
mantle ; tail brown, with a slight rufous shade, strongest on 
the edges of the feathers ; throat white ; crop and centre of 
the breast pale grey, passing into white on the abdomen ; 
sides of the body olive-brown ; thighs leaden grey ; axillaries 
and inner under wing-coverts like the sides of the breast ; 
outer wing-coverts leaden grey ; quills uniform silky brown ; 
bill black ; legs brown. Total length 6' 5 inches, culmen 
0*6, wing 3"15, tail 25, tarsus 1'25. 



collected in Nyassaland. 15 

This species is quite distinct in coloration from all its 
allies. 

49. Pratincola torquata. 

Pratincola torquata, Sliarpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 250, 820 ; id. 
Cat. iv. p. 190. 

Nos. 55, 27. Zomba, Sept. ; Milanji, 6000 feet, Nov. and 
Dec. Five specimens in various plumages. 

50. Erythropygia zambesiana. 

Erythropygia zambesiana, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 821 ; id. 
Cat. vii. p. 78, pi. 15. fig. 1. 

No. 48. Zomba, Jan., adult and young. 

This is a local form of E. ruficauda ; the type came from 
Tete on the south bank of the Zambesi. The specimens do 
not quite agree with the Tete specimen, being so much darker ; 
but the latter bird is in freshly moulted plumage, whereas 
the Zomba examples are worn and evidently in breeding 
dress. 

51. Prinia j'ystacea. 

Drymoeca affinis, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 258, 82'2. 
■Prinia mystacea, Sharpe, Cat. vii. p. 191. 
No. 100. Zomba, Jan. 

52. CiSTICOLA CINERASCEXS. 

Cisticola cinerascens (Heugl.) ; Shai'pe, Cat. vii. p. 248. 
No. 71, ? . Zomba, Sept. This is the first time this 
species has been recorded further south than Dar-es-Salaam. 

53. Cisticola subruficapilla. 

Cisticola subruficapilla (Smith) ; Sharpe, B. S. Afr. 
p. 266; id. Cat. vii. p. 283. 

No. 70. Milanji Plateau, Aug. and Nov. 

54. Cisticola orientalis. 

Melocichla mentalis (nee Fras.), Shelley, P. Z. S. 1881, 
p. 572. 

Cisticola orientalis, Sharpe, Cat. vii. p. 245. 

No. 73, c? . Zomba, Febr. This specimen agrees well with 
one from the Usambara country, but has the upper parts 



16 Capt. (I. E. Shelloy on Birds 

slightly i)aler than in specimens of C. mentalis from the 
Gold Coast. 

55. Apalis flavigularis, sp. n. 

A. similis A. tlioracic((>, scd pilco nigricantc, gutture et 

abdominc Iscte flavis, et torque prrepectorali nigro distin- 
guenda. Long. tot. 5 poll., ala) 2*05. 

No. 23. ]\Iilanji Platcan, Oct. 

Similar to A. thoracica, but darker and brighter. Upper 
parts olive-green, shading into dusky black on the crown ; 
quills dark brown, edged with olive-green ; tail grey, Avith the 
terminal portions of the outer three pairs of feathers white ; 
sides of the head and a broad prepectoral band black ; 
cheeks, throat, and centre of breast bright yellow, passing 
into olive-green on the sides of the body; thighs dusky 
olive ; under Aving-coverts and inner margins of the quills 
white, the former shaded with yellow. Total length 5 inches, 
culmen 0*55, wing 2"05, tail 19, tarsus 0*85. 

In one of these specimens, probably a younger bird, the 
back of the neck and crown are olive like the back, and only 
shaded into black on the forehead ; aud the black prepectoral 
collar is much narrower, as narrow, in fact, as in A. thoracica. 

56. Bradypterus nyass.t:, sp. n. 

B. similis B. cinnamomeo , sed saturatior, potius castaneo- 

brunneus : hypochondriis fulvescenti - brunneis, nee 
aurautiaco-brunneis. Long. tot. 6 poll., alae 2*35. 
Similar to B. cinnamo/i.eus, but much darker and more 
chestnut-brown, the sides of the body not orange, but sandy 
brown. Total length 6 inches, wing 2"35. 
Milanji Plateau, 6000 feet, Oct. 

57. Eremomela scotops. 

Eremomein scotops, Sund. ; Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 299, 
828; id. Cat. vii. p. 162, pi. 5. fig. 1. 

No. 72. Zomba. This species has never before been 
recorded from north of the Zambesi. 

58. CiNNYRIS FALKENSTEINI. 

Cinnyris falkensteini, Reichen. ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, p. 591. 
No. 69, (^ . Zomba, Aug.; also an uulabelled female or 



collected in Nyassaland. 17 

young bird. This is the first time this species has been met 
with so far south ; it ranges throughout East Africa north 
to the Uganda country. 

59. CiNNYRIS CUPKEUS. 

Cinnyris cupreus, Shelley, Monogr. Nect. p. 191, pi. 58. 

No. 52. Zomba, Jan. The collection contains two males, 
one in full plumage. This agrees perfectly in colouring and 
measurements with a specimen from Senegambia, showing 
that there are no constant characters to indicate local races. 

60. Chalcomitra gutturalis. 

Cinnyris gutturalis, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 311, 830; 
Shelley, Monogr. Ncct. p. 2G1, pi. 81. 

Nos. 70, 91. Zomba, Sept. and Jan. ; Milanji Plains, 
4000 feet, Oct. 

61. Anthothreptes longuemarii. 

Anthrej)tes longuemarii, Shelley, Monogr. Nect. p. 335, 
pi. 108. 

Anthothreptes orientalis, Eeichen. J. f. O. 1889, p. 285. 

No. 61. Zomba, Febr. This is the first time this species 
has been obtained so far south. 

62. Parus xanthostomus. 

Parus xanthostomus, Bull. B. O. C. no. ii. p. vi. 
P. similis P. nigro, sed remigibus flavo marginatis et ore 
iutus flavo distinguendus. Long. tot. G poll., alye 3"15. 

No. 87. Mpimbi, Upper Shir^, Feb. 11. 

Similar to P. niger, but differs in the upper parts being 
dusky black with a green instead of a blue gloss on the 
crown ; wings with the base of the median coverts black and 
the edges of the quills shaded Avith olive-yellow ; throat and 
under surface of the body ashy grey ; bill l)lack, with the 
inside of the mouth bright yellow ; legs olive, shaded grey. 
Total length 6 inches, culmen 0"45, wing 3" 15, tail 2*7, 
tarsus 0*75. 

This species is also known to me from two other specimens. 
One of these is a very fine one in my own collection, pro- 
cured by Dr. Bradshaw south of the Zambesi, from which I 
have taken the description. The other is in the British 
Museum, labelled " Graham^s Town (Atmore)." 

SER. VI. VOL. V. c 



18 Capt. G. E. Shelley on Birds 

63. PoGONOCICHLA JOHNSTONI, Sp. n. 

P. similis P. steUara, sod sccuudariis olivaceo marginatis, 
minime cinercis, distiugueuda. Long. tot. 5*8 poll., 
alje 315. 
No. 3. Milanji Plateau, Nov. 

Similar to P. at el /at a, but easily distinguished by the 
olive margins to the secondaries. Total length 5'3 inches, 
wing 3*15. 

64. Platystira peltata. 

Platystira peltata, Sharpo, B. S. Afr. p. 345; id. Cat. iv. 
p. 147. 

$ ad. Milanji, Dec, 

65. Pachyprora molitor. 

Batis molitor, Sliarpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 318, 838, pi. 10. 
fig. 1 ; id. Cat. iv. p. 137. 

Nos. 54, 67. Zomba, Sept. and Febr. 

66. Pachyprora dimorpha, sp. n. 

P. similis P. mixta, sed caudfi valde longiore (r75), et 
maris macula alba uuchali nulla, uecnon feminae linea 
alba supcrciliari obsoleta et plaga gutturali et hypo- 
choiulriis aurantiaco-castaneis, distinguenda. 

Similar to P. mixta, but with a longer tail, the male 
distinguished by the abscuce of the white nuchal spot, and 
the fenude by the obsolete white eyebrow and by the 
orange-chestnut throat-patch and flanks. 

Nos. 1 and 6. Milanji Plateau, Oct. and Nov. 

This species resembles P. mixta, which was discovered by 
Mr. Hunter on Mount Kilimanjaro in August, at from 6000 
to 7000 feet. It is at once distinguished by its longer tail 
(I* 75 instead of 1*4). The males diflcr in having a broader 
pectoral band and no white nuchal spot. The females differ 
in having the chestnut of the underparts much darker, the 
throat-patch being separated from the darker prepectoral band 
by a distinct whitish patch. 

67. Terpsiphone perspicillata. 

Terpsiphone cristata, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 352, 838. 
Terpsiphone perspicillata, Sharpe, Cat. iv. p. 357. 



collected in Nyassaland. 19 

Nos. 35, 7. Zoraba, Sept., Dec, Jan., and Febr. Five 
specimens. 

68. Trochocercus alronotatus. 

Trochocercus albonotatus, Sharpe, Ibis, 1891, p. 121 ; 1892, 
p. 303, pi. 7. fig. 1. 

No. 8. Milanji Plateau, 6000 feet, Oct. 

This is an instance of an East- African species of Flycatcher 
ranging into the Zambesi district. The original type was 
procured by Mr. Jackson on Mount Elgon, and the Milanji 
specimens cannot be specifically separated, though the grey 
on ttie chest is somewhat lighter and contrasts a little more 
with the black throat. 

69. IIlRUNDO ASTIGMA, Sp. n. 

Similis H. semirufce, sed plaga auricular! ruf& et caudi 
minirae albo maculata distinguenda. Long. tot. 7'5 poll., 
ala3 4-9. 

No. 13. Milanji Plateau, 6000 feet, Oct. 

Similar to H. sendrufa, but differs in having the ear- 
coverts and sides of the head, behind the eye, chestnut, 
which colour partially extends across the nape; no trace of 
white on the tail ; underparts paler, throat nearly white ; 
under tail -coverts with more than the terminal half bluish 
black. Total length 7*5 inches, culmen 0*4, wing 4"9, 
tail 4'1, tarsus 0*6. 

70. HiRUNDO PUELLA. 

Hirimdo initlla, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 373, 841 ; id. Cat. 
X. p. 154. 

No. 29. Milanji Plateau, 4000 feet, Oct. 

71. LaNIUS COLLARIS. 

Lanius coUaris, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 374, 841 ; Gadow, 
Cat. viii. p. 255. 

Nos. 34, 41, 68. Zomba, Aug. and Sept. These speci- 
mens agree perfectly with others from Natal. I do not find 
the species previously recorded from the Zambesi district. 

72. Enneoctonus collurio. 

Enneoctonus collurio, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 378, 842. 

c2 



20 Capt. G. E. Shelley on Birds 

Lanius collurio, Gadow, Cat. viii. p. 286. 
No. 69. Zomba, Febr. 

73. Laniarius sttlphureipectus. 

Laniarius sulphureijjectus, Sharpe, B, S. A£r. p. 384; 
Gadow, Cat. viii. p. 159. 

No. 51. Zomba, Febr.; Milanji Plains^ Oct. and Dec. 

74. Dryoscopus cubla. 

Laniarius cubla, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 392, 842 ; Gadow, 
Cat, viii. p. 148. 

Nos. 37, 64. Zomba, Aug., Sept., and Febr. ; Milanji 
Plains, Dec. 

75. Dryoscopus sticturus. 

Laniarius sticturus (Hartl. & Finsch) ; Sharpe, B. S. Afr. 
pp. 393, 843. 

Dryoscopus sticturus, Gadow, Cat. viii. p. 136. 
Nos. 36, Q7. Zomba, Aug. and Sept. 

76. Telephonus senegalus. 

Laniarius senegalus (L.) ; Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 394, 843. 

Telephonus senegalus, Gadow, Cat. viii. p. 124. 

Nos. 61, 56. Zomba, Sept. and Febr. ; Milanji Plains, Oct. 

77. Telephonus anchiet^. 

Telephonus anchieta, Bocage, Orn. Angola, p. 225, pi. 4; 
Shelley, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 579; Gadow, Cat. viii. p. 129. 

No. 30. Milanji Plain, 4000 feet, Oct. This species was 
previously known only from the Loango coast of Angola, 
and from Lamu on the East Coast. 

78. Nilaus capensis. 

Nilaus hruhru, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 397, 843. 
Nilaus capensis, Gadow, Cat. viii. p. 168, pi. 5. fig. 1. 
No. 58. Zomba, Febr. (immature). 

79. Campophaga nigra. 

Campophaga nigra, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 398, 843 ; id. 
Cat iv. p. 62. 

Nos. 75, 66, S ? • Zomba, Sept. and Dec. 



collected in Nyassaland. 21 

80. Campophaga hartlaubi. 

Campophaga hartlauhi, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 398; id. Cat. 
iv. p. 62. 

No. 55, ^ . Zomba, Jan. This is the first record of the 
occurrence of this species north of the Zambesi. 

81. Graucalus pectoralis. 

Graucalus pectoralis, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 843; id. Cat. 
iv. p. 29. 

Nos. 11, 103. Zomba, Sept. Four examples. This species 
has never been procured before in the Zambesi district. 

82. Bradyornis pallidus. 

Bradyornis pallidus, Sharpe, Cat. iii. p. 310 ; Reichen. 
J. f. O. 1889, p. 277. 

Nos. 49, 74. Zomba, Jan. 21 (nestling), Febr. The last 
specimen agrees perfectly with the type of my B. modestus 
from the Gold Coast. This is the most southern known 
limit for the species, which was likewise obtained by Dr. 
Stuhlmann at Quilimane. 

83. Bradyornis ater. 

Bradyornis ater, Sund. ; Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 405 ; id. Cat. 
iii. p. 314. 

Nos. 55, 71. Zomba, Jan. One of these specimens and an 
unlabelled one are young birds in spotted plumage, the 
black being spo.tted with chestnut-buff. 

84. Prionops talacoma. 

Prionops talacoma, Smith; Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 406, 844; 
id. Cat. iii. p. 321. 
No. 38. Zomba, Sept. 

85. SiGMODUS TRICOLOR. 

Sigmodus tricolor (Gray), Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 407; id. 
Cat. iii. p. 325. 

Sigmodus graculinus, Sharpe, Cat. iii. p. 325. 
Nos. 27, 33, 62, 63, 72. Zomba, Sept. and Febr. 

86. Buchanga assimilis. 

Buchanga a5s«m/e«, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 408, 844; id. 
Cat. iii. p. 247. 

Nos. 53, 59. Zomba, Sept. (ad.), Febr. (jr.). 



22 Capt. G. E. Shelley on Birds 

87. Oriolus larvatus. . 

Oriolus larvatus, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 413, 845 ; id. Cat. 
iii. p. 217. 

Nos. 16, 46. Zomba, Aug., Sept., and Jan. ; Milanji 
Plains, 4000 feet, Oct. 

The series collected by Mr. Whyte shows great variation 
in the colour of the wing-coverts, which are grey in some 
specimens, in others yellow, and in others grey washed with 
yellow. The characters for the separation of this species 
and Oriolus brachyrhynchus, given by Dr. Sharpe in the 
' Catalogue/ seem to me to require further examination. 

88. CORVULTUR ALBICOLLIS. 

Corvultur albicolUs, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 417; id. Cat. iii. 
p. 24. 

Nos. 3, 25. Zomba, Sept. and Oct. ; Milanji Plateau, 
6000 feet, Nov. 

89. Lamprocohus sycobius, 

Lamprocolius sycoUus, Sharpe, B. S. Afr, pp. 426, 846 ; 
id. Cat. xiii. p. 178. 
No. 40. Zomba, Sept. 

90. Pholidauges verreauxi. 

Phoiidauges ven-eauxi, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 428, 846; id. 
Cat. xiii. p. 123. 

Nos. 28, 50, 104. Zomba, Aug., Sept., Jan., and Febr. 

91. Ajmydrus morio. 

Amydrus morio (L.), Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 431, 846; id. 
Cat. xiii. p. 161. 

No. 18. (J ? , Aug. and Sept. 

9.2. Sycobrotus stictifrons, 

Sycobrotusbicolor, Sharpe, B, S. Afr, p, 432 (pt., '' Living, 
stone Expedition ") . 

Sycobrotus stictifrons (Fischer & Reichen.), Shai-pe, Cat. 
xiii. p. 424. 

Sympledes stictifrons, Reichen. J. f. O. 1889, p, 281 
(Quilimane). 

No. 65. Zomba, Jan.; Milanji Plateau, 4000 feet, Oct. 



collected in Nyassaland. 23 

and Nov. The four specimens are nearly similar iu plumage, 
but two of them have the throat brown and two yellow, 
probably a sexual difference. 

93. SlTAGRA OCULARIA. 

Hyphantornis ucularius (Smith), Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 435. 
Sitagra ocularia, Sharpe, Cat. xiii. p. 427. 
No. 42, (J . Zomba, Febr. 

94. Hyphantornis nigriceps. 

Hyphantornis nigriceps, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 436 ; id. Cat. 
p. 456. 

No. 57, c? . Zomba, Jan. 

95. Hyphantornis xanthops. 

Hyphantornis xanthops, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 438; id. Cat. 
xiii. p. 447. 

Nos. 56, 39, 41, 47. Zomba, Aug., Sept., and Febr.; 
Milanji Plains, 4000 feet, Dec. 

I doubt whether, in the face of the series now sent by 
Mr. Whyte, Dr. Sharpe's H. jamesoni can be maintained as 
distinct from H. xanthops. 

96. Hyphantornis bertrandi, sp. n. (Plate II.) 

H. similis H heuglini, sed major, et fascia nuchali transversa 
nigra distinguendus. Long, tot, 6'3 poll., alse 3*3. 

Nos. 41, 47. Zomba, Aug. and Sept. ; Milanji Plains, 
4000 feet, Oct. 

Crown rufous, shaded yellow ; nape, entire sides of the 
head, and the upper half of the throat black, followed by 
golden yellow, which extends almost across the hind neck ; 
remainder of the upper parts uniform olive-yellow, with 
slight indications of brown shafts to the feathers of the 
mantle ; median and greater wing-coverts and the quills dark 
brown, broadly edged with bright olive-yellow ; remainder of 
the underparts rich golden yellow, with a very faint rufous 
shade on the middle of the throat ; under wing-coverts, shafts, 
and inner margins of the quills bright yellow, with the 
remainder of the quills ashy brown ; bill black ; legs and claws 
pale brown. Total length 6*3 inches, culmen 0*85, wing 3*3, 
tail 2"6, tarsus 1. 



24 Capt. G. E. Shelley on Birds 

A second specimen (Oct. 16tli) is similar, only it has a few 
black feathers intermixed with the yellow of the crown. 

A third specimen (Sept. 26th) is a young male, with a pale- 
coloured lower mandible, crown and sides of head olive-green ; 
chin and upper throat yellow, these parts slightly mottled 
with black. From the form of the bill, measurements, and 
general appearance, it is evidently a young bird of this 
species. 

I propose to name this species after Capt. Bertram Lutley 
Sclater, R.E., Mr. Johnston's principal officer in Nyassaland, 
and Commander of his police force. 

97. Hyphantornis cabanisi. 

Hyphantornis cabanisi, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 443; id. Cat. 
xiii. p. 461. 

No. 18, ? . Mpimbi, Febr. This species extends from 
Damaraland and Natal northwards to Lamu. 

98. Hyphantornis xanthopterus. 

Hyphantornis xanthopterus, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 443 ; id. 
Cat. xiii. p. 444, pi. 13. fig. 2. 

Ploceus xanthopterus, Reichen. J. f. O. 1889, p. 281. 

No. 81. Mpimbi, Febr. This species appears to be very 
local, as it is known only from the Shire Valley and 
Quilimane. 

99. Anaplectes rubriceps. 

Malimbus rubriceps, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 444, 847. 
Anaplectes rubriceps, Sharpe, Cat. xiii. p. 411; Reichen. 
J. f. O. 1889, p. 281. 

Nos. 50, 85. Zomba, Sept. and Dec; Mpimbi^, Febr. 

100. Ploceipasser pectoralis. 

Ploceipasser pectoralis (Peters), Sharpe, Cat. xiii. p. 247. 

No. 83. Mpimbi, Febr. Previously this species was known 
only from the type from Inhambani, and from specimens 
collected by Sir J. Kirk at Tete, on the south bank of the 
Zambesi. The young bird has the back and edges to the 
secondaries more rufous than in the adult. 



collected in Nyassaland. 25 

101. Amblyospiza albifrons. 

Amblyospiza albifrons, Sharpe^ B. S. Afr. p. 449; id. Cat. 
xiii. p. 501. 

No. 23. Zomba, Aug. and Sept. This is the first instance 
of this species being found to the north of the Zambesi. 

102. Vidua principalis. 

Vidua principalis, Sharps, B. S. Afr. pp. 453, 848; id. 
Cat. xiii. p. 203. 

No. 37. Zomba, Jan. andFebr. ; Milanji Plains, 4000 feet, 
Nov. 

103. Hypochera nigerrima, Sharpe. 

Hijpochera idtramarina, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 457 (part). 
Hypochera nigerrima, Sharpe, Cat. xiii. p. 311. 
No. 99. Zomba, Dec. 

104. Penthetria ardens (Bodd.). 

Vidua ardens, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 455, 847. 
Penthetria ardens, Sharpe, Cat. xiii. p. 215. 
Nos. 45, 47, 80. Zomba, Sept. and Jan. ; Milanji Plains, 
Oct. ; Mpimbi, Febr. 

105. Penthetria ALBONOTATA (Cass,). 

Penthetria albonotata, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 460 ; id. Cat. 
xiii. p. 219. 

No. 80. Mpimbi, Febr. 

106. Pyromelana flammiceps. 

Pyromelana flammiceps, Sharpe, Cat. xiii. p. 228 ; Reichen. 
J. f. O. 1889, p. 282. 

No. 95. Zomba, Jan. Altogether eight full-plumaged 
specimens are in the collection. This is the furthest locality 
south known for the present species. 

107. Pyromelana nigrifrons. 
Pyromelana nigrifrons, Sharpe, Cat. xiii. p. 233. 

No. 82. Mpimbi, Febr. This is the first time the present 
species has been procured so far south. 

108. Pyromelana xanthomeltena. 
Pyromelana xanthomelana, Sharpe, Cat. xiii. p. 239. 



26 Capt. G. E. Shelley on Birds 

No. 45. Zomba, Jan. ; Milanji Plain, 4000 feet, Oct. This 
species may be distinguished from its allies soiith of the 
Zambesi (P. minor and P. capensis) by its black thighs. 

109. Pytelia AFRA (Gm.) . 

Pytelia afra, Sharpe, Cat. xiii. p. 302. 
No. 40. Zomba, Jan. and Febr. This is the most southern 
locality for this species yet registered. 

110. Cryptospiza reichenowi (Hartl.). 

Pytelia reichenowi, Reichen. J. f. O. 1875, p. 41, pi. 2. 

fig. 1. 

Cryptospiza reichenowi, Sharpe, Cat. xiii. p. 254 (Cama- 
roon Mountains). 

No. 10. Milanji Plateau, Nov. This specimen is not in 
full plumage, and it is difficult to determine it with cer- 
tainty, but its measurements agree well with the type of 
C. reichenowi. Total length 4*2 inches, culmen 0*45, wing 
2-1, tail 1-7, tarsus 0-7. 

111. CoCCOPYGIA DUFRESNII (V.). 

Estrelda dufresnei, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 469, 849. 
Coccopygia dufresnii, Sharpe, Cat. xiii. p. 305. 
No. 11. Milanji Plateau, Nov. This is the most northern 
known locality for the present species. 

112. ESTRILDA MINOR. 

Estrilda minor, Sharpe, Cat. xiii. p. 393. 

No. 63. Zomba, Febr. ; Milanji Plains, 4000 feet, Oct. 
South of the Zambesi this form is replaced by typical 
E. astrild. 

113. Estrilda angolensis (L.). 

Urceginthus cyanogaster, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 473, 850. 
Estrilda angolensis, Sharpe, Cat. xiii. p. 402. 
No. 86. Mpimbi, Febr. 

114. Lagonosticta rhodoparia. 
Lagonosticta rhodoparia, Sharpe, Cat. xiii. p. 282. 



collected in Nyassaland. 27 

No. 60. Zomba, Febr. This is the southernmost locality 
known for this species, which ranges along the east coast to 
Bogos-land in N.E. Africa. 

115. Lagonosticta niveiguttata (Peters). 

Hypargus niveiguttatus, Shelley, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 558, 
pi. 52. fig. 2 ; Sharpe, 15. S. Afr. p. 477. 

Lagonosticta niveiguttata, Sharpe, Cat. xiii. p. 274. 

Nos. 59 and 57. Zomba, Sept. ; Milanji Plateau, 6000 feet, 
Oct. and Nov. 

116. Petronia petronella. 

Petronia petronella, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 481, 850 ; id 
Cat. xii. p. 297. 

No. 62. Zomba, Febr. 

117. Emberiza flaviventris. 

Fringillaria flaviveyitris, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 491, 851; 
Emberiza flaviventris, Sharpe, Cat. xii. p. 499. 
No. 38. Zomba, Jan. and Febr. 

118. Emberiza orientalis (Shelley). 
Fringillaria orientalis, Shelley, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 308. 
Emberiza orientalis, Sharpe, Cat. xii. p. 502. 

Nos. 48, 38. Zomba, Aug., Sept., and Jan. This is the 
most southern known locality for the present species. 

119. Macronyx croceus. 

Macronyx striolatus, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 532. 
Macronyx croceus, Sharpe, Cat. x. p. 626. 
No. 26. Zomba, Dec. and Jan. 

120. Anthus rufulus. 

Anthus caffer, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. pp. 534, 852. 
Anthus rufulus, Sharpe, Cat, x. p. 574. 
No. 2. Milanji Plateau, 6000 feet, Oct. 

121. MOTACILLA LONGICAUDA, Rupp. 

Motacilla longicauda, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 544; id. Cat. 
X. p. 495. 

No. 77. Zomba, Sept. 



28 Capt. G. E. Shelley vn Birds 

122. Treron delalandii. 

Treron delalandii, Slielley_, Ibis, 1883, p. 270; Sharpe, 
B. S. Afr. p. 558. 

No. 10. Zomba, Aug. 

123. Palumbus arquatrix. 

Palumbus arquatrix, Shelley, Ibis, ]883, p. 283; Sharpe, 
B. S. Afr. p. 561. 
No. 4. Zomba, Sept. 

124. Haplopelia johnstoni, sp. n. (Plate III.) 

H. similis H. larvatce, sed supra latior, subtus valde satura- 
tior : notseo vinaceo-rubro conspicue adumbrato. Long, 
tot. 11 poll., ala; 6-1. 

No. 20. Milanji Plateau, 6000 feet, Oct. ; two young and 
one adult. 

Similar to H. larvata, but brighter ; and differs in having 
a rich vinous gloss on the wings, back, upper tail-coverts, and 
centre tail-feathers; under surface of the body and under 
tail-coverts slightly darker ; sides of the body and the entire 
under surface of the wings greyer; bill blackish; legs bright 
red. Total length 11 inches, culmen 0"7, wing 6*1, tail 4"3, 
tarsus I'l. 

This is a handsome species, closely allied to H. larvata. 
I propose to name it after Mr. H. H. Johnston, C.B., F.Z.S., 
to whose scientific zeal and energy we are indebted for our 
first knowledge of the birds of the high interior of Nyassa- 
land. 

125. TURTUR semitorquatus. 

Turtur semitorquatus, Shelley, Ibis, 1883, p. 303 ; Sharpe, 
B. S. Afr. p. 566. 

No. 5. Zomba, Aug. and Sept. 

126. TuRTUR capicola. 

Turtur capicola, Shelley, Ibis, 1883, p. 312; Sharpe, B. S. 
Afr. p. 567. 

No. 6. Zomba, Sept. 



collected in Nyassaland. 29 

127. Tympanistria tympanistria. 

Tympayiistria tympanistria, Shelley, Ibis, 1883, p. 326 ; 
Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 571. 
No. 7. Zomba, Aug. 

128. Pternistes humboldti. 

Pternistes humboldti, Sliarpe, B. S. Afr. p. 589 ; Shelley, 
P. Z. S. 1889, p. 370; Grant, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, 
ser. 6, vii. p. 145. 

No. 32. Zomba, Jan. 

129. Vanellus inornatus, Swains. 

Vanellus inornatus, Seeb. Geogr. Distr. Charadr. p. 225 

(1888). 

No. 84, S ' Mpimbi, Feb. 28. 

130. Crex crex (L.). 

Crex crex, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 611. 
No. 44. Zomba, Jan. 

131. LiMNOCORAX NIGER. 

Limnocorax niger, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 618. 

No. 79. Mpimbi, Upper Shire, Febr. Two specimens, 
probably male and female, one being more blackish brown 
than the other. 

132. Rhynchops flavtrostris. 

Rhynchops flavirostris, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 706. 
No. 77. Mpimbi, Upper Shire, Febr. 

133. BUBULCUS IBIS. 

Bubulcus ibis, Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 717. 
No. 7Q. Mpimbi, Upper Shire, Febr. 

134. Nycticorax griseus. 

Nycticorax griseus (L.), Sharpe, B. S. Afr. p. 724. 
No. 7o. Mpimbi, Upper Shire, Febr. 



30 Mr. F. E. Beddard on the 

II. — On the Osteology, Pteryiosis, and Muscular Anatomy 
of the American Fin-foot (Heliornis surinamensis). By 
Frank E. Beddard, M.A.^ F.R.S., Prosector to the Zoo- 
logical Society of London, Examiner in Biology to the 
Royal College of Surgeons. 

The Heliornithidse, comprising the two genera Heliornis and 
Podica, have been investigated anatomically by Brandt;^, 
Nitzschf; Giebel J, Gado\v§, and myself 1|. The affinities of 
these birds have been furthermore discussed by Fiirbringer^. 
The American Fin-foot, Heliornis, is at present less well known 
than the African form. Nitzsch has described its pteryiosis, 
Giebel gave a few brief notes upon the muscular anatomy, 
while Gadow has investigated the intestinal coils. Having 
had the opportunity two years ago of examining and reporting 
upon the structure of the African Fin-foot, I am particularly 
glad to be able now to supplement that paper by some account 
of the American Fin-foot. The material upon which the 
present paper is based I owe immediately to the kindness of 
Mr. Sclater, and more indirectly to that of Mr. J. J. Quelch, 
the Superintendent of the Museum, George Town, British 
Guiana, who, at Mr. Sclater's request, obtained the speci- 
mens. The object of this paper is to compare the structure 
of the two genera Heliornis and Podica in those points as 
to which I was not able to make a comparison in my paper 
upon the anatomy of the latter. The comparisons now made 

* " Einige Bemerkungen ilber Podoa iind ihr Verliiiltniss zur Fulica, 
Podiceps, und den Steganopoden," forming section iii. of " Beitrage zur 
Naturgeschichte der ViJgel " &c., M^m. Ac. St. Petersbourg, ser. 6, t. iii. 
(1840). 

t 'Pterylography.' Engl, trausl. by P. L. Sclater. Ray Society. 
18G7. 

J " Zur Naturgeschichte des Surinamischen Wasserhuhn's {Podoa 
surinamensis),'" Zeitschr. ges, Naturw. Bd. xviii. (1861) p. 424. 

§ " On the Taxonouiic Value of the Intestinal Convolutions in Birds," 
P. Z. S. 1889, p. 303. 

II " On the Anatomy of Podica senegalensis," P. Z. S. 1890, p. 425. 

1[ ' Uutersuchungeu zur Morphologie und Systematik der Vogel, 
p. 1029 et seqq. 



American Fin-foot. 31 

chiefly concern the muscular anatomy. I have not attempted 
any further discussion upon the affinities of the Heliornithidae 
to other families of birds. The facts which I have been able 
to make out with regard to Heliornis do not render neces- 
sary any modification of the opinions which I expressed in 
my paper upon Podica stnegalensis. Such diflerences as 
exist in the anatomy of tlie two genera appear to me to be 
correlated with the smaller size of Heliornis. In many 
groups of the animal kingdom we find that the smaller 
members show a simplification of structure as compared with 
the larger forms. 

I. Pterylosis. 

The pterylosis of this bird has been already described by 
Nitzsch {op. cit. p. 127, pi. viii. fig. 9). When the bird is 
plucked the feather- tracts are rendered rather inconspicuous 
by the presence of down feathers, which are scattered more 
or less uniformly all over the back, and which occur on the 
ventral surface of the body, particularly along the line of the 
scernai keel. I find that, as Nitzsch has stated, the neck is 
nearly continuously feathered, there being no lateral, and 
only a short ventral, bare tract. The dorsal tract is strong 
between the shoulder-blades and is distinctly forked; each 
branch of the fork is only two or three feathers wide ; the 
hinder portion of the tracts is weak, but the feathering 
becomes strong soon after they have joined posteriorly ; the 
junction of the two tracts occurs at the anterior end of the 
pelvis. 

Nitzsch says nothing of the ventral tracts in his special 
description of Heliornis, but distinguishes the genera Fulica, 
Heliornis, and others by the undivided ventral tracts. This 
was certainly the arrangement in the specimens which I 
examined. The median ventral apterion extends about an 
inch up the neck. 

II. Muscular Anatomy. 

The patagial muscle is, as in Podica senegalensis, single ; 
just before the origin of the two tendons into which it divides 



32 



Mr. F. E. Beddard on the 



it receives a strong tendinous slip from tlie deltoid ridge of 
the humerus. There is another slip reinforcing the longus 
tendon. The tensor patagii brevis tendon is perfectly similar 
to that of the African Fin-foot ; the biceps slip, however, 
instead of ending freely upon the patagium, as it does in that 
bird, joins the tendon of the tensor patagii brevis, which is 
also an unusual arrangement, it being, of course, more com- 
monly attached to the tendon of the tensor patagii longus. 
The actual dispositions and connections of the several muscles 

Fig-. 1. 




Patagial muscles of Heliornis surinamensis. — T.})., tensor patagii ; 
j5j., biceps ; Bi.s., biceps slip ; x, tendinous slip inserted on patagium (P). 

and tendons, which are somewhat complicated, are shown in 
the accompanying drawing (fig. 1) . The biceps slip passes, of 
course, below the tendon of the tensor patagii brevis ; on the 
distal side of this tendon it ends in a tendon which runs down 
the patagium and is inserted on to the tensor patagii tendon 
just before its insertion. The tendon of the biceps slip is 
exceedingly fine, and not always, for this reason, visible ; in 
one specimen it appeared to be inserted independently on to 
the fascia covering the muscles of the forearm ; in another 
specimen the tendon of the biceps slip was bifurcate just 
at its end. Where the other tendon lettered x in the 



American Fin-foot. 33 

drawino^ ended I am unable to say. Evidently, therefore, 
there are differences in respect of this muscle between the 
American and African Fin-foots. 

In many birds, for instance in the Duck (see Fiirbringer, 
loc. cit. Taf. XX, fig. 4), the biceps slip joins the tendon of the 
tensor patagii longus just at the insertion of the fan-shaped 
tendon which very commonly unites that tendon with the 
tendon of the patagii brevis at its insertion. I am inclined 
to think that the long and delicate tendon connected with 
the biceps slip of Heliornis is the equivalent of that tendon 
which has lost its attachment to the tendon of the tensor 
patagii longus ; if so, then the tendons of the patagium of 
Heliornis are less abnormal than one would otherwise regard 
them. 

Latissimus dorsi. — This muscle is composed of the usual 
two parts : the anterior portion is, also as usual, the weaker 
of the two ; it arises from the spines of the dorsal vertebrae ; 
the origin of the posterior half of the muscle follows imme- 
diately upon it ; the posterior half of the latissimus dorsi arises 
also from the front border of the ilium. The anterior half 
of the muscle has a broad tendinous insertion, which com- 
mences just behind the short, flat, and narrow glistening 
tendon by which the posterior half of the muscle is attached 
to the humerus. 

Anconeus longus. — This muscle appears to arise and to be 
inserted precisely as in Podica senegalensis. The accessory 
tendon, which is about one half the width of the tendon 
of insertion of the posterior half of the latissimus dorsi, is 
inserted on to the humerus above the latter. 

Expansor secundariorum. — In the fact of the presence of 
this muscle the American Fin-foot agrees with the African 
form. The tendon is very thin, though strong ; it increases 
somewhat in thickness as it approaches the teres. 

Fedoralis primus. — I could not detect any division of this 
muscle into two layers, such as occurs in many birds, in- 
cluding Podica senegalensis. 

T^he pectoralis seciindus extends back in its origin nearly to 
the end of the sternum. 

SER. VI. VOL. V. D 



34 Mr. F. E. Beddard 07i the 

The deltoid is well developed ; it is inserted on to ratlier 
more than the first half of the humerus. 

The biceps arises by the usual long tendon from the 
scapula. 

Both the rhomboidei have, as in Podica senegalensis, an 
aponeurotic origin from the vertebral column. The super- 
ficial rhomboideus is quite double the length of the deeper 
muscle_, and overlaps it for nearly its whole length. 

The tensor fasciae is large ; the anterior half of the muscle 
has a tendinous origin^ the posterior half a muscular origin, 
which extends a long way behind the acetabulum. 

The biceps is at its origin completely covered by the last 
muscle ; indeed, the origin of the tensor fasciae extends con- 
siderably beyond the point where the origin of the biceps 
leaves off; this muscle is comparatively slight, only 8 mm. 
in diameter at its origin, which is fleshy. The biceps has 
two insertions : one of these is like that found in nearly all 
other birds, i. e. it ends in a stout tendon, wliich passes 
through a tendinous loop, and is inserted on to the tibia ; 
the second insertion is on to the fascia covering the gas- 
trocnemius. 

In describing the anatomy of Podica senegalensis 1 had 
occasion to point out* the very remarkable conformation of 
the biceps femoris in that bird, which has three separate 
insertions, and is more complicated than in any other bird of 
which the muscular structure is known. It will be observed 
that the biceps femoris of the American genus is like that of 
the African, with the only exception that it wants the third 
insertion present in the former. The condition of this muscle 
in the two genera of Heliornithidse seems to show that the 
smaller American form has a more simjilified structure Avhen 
compared with its larger African relative. I point out later 
that the skull- characters show the same kind of reduction, 
which I cannot help associating with the size of the bird. 

The semitendinosus and the semimembranosus may be con- 
sidered together, for they form one continuous mass at their 
origin, of which the two constituent parts were iudistin- 
* Op. cit. p. 429. 



American Fin-foot. 35 

guishable in the individuals wliicli I dissected ; the origin of 
these two muscles commences exactly at that point Avhere 
the origin of the tensor fasciae leaves off. The insertion of 
the semimembranosus is flat and tendinous ; it lies above 
the insertion of the semitendinosus, which is also flat and 
tendinous; the tendinous insertion of the semitendinosus 
is 9 mm. across ; it nearly completely overlaps the 6 mm. 
wide insertion of the semimembranosus, when the thigh is 
examined from the inside. 

In Poclica senegalensis these two muscles are inserted one 
above the other, the insertions not overlapping at all, indeed 
not quite meeting. 

As is the case with Podica seneg (decisis, Heliornis surinam- 
ensis has no accessory semitendinosus. It has, however, 
like the former bird, both the femoro-caudal and accessory 
femoro-caudal. 

There are two adductors and, of course, an ambiens. 

The gastrocnemius has a large outer and inner head ; there 
is a very slender middle head ; its tendon is ossified. 

The tibialis anticus is partly covered over, as is frequently 
the case, by the peronceus brevis. It has a single insertion, 
and its tendon is ossified up to within 1 mm. of the ankle- 
joint. Both peroneal muscles are present. 

The peronceus brevis, as has already been mentioned, partly 
covers over the tibialis anticus ; its tendon of insertion is at 
first ossified ; it is rather broad, and seems partly, at least, to 
join the tendon of the gastrocnemius at the insertion. 

The peronceus longus is also covered by the peroneus brevis ; 
it runs alongside of the tibialis anticus; its tendon is also 
ossified and is inserted in the usual way. 

The tendon of the extensor communis digitorum (fig. 2, a, 
p. 3G) has two separate ossifications, one just at its commence- 
ment, the other along the metatarsus; at the commencement 
of the second ossified tract a branch is given off", which supplies 
the second and third toes ; at the end of the ossified tract 
the tendon divides into two for the third and fourth toes. 

The superficial flexor tendons, which are, as usual, seven 
in number, are ossified. 

1)2 



36 



Mr. F. E. Beddard on the 



The arrangement of the deep flexor tendons is illustrated 
in the accompanying drawing (fig. 2, b). It will' be observed 
that each tendon splits into three, apart from the special 
branch to digit 1 given off from the flexor hallucis. 



Fio:. 2. 




Heliornis surinamensis. — a. Tendon of extensor coniuumis digitorura 
supplying second, tliird, and fourth digits (2, 3, 4). b. Deep 
flexor tendons: A. Flexor liallucis ; B. Flexor communis. The 
slips going to the digits are numbered in accordance 1, 2, 3, 4. 
The ossified region of the tendon is indicated by dots. 

III. Visceral Anatomy. 

I do not think that it is necessary to give a detailed 
account of the alimentary tract of this bird. In the first 
place^, the viscera were not in a very good condition for 
furnishing a careful report ; they were softened by the 
action of the weak spirit in which they bad been preserved, 
and were at the same time much adherent. In the second 
place, the main characteristics of the viscera are precisely as 
in Podica; in both genera the right liver-lobe is larger 
than the left, and there are a pair of moderately long cseca 
present. 

In the syrinx the bronchidesmus is incomplete, there being 
a gap of about 2 mm. in length between the diverging 
bronchi. There are ten to twelve bronchial semirings on 
each side. The last three or four tracheal rings are partly 
fused (incompletely in front) to form a box. The single 
pair of intrinsic muscles is present. 



American Fin-foot. 



37 



IV. Skull. 

The skull of Heliornis (fig. 3) differs but slightly, as I have 
already pointed out, from that of Podica. It is smaller, 
and the remaining differences may perhaps be accounted for 
by this : that is to saj^, the processes and fossae from which 
muscles arise, or to -which they are attached, are less strongly 
marked in the more slightly built Heliornis. 

Fin-. 3. 





Skull of Heliornis snrijianiensis, nat. size. 

Particularly is this the case with the temporal fossae. In 
Podica {cf. fig. 4, p. 38) these fossae, although not nearly so 
marked as in the Grebes, are fairly deep and extend back to 
the posterior face of the skull. In Heliornis, on the contrary 
(see fig. 3), the fossae are slight ; they only extend over half 
the lateral surface of the brain-case ; furthermore, the two 
processes of the skull-wall (postfrontal and zygomatic) which 
limit, above and below, the commencement of the temporal 
fossae are directly above and below each other respectively 
in Heliornis ; in Podica the lower process, which corresponds 
to the zygomatic process of the squamosal in mammals, does 
not jut out so far forward as to lie beneath the superior process. 

In my paper upon Podica senegalensis I drew attention to 
a point of difference between the Rails and the Grebes in the 
large size of the maxillo-palatines of the former. In such a 
Rail as Ocydromus australis the maxillo-palatines are com- 
paratively large inflated bones, Avliich, although covered, are 



38 



Mr. F. E. Beddard on the 



not concealed by the narrow anterior part of the palatines 
which underlie them; in Podiceps cornutus the maxillo-pala- 
tines are much slighter and only just appear on the inner 
side of the palatines. Poclica seneyalenis (figs. 4 and 5) is 
more Rail-like than Grebe-like in this structural feature. On 
the other handj the American Fin-foot is rather more Grebe- 
like than Rail-like. The maxillo-palatines are thin curved 



Fi-. 4. 




Skull of Podica senegalensis, lateral view ; nat. size. (From P. Z. S. 
1800, p. 433.) 




Skull of Podica senegalensis, ventral view ; nat. size. (From P. Z. S. 
1890, p. 434.) 

plates of bone, which are even less exposed than in Podiceps 
cornutus when the skull is viewed from below ; this is owing 
to the fact that they are more curved, with the hollow surface 
directed outwards ; in the Grebe these plates are nearly 
parallel with the long axis of the skull, the concave surface 
being directed downwards : in reality, therefore, the resem- 
blance of the maxillo-palatines of Heliornis to those of the 
Rail is closer than to those of the Grebe ; the outer plate of 
bone which would convert the thin scroll-like maxillo-palatines 
of Heliornis into the inflated maxillo-palatines of Ocydromus 
or of Podica is wanting. In the Grebe the form and 
direction of the maxillo-palatines are such that an additional 



American Fin-foot. 



39 



plate of bone could not convert tliem into the similitude of 
the inflated bullae of the Rails. 

Other smaller points of difference will be apparent from a 
comparison of the accompanying figures of the skulls of 
Heliornis and of Podica^. 



V. Sternum. 
The sternum, as will be seen by the figures (6 and 7), does 

Fio;. 7. 



Fio-. 6. 





Fig. 6. — Heliornis surinamensis. Sternum, \eutral view ; nat. size. 
Fig. 7. — Sternum of Podica senegalensis, ventral view; nat. size. Co., 

coracoid ; cL, clavicle (removed on right side). (From P. Z. S. 

1890, p. 435.) 

* For the use of the figures of Podica I am indebted to the kindness 
of the Publication Cumniittee of the Zoological Society. 



40 Mr. R. Lydekker on the 

not widely differ from that of Podica ; the lateral margins 
are more concave, since the lateral processes jut out at a 
larger angle with the median axis. These processes, moreover, 
do not extend beyond the posterior margin of the sternum. 
The sternum also is shorter in proportion to its length in 
the American than in the African Fin-foot. 

The measurements of the sternum of Heliorms are as 
follows : — Length 35 mm. ; least breadth 16 mm. 

With these measurements may be compared those of 
Podica : — Length 68 mm. ; least breadth 20 mm. 

The median interclavicular piece of the merrythought is 
not prolonged forwards, as it is in Podica. 

VL Pelvis. 

There are hardly any points of difference between the 
pelvis of Heliornis and Podica. All the characteristic 
features of this part of the skeleton as described in Podica 
exist in Helio7'nis. The ridges on the ischia are, however, 
less conspicuous in the American Fin-foot. 

I have already compared the ribs and vertehrcs of these two 
birds, and need not recapitulate here what has been said in 
my paper in the P. Z. S. {t. c). 



III. — On the Extinct Giant Birds of Argentina. 
By R. Lydekker. 

For the last few years the palseontological world has been 
flooded with accounts of the wonderful discoveries of mam- 
malian remains belonging to new or little known types 
which have been made in the Tertiary deposits of Argentina. 
These discoveries have rendered it certain that, instead of 
having to do merely with a single fauna of Pleistocene age, we 
have there laid before us a whole series of faunas, which evi- 
dently occupied a considerable portion of the Tertiary period. 
The geologists and palaeontologists of Argentina are, indeed, 
of opinion that the deposits yielding vertebrate remains are 
equivalent to the whole of the European Tertiary series, from 



Extinct Giant Birds of Argentina. 41 

the Pleistocene to the Lower Eocene, inclusive. Personally, 
however, I have considerable doubts whether the inferior 
beds are really as old as the Lower Eocene, although they 
contain certain mammalian groups more or less closely 
allied to those of the European Eocene ; but it must be 
admitted, in any case, that they occupy a position some con- 
siderable way down in the Tertiary series. 

Now it is from these lowest beds that there have lately 
been brought to light the fine series of remains of giant 
extinct birds which have been described by Seilores 
Ameghino, Mercerat, and Moreno in the memoirs cited 
below ■^. With that peculiarly unfortunate fatality which 
appears to be inseparable from vertebrate palseontology 
in Argentina, these fossil birds have, however, already 
become involved in a labyrinth of confusion and puzzling 
synonymy, comparable to that which renders the study of 
the fossil mammals of those regions so disheartening and 
repulsive to the European student. 

The mischief began by the first of these remains being 
described by Professor Ameghino in 1887 as mammalian, 
under the uncouth name of Phorusrhacos ; and it was not 
till 1891 that its describer found out that the presumed 
Edentate jaw was in reality part of an Avian mandible. 
In referring this jaw (which is figured, p. 42, reduced 
from the original given by Prof. Ameghino) to a bird. 
Prof. Ameghino took the opportunity of describing part 
of a cranium and some limb-bones belonging either to the 
same or a closely allied bird, also of amending the name 
to Phororhavos f ; which term, it is quite evident, in spite 
of its uncouthness, is the one which must stand for the 

* Ameghino, C. "Aves fusiles Argentioas," i?fi;/s;'. Argoit. Hist. 
Nat. vol. i. pp. 255-259 (1891). 

. " Enumeracion de las Aves tosiles de la Republica Argentina," 

ibid. pp. 441-453. 
MoEENO, F., and Mercerat, A. "Los Pajaros fosiles de la 
Repiiblica Argentina," An. Mus. La Plata, vol. i., plate.s 
(1891). 
t [We might suggest its further emendation to Phororhacis, its deri- 
vation being, we suppose, (f)opeo) aud puKis, a branch. — Ed.] 



42 



Mr. R. Lydekker on the 



bird in question. Beyond tlie figure of the typical mandible, 
this memoir was unfortunately not illustrated, and the author 
made no attempt to determine the systematic position of the 
newly discovered bird. 




Lateral aud inferior views of the front portion of the mandible of 
Phororhacos longissimus. ^ nat. size. 

The want of illustration in Prof. Ameghino's memoir was 
fully remedied by the folio work of Senores Moreno and 
Mercerat, which contains a large number of finely engraved 
plates fully illustrating the osteology of the limbs of these 
giant birds. The remains were referred by these authors to 
no less than nine distinct genera, under the names of 
Phororhacos, Brontornis, Palmociconia, Mesembriorms, Stere- 
ornis, Patagornis, Dryornis, Darwinornis, and Rostrornis. 
And here I may remark that the barbarism of such terms as 
Darwinornis and Oivenornis is only paralleled by th.e bi- 
lingual origin of the name Rostrornis. The authors of this 
memoir arrived at the conclusion that these birds belong to 
a totally distinct primary group, of equal rank with the 
Ratitae and Carinatse, for which the name Stereornithes was 
suggested. No characters of sufficient importance to justify 



Extinct Giant Birds of Argentina. 43 

such a bold innovation were, however, given, the main 
feature upon which the autliors appear to have relied being 
the absence of a pneumatic foramen in the femur. 

Shortly after the appearance of this memoir — which must 
always bear a high value on account of the excellence of its 
illustrations — Prof. Ameghino published another paper 
criticizing and revising the work of Seilores Moreno and 
Mercerat. The results of his investigations were to the 
effect that^ while the genus Brontornis (with Rostrornis as a 
synonym) was entitled to stand, the whole of the other 
names proposed were merely synonyms of the original Phoro- 
rhacos, of which six species were admitted. The author 
added, however, a third genus, which he named Opisthodac- 
tyJus, distinguished by a peculiarity in the position of the 
facet for the hallux on the tarso-metatarsus. It may be added 
that, although Senores Moreno and Mercerat considered 
the birds described in their memoir to indicate no less than 
four distinct families, yet Prof. Ameghino included the 
whole of the three genera that he admitted in the single family 
Phororhacidie, which was placed among the RatitcC. Although 
we remember the lesson taught by the Moas as to the 
difficulty of separating generically well-marked avian forms 
upon the evidence of the limb-bones alone, yet, so far as we 
can judge from the materials at hand. Prof. Ameghino 
appears to have been perfectly justified in ruthlessly cutting 
down the genera of his confreres in the manner he has done. 

Having said thus much as to the historical aspect of the 
subject, we are in a position to consider what can be deter- 
mined as to the affinities of these remarkable birds, which 
appear to have been very common in Argentina during the 
Tertiary period. And here I may remind my readers that 
giant flightless birds occur in the Lower Eocenes of Europe 
{Gastornis and Dasornis) and of North America [Diatryma) ; 
but that at ])resent none are known between that period and 
the Pliocene, unless, indeed, these Argentine forms belong 
to some portion of the intervening gap. 

As regards dimensions, it appears that these Argentine 
birds not only rivalled but in some cases actually excelled 



44 Mr. R. Lydekker on the 

the largest of the New Zeahand Moas — the tibia of Brontornis 
measuring 30| inches in lengthy against 39 inches in the 
tallest Moa ; while the skull of Phororhacos longissinms is 
considered to indicate a bird much larger than either 
Brontornis or the most stately Di?iornis. 

The most peculiar feature of these birds is undoubtedly 
the form and structure of the skull, which is quite unlike 
that of the Moas or that of any existing Ratite bird. Un- 
fortunately the cranium is at present only known to 
us by a brief description, without a figure, and Ave have 
accordingly to rely mainly on the mandible. In the typical 
mandible of Phororhacos, of which the anterior portion is 
figured in the accompanying woodcut (p. 42), the most note- 
worthy features are the enormous size of the specimen, the 
extreme narrowness and length of the symphysis, the large 
size of the lateral vacuity, and the somewhat sigmoid profile 
and upturned point of the entire ramus. To give some idea 
of the size of this jaw, it may be mentioned that the length 
of the symphysis is upwards of 65 inches, while to the hinder 
third of the lateral vacuity the length is fully 14^ inches. 
It may accordingly be estimated that the total length of the 
whole jaw could not have fallen short of between 20 and 
24 inches. Such a jaw must have been as large as that of the 
extinct Edentate Scelidotherium, and Prof. Araeghino may 
therefore be well excused for having at first taken it for that 
of a mammal. In general contour this mandible is more like 
those of Psophia and Cariama than that of any other living 
bird. In the cranium the beak is described as compressed 
and curved, with its tip overhanging that of the mandible; 
but the most remarkable feature is the occurrence of two 
alveoli on either side of the upper jaw, which are considered 
to have carried large teeth. It is further inferred that the 
skull was surmounted by a horny casque, owing to the 
presence of rugosities on the frontal region. 

It may be remarked here that Prof. Lemoine ^ has de- 
scribed, in the alveolar border of the premaxilla of Gastornis, 
a large circular swelling which he regards as having been the 
* Eecli. Oiseaux Fossiles, pt. ii. (Rheims, 1881). 



Extinct Giant Birds of Argentina. 45 

base of a tooth-like process formed by the jaw itself. It 
appears to vne, however, that this swelling looks much more 
like a true dental alveolus, which, owing to the shedding of 
its tooth, had been filled up with bone. And I may add that, 
as the skull of Gastornis is known only by mere fragments, 
its restoration by Lemoine (in which a length of about 12 
inches is assigned to the mandible) is largely conjectural. 

Prof. Ameghino considers that PhororJiacos longissimus was 
of about double the dimensions of Brontornis burmeisteri, in 
which the length of the tibia was 30^ inches ! 

With regard to the limb-bones of these birds *, the most 
characteristic features appear to be that the femur had no 
pneumatic foramen, that the tibia had a bony bridge over the 
extensor canal at its distal extremity, and that its anterior 
intercondylar gorge was very deep, with the condyles very 
prominent. The tarso-metatarsus is of considerable length, 
and very wide above, with the intercotylar tuberosity very 
tall and the upper part of the upper surface deeply exca- 
vated. In the latter respect this bone resembles the tarso- 
metatarsus of j^pyornis ; but in that genus there is no 
intercotylar tuberosity to this bone, and no distinct inter- 
condylar gorge to the tibia. Gastornis has a more slender 
tarso-metatarsus with a prominent intercotylar tuberosity, 
and a deep intercondylar gorge to the tibia. It was at first 
thought that the hallux was wanting, but subsequent re- 
search proved this to be incorrect. Unfortunately, nothing 
appears to have been discovered of the sternum ; and the 
information relating to the wings is still very meagre, 
although these appear to have been present in some form or 
other. 

That birds of the gigantic dimensions of Phororhacos and 
Brontornis must have been flightless is self-evident ; and, so 
far as the present descriptions and figures admit of forming 
a judgment, there appear no characters by which they, 
in common with Gastornis and Dasornis, can be satisfactorily 
separated from the Ratitee. In the presence of a bony bridge 

* Casts of some of the limb-bones of Brontornis bave recently been 
receiTed at tbe British Museum. 



46 On the Extinct Giant Birds of Argentina. 

over the extensor groove of the tibia^ the South American 
forms resemble the Dinoi'mthid(e , and thereby differ from 
all existing representatives of the RatitaB. They likewise 
approximate to Dinornis (as distinct from the other Moas) and 
Gastoi'nis in the general proportions of the tibia and tarso- 
metatarsus ; the trochlese of the latter bone having, indeed, 
j)recisely the same relative lengths as in the European genus. 
It is true that the lower end of the tibia has not the inflection 
characteristic of Gastornis, but the Moas show that this 
feature is not of more than generic importance. So far, 
therefore, as the limb-bones go, Phororhacos and Brontornis 
might apparently be distantly related to Gastornis and the 
Moas, The skulls of the latter show, however, that the giant 
New Zealand birds are of a type widely different from those 
of South America ; although, if we believe in an affinity 
between the Moas and the Kiwis, we must not attach an undue 
weight to this point of difference. 

With regard to Gastornis, the case is more difficult. 
According, however, to Lemoine's restoration, the mandibular 
symphysis was short, and the upper jaw wider than in PAoro- 
rhacos. Still, however, we have a declination of the tip o£ 
the premaxilla comparable to the description of the latter ; 
and, for what it is worth, the presence in both of alveolar- 
like structures. 

That both Gastornis on the one hand, and Brontornis and 
Phororhacos on the other, cannot be excluded from the 
Ratitse as at present defined, appears, as I have already said, 
certain. If, however, they be rightly included in that group, 
and the presumed affinity of Gastornis to the Anseres be 
sustained, while the apparent resemblance of the jaw of 
Phororhacos to Psophia indicates a relationship, then we shall 
have confirmatory evidence in favour of the modern German 
view that the Ratitse form a compound group, of which the 
various sections have been independently derived from several 
perfectly distinct Carinate ancestors, and that their mutual 
resemblances to one another are solely owing to the effects of 
adaptation. I confess, however, that the supposed Anserine 
affinities of Gastornis appear far from clear to me, while I 



On the Birds of the Loo-Choo Islands. 47 

always feel that the great difficulty in admitting the multiple 
origin of the Ratitse is that if this had been the case there 
would have been far less structural similarity to one another 
among the various groups than we find to prevail. 



IV. — Notes on the Birds of the Loo-Choo Islands. 
By Henry Seebohm. 

My collector, Mr. Hoist, has just returned from a visit to 
the Loo-Choo Islands '^ and has sent rae a box of birds, 
amongst which are some specimens of great interest. 

The numbers prefixed to the names in the following list 
are those of my book on 'The Birds of the Japanese Empire.^ 

Except when stated to the contrary, the birds were col- 
lected on Okinawa-sima, the largest island in the central 
group of the Loo-Choo Islands. To other localities belong 
only a couple of birds obtained during the voyage in the 
northern group, and a few skins from Tsu-sima. 

7. Merula pallida. 

A female shot on the 30th of March, probably a winter 
visitor. 

8. Merula chrysolaus. 

Four examples. They are said to be vv^inter visitors, from 
November to May. Great numbers passed through on mi- 
gration during March. The most numerous Thrush on the 
islands. 

9. Merula fallens. 
Two examples. 

12. ErITHACUS NAIMIYEI. 

Mr. Hoist has sent two examples of this very distinct 
species, an adult male and an immature male, which, along 
with the adult female in the Pryer collection, make a very 
interesting series. 

The adult male is described as having the irides dark 
brown, the bill jet-black, and the legs flesh-coloured. 

The immature male resembles the female in the colour of 
* See ILis, 1892, p. 575. 



48 Mr. H. Seebohm on the 

the upper parts^ and on the underparts the black feathers of 
the chiu and throat of the adult male are replaced by dark 
brown, margined with grey. 

16. MoNTICOLxV CYANUS. 

Two adult males are typical examples of the Eastern form 
of this species, Monticola cijanus solitarius, with the under- 
parts below the midflle of the breast deep chestnut. 

22. Tarsiger cyanurus. 

Two males, one shot on the 3rd of January and the other 
on the 29th o£ December on Tsu-sima, add another species 
to the list of birds found on that island. 

30. Hypsipetes squamiceps. 

Three examples shot in February and March belong to 
the small race known as Hypsipetes squmniceps pryeri. Two 
of them (males) measure 4*7 inches in length of wing from 
the carpal joint, but the third (a female) is less than any I 
have previously seen, only measuring as follows : wing 4"3, 
tail 3'75 inches, bill -9, tarsus '8 inch. 

32. Zosterops palpebrosa. 

Four examples vary somewhat in size. They are all dark 
in colour. Wing 2*35 to 2*1 inches, bill from frontal fea- 
thers "45 to "35 inch. They evidently belong to a large race 
of Zostei'ojjs palpebrosa simplex. 

38. Acrocepralus orientalis. 

An example was caught on board the steamer on the 24th 
of May about forty miles north of Nase-Osima, one of the 
northern group of the Loo-Choo Islands. 

44. Cettia cantans. 

A female shot on the 3rd of April measures 2*6 inches in 
length of wing and 2' 5 in length of tail. 

45. Cettia cantillans. 

Three examples shot in March and April measure about 
2j inches in length of wing and tail. 

47. CiSTICOLA CISTICOLA. 

Two males in summer plumage, with a buff band across 



Birds of the Loo-Choo Islands. 49 

the tail and no stripes on the crown, are dated 9tli and 11th 
of April. They measure 2*2 and 2' 15 inches in length of 
wing, and may be regarded as belonging to the large race of 
the Eastern form. The exposed part of the bastard primary 
measures '5 inch, and the second primary is "95 longer, and 
only -1 inch shorter than the longest. 

52. Parus atriceps. 

An example shot on the 30th of March is almost typical, 
but a slight shade of green on the mantle shows its affinity 
to Parus atriceps minor. 

53 a. Parus castaneiventer, Gould. 

Two examples, one shot on the 8th of February (wing 2| 
inches) and the other on the 14th (wing 2"9 inches), agree with 
the Formosan P. castaneiventer in having very much less 
chestnut on the mantle than the Japanese species, P. varius. 

61. CoRVUS MACRORHYNCHUS. 

Two examples shot in February belong to the small race 
known as Corvus macrorhynchus levaillanti (wing 12-12^ 
inches; height of upper mandible at centre of nostrils •52-G 
inch) . 

78. PeRICROCOTUS TEGIMiE. 

Two examples (male and female) shot on the 4th of April. 

85. MOTACILLA BOARULA. 

Two examples shot on the 26tli and 27th of January show 
that the Grey Wagtail is a winter visitor to the Loo-Choo 
Islands. 

86 a. MOTACILLA TAIVANA*. 

A very handsome male, with brilliant yellow eye-stripe, 
flew on board the steamer about forty miles north of Nase- 
Osinia, in the northerly group of the Loo-Choo Islands. 
Irides dark brown ; bill black, paler at the base of the lower 
mandible ; legs greyish black. 

92. COCCOTHRAUSTES VULGARIS. 

Two examples shot on the 15th of April may have been 

* ICf. Sharpe, Cat. B. x. p. 514.— Ed.] 
SER. VI. — VOL. V. E 



50 Mr. H. Seebohm on the 

passing through on migration. Two examples from Tsu- 
sima^ shot early in January, make an addition to the known 
birds of that island. 

107. Pyrhhula griseiventris. 

An example from Tsu-sima, shot ou the 29th December, 
adds another species to the list of birds found on that island. 
It is a typical example of the race known as Pyrrhula (jrisei- 
ventris rosacea. 

108. Passer montanus. 

Two examples are typical in colour, both males. 

116. EmbERIZA PERSONATA. 

A male killed on the 4th of April is described as having 
had the irides light yellow; legs flesh-colour; upper man- 
dible brownish black, with a light grey base ; lower brownish, 
with a brownish-yellow base. 

133. Pious noguciiii. 

Saj)heopipo nogiichn, Harg. Cat. B. xviii, p. 378. 

Mr. Hoist has sent an adult male and two adult females 
of this fine species. The irides are described as reddish 
brown and the pupil as blue ; bill pale greyish blue, browuer 
at the base of the upper mandible, and slightly so at the base 
of the under mandible. Legs and feet brownish ^raj. 

The figure of the type (' Ibis,^ 1887, pi. vii.) is a fair repre- 
sentation of the adult, except that the light brown on the 
throat ought to extend further down the middle of the breast 
and the crimson on the underparts is too pronounced on the 
breast, and not brilliant enough on the belly and under tail- 
coverts. In the female there is no crimson on the crown or 
nape. In both sexes the upper parts are much suffused with 
crimson, but there is no crimson on the wing-coverts. 

As regards its generic characters, this bird belongs to the 
group in which the nasal aperture is concealed by bristles ; the 
fourth digit the longest ; the tail much longer than the second 
primary ; the nasal shelf broad ; the nasal aperture low ; the 
chin-angle hidden by bristles, and about halfway between 
the eye and the tip of the bill. In all these respects it agrees 



Birds of the Loo-Choo Islands. 51 

with Piciis major, but it differs from it in having a larger 
bastard primary, whicli varies in length from 1*8 to 1*5 
inch, being considerably less than half of the length of the 
second primary, 

138. Iyngipicus kisuki. 

A female shot on the 7th of February, and two young 
birds caught in the nest on the 27th of April, may be 
referred to the small dark race, Ii/nr/'tpicus kisuki nigrescens. 
Mr. Hargitt has pointed out to me that the Tsu-sirna birds 
belong to the typical form_, and not to the larger paler race 
to which I have erroneously referred them {' Ibis,' 1892, 
p. 95). 

14!2. TURTUR ORIENTALIS. 

A male shot on the 20th of February is a typical example 
of the species. 

146. Treron permagna. 

Two examples (presumably males) measure 8*2 inches 
in length of wing from carpal joint, whilst a third (sexed 
female) measures 7*75. There is no trace of orange on the 
crown of any of them. 

147. COLUMBA lANTHINA. 

On the label of an example shot on the 21st of February 
Mr. Hoist has written " Very rare, but said to be common 
in autumn." 

150. CUCULUS CANORUS. 

An example siiot on the 30th of March measures 8'4 inches 
in length of wing. Tlie dark transverse bars across the lower 
breast and belly are rather broad. 

156. Alcedo tspida. 

Two adults belong to the Eastern race known as Alcedo 
ispida bengalensis. An immature example shot on the 6th 
of May has a much shorter bill, the chestnut on the under- 
parts is suffused with greenish brown, and there is more 
green and less blue on the upper parts. 

r2 



52 Mr. H. Seebohra on the 

167. NiNOX SCUTULATA. 

An example shot on the 15th of April had its stomach full 
of the remains of small beetles. 

168. Scops semitorques. 

Au example from Tsu-sima makes an addition to the list of 
birds found on that island. 

171. Scops pryeri. 

This well-marked species has hitherto only been known 
from two examples, an adult in the Norwich Museum, and 
an immature example in my own collection; it is conse- 
quently very satisfactory to receive an adult male shot on 
the 30th of April. The irides are described as amber- 
coloured, veined nearest to the blue pupil with streaks of 
light yellowish green. The bill is described as greenish 
yellow. This species very closely resembles Scops semi- 
torques, but it has a longer tarsus and a larger foot, and the 
feathering only reaches to the base of the toes. 

178. BUTASTUR INDICUS. 

Two examples, February and March. 

192. ACCIPITER GULARIS. 

A female shot on the 1 9th of April had light yellow irides 
and yellowish-green feet, with black claws. Bill black, basal 
half light blue. 

202. Ardea alba modesta. 

An example shot on the 11th of March has black legs and 
a yellow bill ; wing 14| inches ; irides bright yellow. 

210. Ardea javanica. 

An example shot on the 4th of April (wing from carpal 
joint 8*1 inches) belongs to the large race known as Ardea 
javanica stagnatilis. Irides light yellow ; bill black, except 
the tip and the basal half of the under mandible, which 
are yellowish green ; legs green, shading into rich yellow 
underneath the toes and at the back of the tarsus. 



Bi7'ds of the Loo-Choo Islmids. 53 

255. Mergus serrator. 

A winter visitor; an example shot on the 26th of February. 

288. Larus cachinnans. 

Probably a winter visitor ; an example shot on the 22nd of 
December. 

303. Charadrius fulvus. 

Four examples shot in February appear to belong to the 
typical race (wing from carpal joint 6^ to 6^ inches). Mr. 
Hoist says that they were very common on the sea-shore. 

306. Charadrius minor. 

Winter visitor ; an example shot on the 27th of January. 

309. Charadrius cantianus. 

A female shot at Nagomagiri Choda, on the island of 
Okinawa-sima, on the 9th of February^ is a very remarkable 
bird. On the right foot there is a perfect hallux, with claw 
complete ; on the left foot the hallux is there, but the claw has 
never been developed or has been broken off. The bird 
appears to have very pale legs, and consequently belongs to 
the Chinese race known as Charadrius cantianus dealbatus. 

329. TOTANUS HYPOLEUCUS. 

Two examples (one shot on the 7th of February and the 
other on the 4th of April) appear to be both adult, but the 
April bird is in summer plumage. Compared with the winter 
example, the streaks on the upper breast are far more dis- 
tinct, as are also the dark bars on the upper parts. 

367. Gallinula chloropus. 

An example shot on the 15th of April. 

371 a. PODICEPS CRISTATUS. 

There is no authentic specimens of the Great Crested 
Grebe, so far as I know, to be found in any collection of birds 
from Japan, but an example shot on Tsu-sima in January 
admits the species into the avifauna of the Japanese Empire. 
The example is, of course, in winter plumage, and has white 
lores. 



64 Mr. I''. W. St,y;iii on. new 

V, — On hhw apiKiTcnllij new f^pcnca of /iirfh from Ifainan. 
Hy V. W. Sty AN, F.Z.S. 

Mu. |{. ScuMACJKKR, ol" Sli.'uif^li.'ii, ;i vv(;ll-knowri coricliolo^i.st 
.•iM(l ciiiliuKiasiif; oolUiotor of birds, lias kindly placed in my 
liJiridK :i niitnhcr ()(' l)ird-Hkins from tin; iniorior of Hainan 
oMairnul hy liiw linntiir.s in IH!>1 and 1892. Arnorif:,- tnany 
rare and inicn'siinf^ s|)0(;i('8 r(^j)r(!.s(!nt(;d arc five wliic^Ii a|»|)(!:ir 
!.(» !)(• new l() science, (»r vvliicli dcseripl ions a,r(! a.|)|)(;ti(lc(l. 
Tlie rcs(, oCllie c()ll((!l,i()n I hope io (U-.\\ willi lalcr on. 

1. ( I HAM I NICOLA S'I'UIATA, sp. nOV. ' ' " ^ ■ ''''^i C 

Similar io (J./urnt/f/frusis, hnl, vvilli ilio CcatlicrH of the 
rnmp narrowly si i'eakc< I wil.li l)I;i,('k instead ol' ix-inj:,- nnil'orm, 
tli(! lores and eyebrows pal(; bud' instead of wliiic, and llie 
cjir-covcris lawny bnfl' very narrowly slr(^Mke<l with bbick. 
TIk! p;i,l(; lips of IIk; reel,ri(;es an; iawny on llie onler and 
p;ile bud' on I Ik; inn<;r webs. 

({ . Lenf^lb Of) in., win};' Ji'.'.T), fail 'V2, tarsus ()\)^ 
eulm(;n ()(>. 

Otily two specimens oblnincd. 

2. i'lNAiroc icni.A scn.MACKDiM, sp. nov. 

I'\)rclica,(l, crown, and (trest rnfons brown ; mantle f^rc(>nisli 
oliv(;, sliadin}; into olive-brown on ili(! lower buck and 
riniip ; npper t;iii-eov(!rls de(;p rnfons brown. Tail, nppei- 
snrfMcc; didl I'nCons brown j mider snrra('(! |)aler with shinin;; 
};(iiden brown shid'ts ; no pale tips. Primaries and sceond- 
aiies deep bi-o\vn, with olive-brown c(l};in};s on tin; outer 
vvel)s ; };reater win};-coverts similar, Icssci" wing-eovci'ls and 
HC.-ipniars like the mantle. Lores, (lycibrows, sides of Cacc;, 
(•hecks, and c;ir-covcils dusky >^i'cy streaked with blackish, 
the e;ir-coverts vva>hed with rnfons. Throat and lore n(!ck 
didl while ; breast dusky olive-j^rcy streaked with olive-yellow, 
sliadiu};- into clearer yellow on the; abdonuMi and brij^ht bull' 
on I lie iindei' lail-covcrls ; Hanks like the bi'cast but r.ilher 
daikei". Under win^^-coverts pale biilT, I Ik; l{>ast (nies 
yellowish, axiilaiics olive-yellow ; under surface of winj''- 
i'eallicrs pale bud" on ed};(:s ol' iniu-r webs of secondaries ainl 



li'irds I'roiii Ihi'iiKiii. 55 

l);is;il li.'ilvcs of inner (mIj^^cs oI" priinnfics. liC^s ;ui(l cliivv.s 
(ill skin) (lc(;|> hi'own. Cnhncn l)l;ick, p.-ilcr ;i,l, (,i|> ; lower 
in;in(lil)l(' lioni-eoloiir, |);il(; ;il, \y,\sv.. Iris (l;ii"k hrown. 

hen-Ill KUiii., win-' l-.^, liiil {-.'in, eiilmen ()-7, liirsiis ()H5. 

Sevei';il speeiinens (Voin IIk; inlcrior of llie island. Tliis 
liird is readily (lisl,in;^iiislial)l<! IVoni /'. ciiiililosii hy Hie 
uhseiuM; of \vliit(; lips on llie recli'ices. 

.'{. ('hvi'toloi'ii A iticoi.on, sp. iiov. 

Cj!(;n(;ra1 colour ahovi; lirij^lil; {^'nu'iiisli yellow, hri^lilcr on 
lower liack ;ui(l riiiiip ; heiieal.li ;.;reyisli while vc'i'y ("ainlly 
waslu^d willi y(tllow, raldier (dearer on Idie lliroal, and (;enl,r(; 
of l,li(! ahdoiiKUi ; (lanks and tlii^lis sli^liUy vvuslic^d witli 
yt^llow; under l,ail-eoverl,s bri^lil, siilpluir-yellow. Lores, 
Ceailiers round llie eye, si(l(!s of ^-.wv., and (!ar-(;overLs dusky 
wliil(5 like tin; utuhjrpai'ls. I''eal,li(;rs of Idic (!rown willi 
narrow dark slial'l.-slrc^aksj and eloii;^a,l.ed inio a vvell-nia,ik(;d 
(;r(!st. I*riiiiari(;s hiaekisli, oui.ei' vvehs l)ri;j,lil, ^reeiiisli yellow, 
basal portion of iiin(!r webs ed^cid wilJi bri^lil, snlpliiir-yellow; 
seeoiidaries siinilar, willi llie inner webs (;d;^-ed lor llie whole 
lenj^ili ; inimrrnosl scieoiidai'ies entirely }^r(;(;nisli yellow, 
'rail-leatliers entirely bi'i^lit {greenish yellow, with ed;^iii{;-.s 
ol' sul|)linr-y(;llow on the inner webs. Under winj^-eoverts 
sul|)liur-yellow, axillai'ies white washed with yellow. lii';.^H, 
feet, and elaws (in skin) |)ale fleshy brown. liill pah; horn, 
(lark(;r on upper niandibh;. 

({ . Lcnf^tii 4-.'j5 in., win;.;- .'i-lo, tail I !), tarsus 0(;5, 
eiilinen ()r>. 

Sev(;ral s[)e(;iniens Ironi tin; interior olilained in May. 

4. CRYrHIIllllNA NKillA, sp. IIOV. 

l']iitir(! |)lurria;;(! (!e(;p sooty blaek, wilh a blue (n(;lallie j^loss 
on the (;i'owii, wiii^s, and tail. Tail-feiithers spatiilate and 
deeply not(;h(;d at the lip; as, however, they are all iiiiieh 
abra(i(;d, it is dillieiilt to say how rniudi ol' t!u; notchin;^ is 
due to nature and how iiiiieh to accident. 

I plaee this bird in the ^cnits (/ryps'irliiiiu, but it is not 
irii|)robable thai a n(;vv {;(;niis may have to b(; ci'eated lor it. 
The lorehead, lores, and eliin are ((jvered by a thick liil'l of 



56 On new Birds from Hainan. 

bristly feathers, and between the eye and the gape is a small 
triangular bare patch, which, however, may be due to the 
worn condition of the skin. 

cJ. Length 12*25 in., tail 7"5, outermost feathers 2*8, 
culmen 1, wing 4*7, tarsus 1. 

Bill, feet, and claws black. Iris magenta. 

One specimen only from the interior, dated 12th December. 

5. Arboricola ardens, sp. nov. 

Upper parts, including back, scapulars, and rump, olive- 
brown, regularly barred with black ; crown of head and nape 
more rufous brown, and the barring so small as to have a 
spotted character. Forehead, lores, chin, throat, sides o£ 
face above and beneath the eye, and sides of neck black ; ear- 
coverts black, except basal half, which is pale buff with a 
vinous tinge ; the black of the throat consists of spots through 
which a reddish-buff ground appears. Above the black eye- 
brow a narrow streak of pale vinous buff. On the lower throat 
and upper breast a patch of lanceolate feathers of flaming 
scarlet, the same colour extending in the form of a collar 
round the hind neck, where it is paler, more orange, and over- 
laid with black spots. Breast and sides of body bluish grey 
washed with earthy brown, the flank-feathers with white 
shaft-streaks. Centre of body and abdomen huffy white, 
washed, like the centre of the breast, with vinous. Thighs huffy 
white. Under tail-coverts earthy brown, mottled with black 
and tipped with white. Primaries and bastard wing dark 
brown, the former slightly edged at the extremities witii pale 
brown. Secondaries dark brown, edged externally with pale 
rufous brown, these edgings broader and more rufous on the 
inner feathers. Tertiaries, basal portion rufous, followed by 
a band of pale olive-brown, a subterminal black bar, and a 
rufous tip. The inner secondaries are similarly marked at 
the extremity and also the greater coverts, the result being 
to give the closed wing the appearance of having three series 
of bars of these colours. Under wing-coverts greyish brown, 
tipped with white ; least series all white. Tail wanting. Beak 
black. Legs^ feet, and claws (in skin) golden brown. Length 



Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 57 

apparently about 9 in._, wing 4'8, tarsus 1*3^ beak from 
gape "85. Iris black. 

One specimen only^ from the interior^ in bad condition 
and without the tail ; it is sexed as female and has no spurs, 
but the bright plumage would lead one to think it a male. 

Shanghai, 11th August, 1892. 



VI. — On the Birds of Aden. 
By Lieut. H. E. Barnks, F.Z.S. 

(Plate IV.) 

Aden is situated on the south coast of Arabia, in the province 
of Yemen (the Arabia Felix of the Ancients), and is 118 miles 
east of the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, in latitude 12° 47' N., 
and longitude 45° 0' E. 

The settlement consists of two small rocky peninsulas, 
Aden proper on the east and Little Aden on the west, sepa- 
rated by a bay forming the harbour, and a strip of land on 
the Arabian coast, about six miles long and three broad. 
The total area is about 70 square miles. 

The inhabited part, known as Aden proper, is a high rocky 
peninsula, almost an island, and is connected with the main- 
land by a narrow, flat, sandy isthmus. It is about five miles 
long and three wide, and consists of hills of bare brown rock, 
the highest, Shum-shum, attaining a height of 1760 feet. Its 
volcanic origin is shown by the existence of a large extinct 
crater situated at the north-east corner. From this spurs 
project in all directions into the sea, and the surface is much 
broken up and is uninhabitable, except in a kw places. 

The lava is of different colours, but brown and grey pre- 
dominate. Gypsum and pumice-stone are also found, and 
several thousand tons of the latter are annually exported to 
Bombay. 

The hills are not so bare of vegetation as at a distance 
they appear to be. After a fall of rain (of late years no 
uncommon occurrence) patches of verdure appear; and if the 



58 Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 

fall has been heavy or continuous^ the hill-sides are soon 
covered with a mantle of green, consisting principally of wild 
portulaca. 

To one who, like myself, has revisited the settlement after 
a lapse of 25 years the recent change in the climate is very 
noticeable. During my first stay in Aden (1866-7-8) it 
rained but once, yet this was sufficient to fill the tanks ; 
while during my last stay (1890-1-2) it rained frequently, 
more often during the prevalence of the south-west monsoon. 

Mammal-life is not very abundant in Aden — a few foxes, 
dogs, and an occasional jackal are to be met with, and I 
believe that a small colony of monkeys eke out a scanty 
existence in the ravines near the summit of Shum-shum. 
Insect-life is abundant, and there are a few snakes, some of 
which are venomous. 

The resident species of birds are few in number — kites, 
rock-chats, doves, and pigeons being most numerous. 

Fishes are good and plentiful, give fair sport, and afford 
a welcome addition to the scanty fare of the settlement. 
Lobsters, crabs, and oysters, as well as other shell-fish, should 
be avoided by those who wish to keep their health. 

At the last census the population, including 7000 at Shaik 
Othman, was upwards of 38,000, in addition to the floating 
population amounting to 2000, making 40,000 in all. 

The majority of the inhabitants consist of Arabs and 
Somalis in about equal numbers. They have mostly been 
born in the settlement, but many are immigrants from 
Yemen and from the opposite African coast ; as a rule, how- 
ever, the latter are only temporary residents. 

These two races differ considerably in appearance : the 
Arabs are short, sturdy, and muscular, with light brown 
complexions ; on the other hand, the Somalis are tall, 
thin, and Aveak, and black in colour. In religion both are 
Mahomedans. 

Other races in Aden are Turks, Persians, Egyptians, 
Seedees, Hindoos, a few Chinese, and Europeans of all nations. 
The principal shopkeepers are Parsees. The Jews, who hold a 
monopoly of the feather-trade, are a very distinct people and 



Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 59 

have the usual characteristics of their race fully developed. 
There are but few non-official Europeans^ and these are mostly- 
engaged in commerce. 

The water-supply of Aden is obtained from several sources^ 
the chief being the condensers^ of which there are several, 
belonging both to Government and to private individuals. 
The supply next in importance is the aqueduct from Shaik 
Othman, completed in 1867, the water of which becomes 
slightly brackish en route and among Europeans is used 
only for ablution. The remaining sources are the wells and 
tanks dependent upon the rainfall ; but the water in most of 
the former is brackish and unfit for drinking and cooking 
purposes. 

Cattle and sheep of good quality are imported from Ber- 
bera and other adjacent African ports ; the few coming from 
the interior of Arabia are not so good. The sheep are noted 
for the amount of fat in their tails, and a belief is prevalent 
amongst the soldiers of the garrison that this is due to the 
sheep always grazing uphill, which causes the fat to accumu- 
late in that portion of their bodies (this may be taken cum 
grano salts). A good tail will weigh three or four pounds, 
and is pure, but somewhat oily, fat, never becoming solid or 
suet-like. 

There is a considerable sea-trade carried on by small 
steamers and buggalows, the chief articles being coffee, hides, 
gum, shells, and feathers. 

The salt-works at the head of the harbour, near Shaik 
Othman, are extensive, and the huge glittering heaps of salt 
and tall windmills are conspicuous objects to any one 
driving along the Malla Road. These works were established 
in 1875, and in the hands of an Italian company have proved 
a great success. 

The climate is not so bad as represented; from October to 
April it is fairly cool, the thermometer ranging from 75° to 
85°. The most trying and dangerous periods are May and 
September, as during these two months there is no breeze, 
and the temperature is very high, ranging from 90° at night 
to over 100° in the daytime. 



60 Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 

The south-west monsoon commences early in June and 
continues until the end o£ August^ and during this time dust- 
storms are prevalent and disagreeable. 

In approaching Aden the first object that catches the eye 
is the peak of Shum-shum, which is used as a signal- station 
for the shipping. As you come from the Indian Ocean, 
Marshag Lighthouse, Elephant Point, Goldmore Valley, and 
Capes Boradli and Tarshine are passed in succession before 
the entrance to the harbour is reached. As you enter from 
the Red Sea, Little Aden is passed. 

The harbour is eight miles long from east to west and 
four miles from north to south, the entrance between Ras 
Tarshine and Little Aden being about three and a half 
miles across ; it consists of two portions, the outer and the 
inner harbour. The inner harbour, which is nearly land- 
locked, is bounded on the east by the Isthmus. The depth 
of water at low tide in the outer harbour varies from five 
fathoms at the entrance to about three in the western part ; 
outside to a distance of two miles it is about ten or twelve 
fathoms. 

There are several islands in the harbour, the two principal 
being Slave Island, near the Isthmus, and Quarantine Island, 
near the landing-pier. 

The principal sight in Aden is the system of water-tanks, 
thirteen in number, which contain, when full, about 8,000,000 
gallons of water. There is no trustworthy record of their 
origin, but they are supposed to have been commenced about 
600 A.D., at the time of the second Persian invasion. It is 
impossible to give such a description of these tanks as would 
enable one who had not seen them to form a correct idea as 
to what they are like. The Shum-shum Hills are nearly 
circular, and on one side the rain-water rushes into the sea 
down narrow valleys and gorges ; on the eastern side the 
hills are precipitous, but are broken about halfway down by 
a tableland, Avhich is crossed by numerous ravines converging 
into the valley, so that a moderate fall of rain is sufficient to 
send a torrent of water down the valley into the sea. 

To collect and store as much of this water as possible 



Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 61 

these tanks have been constructed, and every salient feature 
of the rocks has been taken advantage of, in some cases by 
the removal of soil, in others by the construction of bands 
or Trails of masonry across the gorges. These reservoirs are 
so constructed that the overflow of one is conducted into the 
next, and thus as little water as possible is lost. 

Trees have been planted around these tanks and arc now 
in a flourishing condition, converting an otherwise arid spot 
into an oasis of verdure, largely patronized by promenaders. 

The greater portion of the garrison is quartered at the 
Camp, usually called the Crater ; another portion, principally 
garrison artillery, is stationed at Steamer Point (where also 
is the sanitarium) ; and a section is located at the Isthmus. 
This last is reputably the most unhealthy part of the 
settlement, probably owing to its ground-level being only 
about three feet above the sea. 

The landing-pier is at Steamer Point; the road to the 
west leads to Ras Morbat and then branches ofl' in two 
directions — one leading to the Residency and Ras Tarshine ; 
the other to Ras Boradli, which is the head-quarters of the 
Eastern Telegraph Company and overlooks Goldmore Valley. 
Both Ras Morbat and Ras Tarshine are strongly fortified. 
The road to the east of the landing-pier leads along the 
crescent, through the Hedjuff Pass (which is also now strongly 
fortified), then for two miles along the Malla plain, passing 
through the village of Malla, which is the principal seat of 
the coasting trade, then ascends by a steep zigzag, which is 
in charge of a strong military guard. 

The descent to the Crater commences as soon as the gate 
is passed, and for a short distance is very steep. After 
emerging from the Main Pass the town of Aden comes 
into view, the road passing along under the fortified Mun- 
soorie Heights, having Shum-shum on the right. The road to 
the Tanks turns off at right angles, but the main road leads 
past the native town, having the barracks on the left, through 
the South Pass (which is defended by a drawbridge) to 
Holket Bay. Further than this carriages cannot go, the 
ascent to Ras Marshag having to be accomplished on foot. 



62 Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 

Another road branches off at the foot of the Main Pass 
and leads along the causeway^ on the western side of the 
Isthmus^ through the Barrier Gate, giving access to the 
mainland. About three miles out Khor Maksor is reached, 
and here the Aden Troup of Cavalry is quartered. The polo- 
ground is also situated here. Another mile onward the salt- 
works previously alluded to are reached, and one more mile 
brings us to Shaik Othman, which is the limit of British 
territory. 

The Isthmus is entered on its western side through a 
massive gate placed in a gap in a spur running from the 
Munsoorie Height, on the top of a detached portion of 
which is the fortress known as the Last Retreat, or Jebel 
Hadeed. The Isthmus is divided into two unequal portions 
by another spur from Munsoorie ; the larger portion is 
occupied by the barracks and the rifle-range. The aqueduct 
ends here. 

A short tunnel has been pierced through this spur, giving 
access to the smaller portion, in which is situated the Arsenal. 
The Camp is reached thence through a tunnel 350 yards 
long, excavated through solid rock and sufficiently wide to 
admit of wheeled traffic. 

On the opposite side of the harbour, near Huswa, is 
a river-bed which is generally dry, containing only an 
occasional pool of water, but after rain it rapidly fills and 
discharges into the harbour. 

I think I have now said enough to enable every one to 
form a fair idea of what Aden is like geographically and 
climatically, and a reference to the accompanying map 
(Plate IV.) will, I hope, render it even more intelligible. 

I regret to have been able to add so little to the knowledge 
of the Avifauna of Aden, but my duties kept me employed 
from an early hour in the morning until late in the evening, 
and it was only on Sundays that I could get out, and even 
then only after 9 or 10 a.m. I could obtain little or no assist- 
ance from native sources, and had not others who had more 
leisure at their command kindly assisted me^ the results 
would have been still more meagre. 



Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 63 

I liad intended on my relief to have taken three months' 
leave^ which I should have devoted to systematically 
working up the avifauna ; but owing to an unfortunate 
accident I was seriously ill for a time and temporarily lost 
the use of my hand, even now having only partially reco- 
vered the use of it, and I cannot hope for any further 
improvement. 

Had I been able to carry out my intention I have no 
doubt my list would have been almost doubled — to some 
extent by shore and water-birds, but principally by birds 
from the Lahej district. 

I can only hope that my paper will prove a useful supple- 
ment to Major Yerbury^s account published in the ' Ibis '' 
for 1886 (p. 11). 

1. Gyps fulvus (Gm.). 

I first observed a pair of Griffon Vultures on the 4th 
January. They were soaring at a great height, over Marshag 
and Holket Bay, in company with an Eagle or two, and a 
number of Neophrons and Kites. I could not at the time 
distinguish their species. 

Later, in February and March, they become very common : 
I have counted as many as twelve together, disputing over 
sheep and cattle oflFal and other such-like toothsome morsels, 
on the rubbish-heaps in Holket Bay. 

At the end of March they disappear, and do not return 
again until the cold season has well set in. I do not think 
that any of them breed at Aden ; but the adjacent inacces- 
sible cliffs offer such splendid building-sites that I should 
not be surprised to learn that they do so, since the cold 
weather is the season that Indian Vultures choose lor 
nesting. 

One caught alive was taken to Mr. Still, of Messrs. Luke 
Thomases firm at Hedjuft'; he had it confined in a large 
portable sheep-pen, one of those in use on board ship. It 
ate greedily all suitable food offered it, but remained quite 
fierce, sullen, and untamable. When I left Aden some 
months later it was still alive, and Mr. Still expressed his 



64 Lieut, H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 

intention of sending it to the Zoological Society of London, 
as soon as lie could make satisfactory arrangements. 

2. Neophron percnopterus (Linn.). 

I do not agree with Major Yerbury in thinking that the 
Egyptian Vulture is a permanent resident, as during June, 
July, and August scarcely one can be seen, but before and 
after these months they are very common. Many white 
birds on their return in October are accompanied by others 
in the nesting-plumage. This certainly goes to prove that 
most of them leave us for breeding purposes, but some few 
may, and possibly do, remain all the year round. 

They roost at night in caves in the high cliffs near the 
Main Pass Gate and other suitable places, and the cliffs at 
these spots are conspicuously whitened by their droppings. 

Of the other two species of Vulture believed by Major 
Yerbury to occur in the neighbourhood of Aden, one is 
possibly Gyps fulvus, already mentioned, and the other 
immature specimens of Neophi-on percnopterus. 

Captain Bishop, the Port Officer, first drew my attention 
to the fact that the birds left us in the commencement of 
June, and in his opinion not a single Neophron ever remains 
to breed at Aden. 

3. Falco peregrinus, Tunst. 

I frequently observed a pair of birds, near the Main Pass 
Gate, which I think were Peregrine Falcons, and regret that 
I did not shoot one of them to make sure ; but the fact is 
that the birds resident in Aden are so few in number that 
I did not care to shoot even one unnecessarily. 

I am of opinion that they had a brood close by, but the 
rocks were inaccessible, and as I never saw more than the 
pair I cannot be certain. I could see sticks projecting 
from a ledge of rock which they much aflFected ; still this 
may only have been an old nest belonging to a Kite. 

4. Falco barbarus, Linn. 

A female specimen obtained near Lahej, on the 23rd 
October, which I doubtfully identified as Falco peregrinus^ 



Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 65 

on examination by Dr. Bowdler Sharpe was found to be the 
Barbary Falcon *. 

The following dimensions were taken in the flesh : — Length 
16'4 inches, expanse 34 "25, wing 12, tarsus 1"9, bill from 
gape 1. The bill was horny black, bluish at base; legs and 
feet lemon-yellow ; claws blackish. 

This was the only specimen seen. 

5. TiNNUNCULUS ALAUDARIUS (Gm.). 

The Kestrel appears to be a permanent resident, as I have 
met with it at almost all seasons. It is not very common, 
but one pair may frequently be met with on the high cliffs 
bordering the Malla Plain, where in all probability they 
breed ; and another pair near Elephant Rock in Gold more 
Valley. 

They appear to be very fond of locusts, which on several 
occasions during my stay swarmed over the place. The 
lower class of Arabs are also fond of these locusts, often 
eating them alive, merely plucking off the wings. 

6. AcciPiTER Nisus (Linn.). 

I think that the Accipiter mentioned by Major Yerbury is 
the European Sparrow-Hawk. 

I saw a pair at the Crater Position, on 31st July. They 
were swooping at the Pigeons in the Public Works Depart- 
ment Store-yard. I watched them for some time^ but they 
did not succeed in making a capture. 

On several occasions I have seen what I took to be the 
same pair, but always at too great a distance to distinguish 
them with any certainty. 

7. Aquila chrysaetos (Linn.). 

I saw a pair of very large Eagles in Holket Bay on the 
15th February, and on several occasions since; but 1 did not 
shoot one, as I should have had no time to preserve the skin. 
They were in company with Vultures, Neophrons, Kites, 

* [Lord Lilford, who has also examined this specimen, refers it to Falco 
punicus (cf. Gurney, List of Dim-n. B. of Prey, p. 107). — Ed.] 
SER. VI. — VOL. V. F 



66 Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 

and the Eagles mentioned below, all feeding on carrion, a 
plentiful supply of wliicli is usually to be found there. They 
remained only during the cold weather. 

8. Aquila imperialis (Bechst.). 

Not uncommon. I observed the first one, a solitary speci- 
men, seated on a projecting rock at the Hedjuff, on the 30th 
October. I did not see another until the 1.2tli December; 
this one, probably the same bird, was seated on the cliffs, 
just under the Residency Buildings, at Ras Tarshine, 
Steamer Point. 

On the 15th February I saw no less than five at Holket 
Bay, and these remained up to the end of March. 

9. Pandion HALiAJiTus, Liuu. 

Tlie Osprey is fairly common, and is, I think, a permanent 
resident. A pair frequented Elephant Rock and its vicinity. 
I found what I believed was their eyrie on the top of this 
rock ; it appeared to be empty at the time, although the 
birds were sitting close by, but I could not climb the rock, 
although I tried ; a friend who managed to get up somewhat 
higher- than I did, missed his footing and had a bad fall. 
Another pair was always to be found on the rocks near 
Marshag Lighthouse, and an odd bird was often seen on the 
cross-trees of the flagstaff at Ras Morbat. 

Captain Bishop informed me that a pair of Ospreys 
attempted to build a nest on the signalling flagstaff on 
Barrack Hill in 1889, and it was as much as his establish- 
ment could do to prevent them. 

They persisted for several days, although the sticks they 
collected were continually thrown down by the signalling 
Lascars. I have often seen an Osprey sitting on this flagstaff, 
but witnessed no attempt at building there ; I suppose they 
were satisfied, or rather dissatisfied, with their efforts in 1889. 

10. Haliaetus leucogaster (Gm.). 

I saw an immature specimen of the White-bellied Sea- 
Eagle on the 19th October; it sailed slowly across Pilot Bay 
and went towards Goldmore Valley. It came very close to 



Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 67 

where T was fishing, and I had a good view of it. I never 
met with another. 

11. Melierax folyzonus (Riipp.). 

A specimen of the bird alluded to by Major Yerbury {' Ibis/ 
1886, p. 14) as "the handsome blue-grey Harrier with 
black-tipped wings ^^ was procured at Lahej by Surgeon- 
Captain Bartlett on the 21st October. The bird was in a 
decomposed state when it reached me, but I preserved the 
specimen, as it was quite unknown to me. Dr. Bartlett 
informed me that the birds were fairly common at Lahej. 

The specimen was submitted to Dr. Bowdler Sharpe for 
identification. 

The following measurements were taken in the flesh : — 
Length 18*5 inches, expanse 37, wing 11*75, tail 8, tarsus 3, 
bill from gape 1'32. Bill blackish horny ; cere deep orange ; 
legs orange. 

12. MiLVUS iEGYPTIUS (Gm.). 

The Egyptian Kite is very common and is a permanent 
resident, breeding from early in January to the middle of 
April. The nests are placed on ledges of cliS's or in niches 
of buildings. Several nests are built every year on the 
sloping roof of the Camp Church, resting against the sup- 
porting buttresses, which are carried up rather higher than 
the eaves ; the position seems so precarious that it is a 
wonder that the nests are not blown down. 

The eggs, two in number, do not differ in any respect from 
those of Milvus yovinda : they measure about 2 inches in 
length, by rather more than 1-75 in breadth; in colour they 
are pale greyish white, more or less spotted and blotched 
with dingy red-brown. 

13. Elanus CiERULEus (Dcsf.) . 

The Black-winged Kite occurs occasionally at Lahej and 
further inland ; it has been but seldom seen in Aden proper. 
I met with it in Goldmore Valley early in February. 

One procured at Shaik Othman measured : — Length 13 
inches, expanse 33, wing 11*15, tail 5*75, tarsus 1*25, bill at 
front 0*8, bill at gape 1*1. Bill black; cere wax-yellow ; 

i?2 



68 Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 

feet wax-yellow ; claws black ; iris ricli orange-yellow (most 
probably crimson when fresh). The specimen reached me 
three days after it was shot, and was in a putrid condition. 

14. Strix plammeAj Linn. 

The Barn-Owl is not uncommon in Aden, and is often 
captured by the Arabs and offered for sale. Four were 
caught on the 14th October in a small cave on Ras Morbat, 
and sold to people living on the hill, and I have often met 
with them since. I examined one very carefully, and am 
sure that they do not differ in the least from the Common 
Barn-Owl of Europe. 

15. Carine, sp. inc. 

I twice saw an Owlet at Shaik Othman, but on both occa- 
sions failed to secure it. I think I saw one at Hedjuff, but 
it may have been the following bird, as it w^as quite dusk at 
the time. 

16. Scops giu (Scop.). 

A small tufted Owl, which I could not identify, was found, 
on inspection by Dr. Bowdler Sharpe, to be Scops giu ; it 
was caught at Ras Boradli on the 28th September. It had 
hidden itself behind a row of cells in a battery, in a room 
belonging to the Eastern Telegraph Company. 

It measured : — Length 8'75 inches, expanse 17*5, wing 5*8, 
tail 3-3, tarsus 0-85, bill at front 0-8, bill at gape 0-9. Bill 
black ; legs and feet dusky red. This u as the only one 
obtained, but several of my friends of the Eastern Telegraph 
Company speak of having occasionally seen a small Owl, 
both on Ras Boradli and in Goldmore Valley, just below. 

17. HiRUNDO RusTicA, Linn. 

The Chimney Swallow is not very common, and, as a rule, 
is only found immediately after rough weather, but some few 
do remain to breed, as I found a nest containing three eggs 
under the verandah in the upper story of one of the hotels 
at Steamer Point. 

The eggs do not differ in any respect from others in my 
collection, taken personally in England and in Afghanistan. 



Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 69 

They are slightly elongated ovals in shape, and measure 0*71 
inch in length by about 0*5 in breadth. The ground-colour 
is white, speckled and spotted with red-brown, more densely 
so at the large end. 

The appearance of these birds is not confined to any one 
period of the year ; I find from my notes that I have observed 
them in May, July, August, and December. 

18. COTYLE OBSOLETAj Cab. 

The Pale Crag-Martin is a common permanent resident, 
breeding freely in the caves, in the face of cliffs, generally in 
inaccessible places. I tried to get eggs, and have offered 
good prices to Arab and Somali boys for them, but without 
success. I have several times managed to climb up to nests, 
only to find them either empty or containing young. On 
one occasion only was I rewarded by finding an addled egg, in 
company with some unfledged nestlings. This egg is similar 
to, but rather larger than, the egg of Cotyle concolor. 

They seem to breed throughout the year, as I have seen 
nests in February, May, July, and October. 

19. Cypselus, sp. inc. 

Swifts of some kind are not uncommon at Aden ; they do 
not stay any length of time, but appear at intervals, from 
the end of August to about the middle of October, generally 
after roughish weather ; I have not seen them during the 
remaining months. 

I do not think that any of them breed in Aden, but there 
are many places between Goldmore Valley and Fisherman's 
Bay which are well suited to them, and as these places are 
seldom or never visited by Europeans, the fact of their 
breeding there would easily escape notice. 

20. Caprimulgus, sp. inc. 

This is another by no means uncommon bird that I 
neglected to secure. I saw one at the Isthmus Position on 
the 30tli September. I turned up two more on the 15th 
October, on Chapel Hill. I made a careful search, but I 
could not discover either eggs or nestlings, although I have 



70 Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 

no doubt, from the peculiar action of the birds, that they had 
a family near. 

A fourth came on board the Indian Marine steamer 
' Canning/ about 40 miles from Aden, as she was returning 
from Berbera, when I was on board. It appeared to be very 
tired, but the Lascars were unable to catch it. The weather 
was rough, it being the middle of the south-west monsoon 
(end of July) . 

21. Merops cyanophrys (Cab. et Heine). 

This little Bee-eater is very common inland, and is a per- 
manent resident, breeding freely in holes, which it makes in 
the river bank at Huswah, on the opposite side of the harbour. 
Most of my specimens were procured there. They occa- 
sionally visit the tanks, but do not remain long, there being 
no suitable places for nesting. 

The following measurements were taken in the flesh : — 
Length, including central tail-feathers, 8-2 inches, expanse 
11, wing 3-75, tarsus 0*4, bill at front 0-9, bill at gape 1-4. 
Bill, legs, and feet black ; iris pale orange. 

22. Merops peesicus. Pall. 

I only met with the Egyptian Bee-eater on one occasion ; 
this was on the 20th September, when they appeared in 
hundreds all over Aden; they only remained about two 
hours. I could not procure a specimen, as I had no gun 
with me, and as I was on duty I could not leave ; I sent an 
Arab on the errand, but he was delayed by an officious 
policeman wishing to arrest him for carrying arms without a 
permit, who detained him so long that by the time he reached 
me with the gun the birds had all disappeared. I feel sure 
that I have identified the bird correctly, as it is one with 
which I am well acquainted. 

Mr. Caine, of the Eastern Telegraph Company, showed me 
Che remains of the skin of one which he had procured some 
three years previously, when, he informs me, a somewhat 
similar migration occurred. This must be the large Bee- 
eater alluded to by Major Yerbury (' Ibis,' 1886, p. 15). 



Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 71. 

23. Merops, sp. inc. 

I saw a Bee-eater on the 16th March perching on the 
telegraph wires near the Roman Catholic Chapel. I was 
on a road lower down, and before I got to the place it was 
gone. On my return later in the day, I observed it perched 
on a gravestone in the cemetery, from which it made fre- 
quent sallies after grasshoppers, returning each time to the 
same gravestone. It was rather larger than M. cyanophrys, 
but not so large as M. persicus ; it appeared to have a blue 
cap and a dark blue moustachial streak, but as the sun was 
shining on it I could not distinguish the colours easily. 

Captain Light, in a note to me, describes a bird that 
visited his compound about a week later; this may have 
been the same bird, his compound being only a very short 
distance away. His description is as follows : — '' Beak 
black, about I'o inch long [this is mere guesswork^ as he 
neither shot nor captured the bird] , and slightly curved ; 
top of head reddish grey ; breast and neck greyish white ; 
thin band of black from beak to eye^ and another round 
neck. Back^ upper part, light grass-green, gradually going 
off into metallic blue ; tail three or four inches long and 
pointed. Catches grasshoppers and insects flying." 

Too much stress must not be laid on these colours ; as, 
seen in bright sunshine, they are apt to be very deceptive. 

24. CoRACiAs GARRULUs, Linn. 

• The European Roller, or " Blue Jay," as it is usually 
called, is fairly common inland, and is frequently found in 
Aden itself ; I do not think that any remain to breed, as I 
have notes of their occurrence from October to the end of 
April only. A pair w^as frequently seen in Gold more Valley 
during the cold weather, and I was in hopes that they would 
breed, but they left as soon as the hot season had well set 
in. A single bird took up his quarters in the tank gardens 
for some weeks. Besides these, many occasional specimens 
have been noted, both by myself and others. 

One shot on the 23rd October measured as follows : — 
Length 12"75 inches, expanse 21*5, wing 7'G, tail 5-1, 



72 Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 

tarsus 0*8, bill from gape 1*65^ hill at front ri5. The bill 
was blackish ; legs and feet yellowish brown ; iris reddish 
brown. This bird was an immature female. 

25. CoRACiAs ABYssiNicus, Bodd. 

A Long-tailed Roller was seen and shot by Surgeon-Cap- 
tain Bartlett, near Lahcj, on the 26th October, but unfor- 
tunately it fell into an impenetrable mass of thorny jungle, 
and although he tried for some time he could not get it ; 
the bird therefore still remains undetermined, but in all 
probability it is the same as that alluded to by Major 
Yerbury in his paper on the birds of Aden (' Ibis,' 1886, p. 15) . 

26. Halcyon semic^eruleus (Forsk.). 

A specimen of this Kingfisher was caught on the 23rd 
January by Mr. Thompson, in the commissariat condensing 
shed at Seera ; it was a female. The male Avas caught a day 
or two later, but the man who caught it pulled out the wing- 
feathers and spoilt it. Another specimen was captured on 
a ship in the harbour about the same time, but I had no 
opportunity of examining it. 

The bird measured as follows : — Length 8'6 inches, expanse 
14-3, wing 4-2, tail 2-5, tarsus 0-55, bill at front 1-6, bill at 
gape 2*05. Bill and feet coral-red. 

27. CucuLUs CANORUs, Liuu. 

I first heard the Cuckoo on the 2 1th August ; on the 
next day a pair was seen on the top of a cliff near the 
Government condenser at Seera; they, or at least one of 
them, continued calling at intervals for several days. I tried 
to shoot one, but could not, as, when seen, they were always 
on the top of some inaccessible rock and out of range. 
However, I found one on the 31st of August, lying in an 
exhausted and dying condition, on the stone steps leading to 
my quarters. It was in a dreadfully emaciated state and its 
stomach was quite empty. 

Its measurements, taken in the flesh, were as follows : — 
Length 13 inches, expanse 23*25, wing 8*5, tail 6*5, tarsus 
0-8, bill at front 0-8, bill at gape la. 

I omitted to note the colours of the soft parts, but in the 



Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 73 

dry skin the bill is horny brown, and the legs and feet are 
dirty waxy yellow. 

28. CoccYSTKs, sp. inc. 

I saw a Ci'ested Cuckoo flying towards the tanks on the 
morning of the 1 1th June. I could not get away at the time, 
but spent the whole afternoon searching unsuccessfully for it. 

Personally T have never seen another, but on two separate 
occasions, during the same month, I have had a similar bird 
described to nie by friends who had observed it — one at 
Steamer Point, near Ras Boradli, and the other on the Malla 
Plain. 

29. Centropus, sp. inc. 

I caught a glimpse of a bird skulking amongst salsola 
jungle, near Shaik Othman, that may have been the Crow- 
Pheasant spoken of by INIajor Yerbury Q Ibis,^ 188(5, p. 15) as 
occurring occasionally in thick jungli' inland. It was too far 
away from me to be cpiite sure, and the bird (lisapi)eared 
immediately it was observed, and although, with the lu'l|) of 
half a dozen Arabs, I had the place carefully beaten, 1 did 
not sec it again. 

30. Nectahinia metalltca, Licht. 

I met with a Sun-bird, probably of this species, at Iluswah 
in December. As it was not in nuptial plumage, I did not 
preserve it, as I hoped to meet with a better specimen in the 
hot season. Unfortunately I never saw another. 

31. Upupa epops, Linn, 

The Hoopoe is a regular visitant during the coUl season, 
appearing about the middle of August, ami remaining with 
us quite up to the commencement of the hot weather. I 
must have seen at least a dozen during each season, and its 
appearance was coutiniially being reported to me by others. 
I shoidd not be surprised to hear of its breeding in some of 
the secluded gorges between Cohlmore Valley and Pisher- 
man's Bay. 

32. Lanius lahtora, Sykes. 

33. Lanius nuiucus, Licht. 



74 Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 

34. Lanius^ sp. inc. 

I have nothing to add to the remarks made by Major 
Yerbury ('Ibis/ 1886^ p. 16) concerning the Lanii, except to 
say that during the cokl season I saw in the vicinity of 
Shaik Othman examples of at least three different species of 
Shrikes^ one of which, if not actually Lanius lahtora^ was ex- 
ceedingly like it. One of the others was, I suspect, the Nubian 
Shrike. They are none of them by any means common. . 

35. Hypocolius ampelinus, Bp. 

I saw a bird flitting about amongst the branching palms 
at Shaik Othman which I think was Hypocolius ampelinus. 
I have examined, several skins of this bird in the Frere Hall 
Museum at Karachi. 

36. Terpsiphone paradisi, Linn. 

The Paradise Flycatcher is occasionally met with in the 
groves and gardens at Shaik Othman. All I have seen have 
been in the chestnut plumage with short tails. Major 
Yerbury procured it near Lahej in December, and he notes 
that those seen were in non-breeding plumage, by which he 
must mean the chestnut plumage. I regard the white dress 
as the sign of a fully mature bird, not the nuptial plumage 
only, as I have met with white birds at all seasons, and have 
frequently found chestnut-coloured birds breeding. I am 
referring, of course, to Indian birds. 

37. MuscicAPA GRisoLA (Liuu.). 

I only met with the Spotted Grey Flycatcher on on(3 
occasion ; but I fancy that they are not at all uncommon 
inland. 

The one I saw was in the compound of Captain Light's 
bungalow, which is near the Gaol, and is one of the very few 
places in Aden where there are trees of any great size. 

This was on the 13th April, and Captain Light informed 
me that it had been there over a week. 

38. MoNTicoLA CYANus (Linn.). 

The Blue Rock-Thrush is a fairly common and regular 
cold-weather visitant. A specimen was first noted on the 



Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 75 

Hedj uff Rocks about the end of September, and it was 
frequently seen in the same place up to quite the end of 
January. Another one frequented an old dilapidated stable 
in my own compound, from the beginning of October to 
about the middle of February, and I have often seen others 
in different places. 

I believe the same bird returns to the same ])lace year 
after year, as in both cold seasons of 1890-91 and 1891-92 
individuals were noted in the same spots. 

39. Cercotrichas melanoptera (Hempr. et Elir.). 

I have not seen a specimen of the Blue-winged Chat-Thrush 
alive, either in Aden proper or on the mainland, but Mr. Caine, 
of the Eastern Telegraph Company, had a wing of one in his 
possession, which had been procured in Aden the year pre- 
vious, and Major Yerbury notes it as a "resident inland.^^ 

40. Argya, sp. inc. 

I failed to procure a specimen of the Babbler, although 
it is by no means rare. On one occasion I came upon a 
flock at Huswah, and another at Shaik Othman amongst the 
branching palms, and they have often been brought to my 
notice by others. They are, I feel sure, permanent residents. 

41. Pycnonotus arsinoe (Herapr. et Ehr.). 
HempricVs Bulbul is a common permanent resident, 

occurring in all parts of Aden, as well as on the mainland. 
They breed as a rule during March, April, and May. I 
found a nest in Goldmore Valley near the end of September 
containing three almost full-fledged nestlings ; but I think 
this was exceptionally late, and may have belonged to a pair 
of birds whose first nest had been destroyed. 

42. Pycnonotus xanthopygus (Hempr. et Ehr.). 

The Yellow-vented Bulbul is common at Huswah and 
other places inland, and occasionally visits Aden proper. 
A male shot at Huswah on the 23rd November measured : — 
Length 8*1 inches, expanse 11*2, wing 3, tail 3*45, tarsus 0*8, 
bill at gape 0'78. Bill, legs, and feet black ; iris white ; 
eyelids greyish white. 

Two specimens of a large Bulbul were shot by Mr. Caine 



7(5 I, unit. 11. l'.. Harnrs on tlw lUrds of Atfcn. 

at llus\\;ih on thr 'J(<th (\Molior ; he soul thotu io \\\c h\ n 
Somali, who. not luMni;' iMc to tinil uiv luu>i;alo\\ . throw (honi 
:n>;\y. lUMlosi'viboil ihtMn :\vS biMUii' nuioh hnuor than thoso 
foimil in (loKlnuMV \ alloy, and as havinii' Maokish hoatls. Ho 
did not niMiov^ tho oolonr o( tho unilov tail-oovorts. Those 
must haxohoon thohiuls alhuloil io h\ Major Yorlmrv [' Ibis.' 
lS(>(i. p. \:\ 

i;>. Ouioi.i s I. VI lu \ \. l-inn. 

.Vn innnatniv nialo o\' tho TioKlon (.^liolo was shot at 
Laljoj on tho .'Jlst Ootohor. ami sout in to i»io by Sm'iioou- 
Captaiu Havtlott. It was so fat and so tioooinposod that it 
was a most nuploasant task skimiiuij it. 

Tho foUowinji' aro tho nu\isuivu\outs : — Ijongth 10 inohos, 
oxpanso iTOo. winij oo. (ail O-?."). bill at front Oi>. bill at 
gajH^ l-Xl. r>ill blaokish : lojrs and foot dull blaok. 

41. S vMooi \ iVN AN rnv. l.inn. 

Tho Whoatoar is a fairly oonuwou oold-woathor visitor. 
My tirst s\Hviniou was obtained on the 8th tV^tober at Kas 
Tai-shiue. Steawier Point. Surgvon-Captain l>artloti sent 
)ue another tVon\ Laliej, shot on the .'Jlth Oetober, and 
infvM-nuHl me that he had also !?ivi\ one at the Isthmus on. the 
X\">th tV^tolHM'. a>i he was leavimr I'or Laliej. 

They eontinnevl fairly eoniiuon up to the end of the eold 
season. 

A male shot on the Sth t^otober measured: — Length (v(i 
inehes, expanse 1 1 "9. wing o-j). tail .0'(>. tarsus l:J. bill at gape 
05\ bill at front t)r>:J. Hill, leg-s, and feet blaek ; iris blaek. 

lo. Svxicoi.v ST.vr vjix.v (Vieill.V 

I appear to have overlooked the oeenn\ nee of this Chat, 
althongh Major Verbnrv found it to be a reg\ilar tvld- 
weather visitant. 

•K>. S.vxieoi-.v ri.vsen.\xK,\ J,epeeh.^ ; Oates. l>. Ind. ii. 
p. « o. 

I met with only a single speeimen of the Siberian Chat 
during my two years' wsideuee at Aden ; this was inside 
Has Morbat Fort, on the X!9th >L\rv'h. It se^nued to ivstriet 
itself to a vevv eontined area, never being met with ontside 



Lif;Mf,. If. Vj. I'iririics on Ihc. liirdH of Aden. 77 

i\\(; \)H:c'\ucXh of Uk; I'ort,, u.u(\ ;i,lrnoHt al\v;i.yH iji rni'; particnhir 
Hpot, a fiollow Sornn-A hy the orriplaccmont ol' ono of tJio 
machine f^uriH, Tlie Fort LaHcarw aHKcrtod that the bird liad 
been Hcen in the Harnc Mpot for weekH pant. It was imposKihIe 
to Hlioot it vvhfjre it was, aw to flineharge a i^nn insifle a fort 
near a powder magazine in not t}ie sort of thing that nieetn 
witli apprrjval from tlie military authorities. 

I do not think I am miKtal<en as to the species, as it is a 
bird I frefjuf;ntly met with in the Holan i^ass, hut it would 
have been much more satisfactory if I could liave ohtainerJ 
a specimen. 

47. MyjtMiccocjcHLA mfj-ancka nemm.j. 

'i'he lilaek-tailed Jiock-fJhat is a \(try common jK;rmari(;nt 
resident, and takes the place which the iiohin occupies 
elsewhere. It is of bold and fearless habits, and, where 
encouraged, soon becomes familiar. It affects stables, veran- 
dahs, old buildings, rocks, &;c., preferring those in the vicinity 
of occupied houses, which latter it often enters in search of 
crumbs. 

It is very fond of perching on rocks, wells, and roofs of 
houses, and in the breeding-season has a w.ry pleasant 
twittering song. It breeds from about the middle of March 
to tlie i-A\i\ of June, Ijut some may perhaps nest earlier or 
later, as, after I had prociired one clutch of eggs on the 
morning after I landed, I did not trouble to search for any 
more, and only took notes of such nests as 1 accidentally 
came across, as i do not care to collect eggs of other than 
Indian birds, and i did not at that time recognize the bird as 
the mythical " Cercomela fuHco, " of Jerdon and Sir A. Ijurns. 

TIk! nests are placed in crevices of rocks, stone walls, 
under the eaves of houses, and such like places. 

The first nest I foutid was in a crevice, over the window 
of a dwelling-house, the opening and shutting of which flid 
not alarm the birds in the least. 

The nest is a mere pad, composed of grass, hair, rags, or 
anything suitable that the bird can find. 

The eggs, three in number, are broadish oval in shape, 



78 Lieut, H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 

pinched in a little at one end ; they are greenish white in 
colour, spotted, streaked, and blotched with bright red- 
brown, and having a few underljaug species of faint inky 
purple ; the markings are bolder and denser at the large end, 
where they not unfrequently form a more or less well- 
defined cap. 

They measure about 0*8 inch in length, by nearly 0*G in 
breadth. 

A male shot on the 20th September measured : — Length 
6'15 inches, expanse 9'6, wing 3'2, tail 2"45, tarsus 0'8, bill 
at front 0*47, bill at gape 0-8, Bill, legs, and. feet black ; iris 
blackish broAvu. 

48. lluTiciLLA, sp. inc. 

I have never met with the Redstart, said by Major Yerbury 
('Ibis,' 1886, p. 17) to be ''an occasional cold- weather 
visitant"; but on one or two occasions I have had a bird 
described to me which may very possibly have been it. 

49. PuiNiA, sp. inc. 

I feel quite ashamed of my negligence in omitting to 
secure this bird, which is not uncommon amongst the shrubs 
on the hill-sides and in many of the valleys. Some few 
remain to breed, as on the 1st June I found a nest among 
the bushes on the Malla Plain containing four hard-set eggs, 
of the mahogany or brick-red colour typical of the eggs of 
the tcn-tail-feathcred Prinias. The nest was also very 
similar to that of Prinia social is. 

The eggs measured 0'63 inch in length, by rather less 
than 0-4G in breadrh. 

50. Phylloscopus, sp. inc. 

A Brown Willow-Warbler occurs occasionally during the 
latter part of tin) cold weather. 1 did not, however, procure 
a specimen. 

51. MOTACILLA ALBA, Liuu. 

The White Wagtail is a very common cold-season visitor. 
It commences to arrive about the end of September and 



Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 79 

remains quite up to the commencement of tlic hot weather. 
I have not noticed them at any other time. 

52. MoTACiLLA lELDEGGi, Michah. 

I have occasionally met with the Black-headed Wagtail on 
the Malla Plain^ and have seen it once or twice in Goldmore 
Valley, but I believe it is more common inland. Of course 
it only occurs in the cold weather. 

53. CoRVus cuLMiNATUs^ Sykes (?). 

I remember when I first came to Adeu^ in 18GG, there 
were usually three or four Crows to be seen at the Isthmus : 
they seldom visited any other portion of the Peninsula; 
now, in 1892, they may be frequently met with in other 
parts, but never more than one or two together. 

They were stated never to breed, owing (it was said) to 
their all belonging to the sterner sex ; they were understood 
to have been imported some 20 years previously by an 
officer of the Bombay Infantry. If this is correct, there can 
be little doubt but that the birds are Common Jungle Crows 
of India; they are certainly not Corvus splendens. This 
would make their age about 45 years ; which is, I think, 
rather a long period for even a Crow to live. They seem to 
have lost the usual habits of the Crow-tribe, being very shy 
and retired and never coming near the barracks, although 
they are never molested. They keep as a rule more to the bare 
rocky hills bordering the Isthmus Plain, living, I suppose, 
principally upon locusts and lizards, the former of which are at 
times very abundant. They are frequently seen on the sea- 
shore searching among the debris left by the receding tide, 
and are often rewarded by a succulent morsel, in the shape 
of the half-rotten entrails of the large horse mackerel or 
head of a common shark. The fishermen clean their fish 
before landing, and, immediately on the capture of a shark 
or dogfish, cut off" the head and throw it into the sea, and 
this it is that keeps the wild dogs and foxes alive. 

At the time I am speaking of, no other Crows, except 
these few, were ever seen ; but soon after the viaduct was 
constructed from Shaik Othman to the Isthmus they became 



80 Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 

quite numerous to within less than half a mile of the 
Barrier Gate. I counted 58 between the latter place and 
Shaik Othniau, and often, standing on the Victoria Bastion 
at the Isthmus, I have counted over a dozen. They do not 
appear to pass into the Isthmus very often, and when they 
cross do not remain long, finding, I suppose, very little 
inducement in the shape of food. 

These Crows seem not to differ from those inside the 
Istlimus. 

I noticed two or three birds much marked with white, one 
of which had a distinct white collar, but I do not think they 
were specimens of Corvits capellanus, although Captain 
Light gave me two skins of the latter which he had procured 
at Berbera, on the Somali coast ; these were unfortunately 
so badly cured that, getting damp, they fell to pieces. 

54. CoRVUs coRAX, Linn. 

I have not myself seen the Raven ; but a friend, who 
spent some days at Lahej, informed me that he had seen a 
pair there consorting with ordinary Crows ; and Mr. Ham- 
mond Brazier, of the Military Works Department, whose 
duties frequently took him to Shaik Othman, says he has 
occasionally met with them between the Isthmus and that 
place. 

55. DiLOPHUS CARUNCULATUS (Gm.). 

The only Wattled Starling I met with was in a large 
aviary. The Arab from whom it had been purchased 
asserted that he had caught it near Huswah. 

5G, Hyphantornis galbula (Riipp.). 

The Golden Weaver-bird is one of the commonest per- 
manent residents in Aden, and is equally abundant in 
suitable places inland. They are, however, somewhat locally 
distributed; several pairs may always be found nesting at 
the tanks, and in an adjacent garden belonging to a Parsee. 
They have made many attempts to breed in the Commissariat 
Transport Lines ; but the muleteers' children always destroy 
the nests, in spite of all orders and precautions. The place 



Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 81 

where they breed most is in the compound of a house, in the 
Native Infantry Lines, near the Gaol. There are some fairly 
large trees in this compound, and as water is procurable 
close by the place is exactly suited to them. 

They breed in colonies at all seasons of the year. I find 
from my notes that I have taken eggs in February, April, 
June, July, October, and in December, on Christmas Day. 

The nest is pendent and retort-shaped, and is firmly 
attached to the end of a twig ; it measures about 6 inches 
from top to bottom, 6 inches in its greatest width, and 
about 3 inches in depth. Most of them are very neat 
and compact, but this depends to a great extent on the 
nature of the material of Avhich they are composed; those 
composed of grass are untidy compared with others made of 
the long thin leaves of a tree that bears large trusses of 
bright yellow flowers, the name of which I have forgotten. 
These leaves are over a foot long and are very narrow, and 
along both sides have a row of narrow leaflets, making the 
edges serrated, which must help greatly to keep the leaves 
in their position in the nest. Many of the nests have no 
tubular entrances, but others have them about two inches long; 
and as they are made last of all, and, as I believe, after the 
young are hatched out, and are composed of green lea-ses, 
the effect is very peculiar, the body of the nest being often 
dry and the neck of a vivid green. 

I am of opinion that they occasionally, at all events, make 
use of the old nests over again, merely patching them up 
a little; buh Captain R. H. Light, of the 17th Bombay 
Infantry, who was living in the bungalow, and had ample 
opportunities of observing them, has a different notion. 
He says in a letter to me : — " I had an idea that they bred 
in the old nests again, but that is not so. I saw a bird 
pecking in a curious way at a nest out of \^ hich I had taken 
an egg a few days before. On going closer, I saw the bird 
was vigorously pulling the nest to pieces, as every now and 
then pieces of it fell down. At intervals it flew off to another 
tree to rest awhile. When the nest was demolished, the bird 
flew to a tree some twenty yards off and cut off a leaf with its 

SEK. VI.^ — VOL. V. G 



83 Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 

beak. It flew to the place of the ohl nest again and began to 
twist it fast on to the twigs of the tree^ hanging by its elaws 
and working its body about in arranging the leaf. When it got 
fairly advanced with the nest it would bring a leaf and force 
one end of it into an open space ; then, letting go and flying 
up above the nest, it would pull the end through and again 
place it in another space ; in fact the process was similar to 
our weaving or plaiting, and was very cleverly done. I 
noticed that the bird never broke off" leaves from the tree 
the nest was built on, but from an adjoining one.'' 

This pulling the old nest to pieces may, however, have 
been an exceptional case, and was probably due to sheer 
petulance on the part of the bird at having her egg taken ; 
but it is strange that she should have built another nest in 
exactly the same place. 

The eggs, usually three in number (occasionally only two), 
are of two very distinct types, and no one but an experienced 
oologist would ever believe that they both belong to the 
same species. The ground-colour in one type is white, in 
the other it is more or less deep blue ; both descriptions are 
thickly spotted and blotched with bright brick-red ; both 
types are very handsome. In shape they are elongated ovals, 
j)inched in a good deal at one end, and measure about 0"8I 
inch in length by rather less than 057 in breadth. 

A male measured as follows : — Length G'2 inches, expanse 
9-4, wing 3-25, tail 2-4, tarsus O'O, bill at gape 0*6, bill at 
front 0'58. Bill black, legs fleshy, iris orange. 

57. EsTRELDA RUfiBARBA, Cab. (Sharpe, Cat. B. xiii. 
p. 394.) 

This Waxbill is very common inland, but I have never 
met with it in Aden proper. I have had specimens from 
Lahej and Huswah, and think I saw it close to Shaik 0th- 
man amongst the salsola bushes, but the ground was so 
swampy that I could not get near enough to shoot one. 

58. Uroloncha, sp. inc. 

A Munia, very similar to the Plain Brown JNIunia, occurs 
at Huswah. 



Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 83 

59. Passer, sp. inc. 

The identity o£ the Aden Sparrows must still remain 
undetermined. They are most abundant inland, especially 
at Shaik Othman ; they frequently come to the tanks and 
I have often seen one in the Transport Lines, but they do 
not seem to remain in these latter places. Unfortunately 
the only specimen I preserved was immature, and as it had 
been tied up a whole day in a camel-man^s puggaree before it 
reached me, it was quite unrecognizable. I always meant 
to get another ; but, having to leave Aden rather suddenly, 
I could not do so. 

Mr. Brazier tells me that he kept a score of these birds in 
an aviary, but that their pugnacity was so great that all but 
two soon met their death from the onslaught of others. 

60. Pyrrhulauda melanauchen. Cab. (Sharpe, Cat. B. 
xiii. p. 655.) 

The Black-crowned Finch-Lark is a permanent resident, 
and is most common on the sandy plain between the Isthmus 
and Shaik Othman. I found a nest containing two partly- 
fledged young ones on the 4th February, but was never 
fortunate enough to find a nest with eggs ; a pair was occa- 
sionally seen on the sandy plain at Steamer Point, but I do 
not think they bred there, the place being too public, more 
so since golf came into fashion. 

61. Alauda cristata, Linn. 

The Crested Lark is a common permanent resident inland, 
and frequents the sandy plain that forms the Isthmus 
joining Aden proper to the mainland. I never succeeded in 
finding a nest. 

They occur occasionally in Aden itself, but only as 
temporary visitors. I have often seen a pair on the Malla 
Plain, and have noticed them on the maidan at Holket Bay. 

62. Al^mon desertorum (Stanley). 

I think the Desert Lark is the commonest Lark occurring 
in the neighbourhood. They are found in much the same 
localities as the other species, showing perhaps a more 
decided preference for the sea-shore and the paths between 
the salt-pans. 

g2 



84 Dr. 11. W. Shufeldt on 

A pair frequented the Sapper parade-ground at Steamer 
Point during the whole of July, and evidently had a nest 
somewhere near, which for a long time baffled all my 
efforts to find it. After some long and persevering attempts 
I at last discovered it. In a corner of the parade-ground there 
was a clump of half-dead portulaca plants and stunted 
salsola bushes, and in a natural depression in the ground, 
under one of the plants, the nest was placed; it was well 
hidden. 

Golf is extensively played on this and the surrounding 
maidans, and the nest being in a direct line between two 
holes, the ground all round was much tramped upon, and 
some clumsy golfer, just before I found the nest, had put 
his foot on it and smashed the eggs ; from the fragments I 
believe there must have been two, and that they were slightly 
incubated. It seems strange that the birds did not desert 
the spot earlier. 

This was the only nest I found. 

63. MiEAFRA, sp. inc. 

A Bush Ijark, but of what species I cannot say, is some- 
times met with in the salsola jungle near Shaik Othman ; 
but it is not, I think, a permanent resident. 

Besides this there is one, if not two, other species of 
Larks of which I failed to procure specimens. 

[To be coutiuued.J 

YII. — Comparative Notes on the Swifts and Humming-birds. 
By R. W. Shufeldt, M.D , C.M.Z.S. 

There are still to be found among living systematic orni- 
thologists some who contend that the Humming-birds [Tro- 
chili) are more or less nearly related to the Swifts (Cypseli), 
following, as they do, the erroneous idea of former natu- 
ralists who had but very meagre notions of the structural 
characters of birds. It would seem better, however, for the 
ornithologists of these days, to whom I refer, frankly to 
confess that they are not as yet in possession of a sufficient 
array of facts to decide definitely upon the affinities of such a 
group of birds as the Humming-birds, than it is to blindly 



Swifts and Humming -bii'ds. 85 

put forward in their works the statement that the Humming- 
birds are related to the Swifts^ especially wlien we now have 
so much at our command clearly indicating that no such 
kinship exists. 

If we take Dr. Coues^ for example^ he has said of the 
Swifts that their "^real affinities are with the tenuirostral 
Trochilidfe (Humming-birds) in every structural pecu- 
liarity""^, and then, to be thoroughly inconsistent, imme- 
diately thereafter, upon succeeding pages of the work quoted, 
proceeds to show, by an array of " structural peculiarities," 
for his two families, the Cypselidse and Trochilidse, how 
widely different those two groups really are ! But Dr. Cones 
also believes that the tongue in the Humming-birds " is in 
effect a double-barrelled tube, supposed to be used to suck 
the sweets of flowers" t; so really we hardly ought to be 
called upon to accept this writer's statement that " the Tro- 
chilidse, in all essential structural characters, are nearest 
related to the Cypselidaj," when he displays such an evident 
lack of knowledge of the " structural peculiarities " of the 
tongue in these birds. 

Recently Mr. R. Ridgway has had his share in keeping 
alive the false idea that Swifts and Humming-birds '' are 
more closely related to each other than are either to any 
other group of birds," and he has added that, " in fact, 
except in the shape of the bill and structure of the bones of 
the face, the Humming-birds and Swifts present no definite 
differences of osteological structure"!. Such a statement 
can mean nothing more than that Mr. Ridgway is quite 
ignorant of the skeletal characters of both the two groups 
of birds to which he refers. 

* Coues, E. ' Key to Nortli-Amevicau Birds.' Revised ed. 1884, p. 45G. 

t Loc. cit. p. 458. It is not at all strauge that Mr. R. Ridgway should 
believe that the tongue of the Humming-birds is hollow (as he has 
published in a recent work of his, quoted further on), for he has nevta- 
pretended to have personally examined into the anatomy of the group at 
any time. That such is not the case every comparative avian niorpho- 
logist very well knows. 

X Robert Ridgway, Curator, Department of Birds, U.S. Nat. JMuseum. 
"The Humming-Birds." Rep. of Nat. Mus. 1890 (pp. 253-883), p. 290. 
Washington, D.C., 1892. 



86 Dr. Tx.W. Shufeldt o;/ 

Both of the authorities vre have quoted above are verj"- 
\nde of the mark in tliis matter^ as I shall attempt to show 
in the present contribution to tlie subject. Let me state, in 
the first place, that it is not my object to demonstrate here 
the affinities of cither the Swifts or the Humming-birds ; 
indeed, in the case of the latter I am prepared to say but 
little more than that they are not especially related to the 
former : and as for the former, the Swifts themselves, they 
are undoubtedly, as say both Parker and Huxley, related 
most nearly to the Swallows^, and I place great store 
by what the two last-mentioned authorities say in regard to 
the comparative morphology of birds and the deductions to 
be made therefrom. Again, to ascertain the true affinities 
of birds, as in the case of the two groups we are about 
to compare, we should not rest satisfied with simply con- 
trasting a few of the corresponding " osteological struc- 
tures ^' in the two groiips, or with comparing " their bills." 
Nor should we be lulled into a state of what Professor 
Huxley pleases to call absolute " cocksureness " of our con- 
victions in such a matter, from the additional facts that 
Swifts and Humming-birds both give vent at times to a sharp 
twittering note, and that they have a superficial resemblance 
in their pectoral limbs, and some very few other points super- 
ficially alike ; but Ave should, on the other hand, critically 
compare, in a scientific manner, everything that is known of 
the two groups under consideration, for in this way only can 
the real truth be arrived at. 

Now I consider the Swifts of the world to constitute the 
suborder Cypseli, and the Humming-birds to constitute 
another suborder, the Trochili. To properly contrast the 
many and fundamental differences to be found in these two 
groups, we will arrange the data in double columns, mucli 
after the forcible fashion of those savants who are wont to 

* Parker, Wm. Kitchen, F.E.S. ' The Zoologist,' March 1SS9, pp. 2, 3. 
I agree with my friend Dr. Shufeldt that the Swallow and Swift are 
near akin." 

Huxley, Thos. H., F.E.S. P. Z. S. 1867, p. 452. ''And the Swifts 
essentially resemble the Swallows, though the form and proportions of the 
palatine bones are somewhat different." 



Svjifts and Humming-birds . 



87 



contrast the characters tliey find, in the forms they compare, 
in ^'^ synoptical tables/' 

It is important to look into the relative Numbers and the 
GrEOGRAPHiCAL DISTRIBUTION of the Swifts and Humming- 
birds^ and we find the followint;- : — 



Cypsexi. 

1. About 50 species. 

2. Warm and temperate parts of 
the world. 



Teochili. 

1. About -500 species. 

2. Peculiar to America. 



It is a fact of no little significance that about 100 species 
of Swallows have also been described, and that, as in the 
case of the Swifts, they are to be found in all suitable localities 
over the entire globe. How is it that the Swifts are not 
restricted to America, as are the Humming-birds ? 

We may next consider their Food and their Means of 
OBTAINING IT, aiid somc few Habits in connection therewith. 
This is what we find : — 



Cypseli. 
3. Subsist upon insects, usually 
of some considerable size, and al- 
ways captured by the birds during 
rapid flight through the air. 



4. Very rarely or never known to 
perch in trees and elsewhere. 

5. Flight generally performed at 
greater or less heights aboAe any- 
thing on the earth, and of extra- 
ordinary power ; circling, and usu- 
ally of gi-eat rapidity. 



Teochili. 

3. Subsist upon insects, and 
largely upon the sweets of flowers ; 
the insects are of the most minute 
varieties, and are of entirely dif- 
ferent species from those sought by 
the Swifts, and are taken chiefly 
from within the corollse of tubular 
flowers, by the aid of the bird's 
long biU, and while it rapidly 
hovers before those receptacles. 

4. Veiy frequently perch on the 
twigs of trees and plants, after the 
manner of ordinary birds. 

5. Flight generally performed at 
gi'eater or less heights above the 
surface of the groimd, averaging 
not over ten or fifteen feet. Apart 
from its remarkable power and 
rapidity, very different from the 
flight of Swifts. Frequently un- 
dulating ; darting ; often with 
body stationary and wings in 
rapid motion, kc. 



88 Dr. R. W. Shufeldt on 

Here we see an entire divergence in food, in methods of 
securing it^ and of percliing, quite as different as in any two 
other groups of carinate birds, however remotely related they 
may be : for example, the Kingfishers and the Parrots. Every 
ornithologist is aware how utterly different is the flight of a 
typical Swift and a Humming-bird, and even Cones has said 
of the Common Chimney Swift (^Ch(Etura pelagica) , '^Like 
the Swallows, which this bird so curiously resembles,, not 
only in its form, but in its mode of flight, its food, and twit- 
tering notes, it has mostly forsaken the ways of its ancestors, 
who bred in hollow trees, and now places its curious open- 
work nest, of bits of twig glued together with saliva, inside 
disused chimneys, in settled parts of the country'''"^. To 
this I should add that these Swifts not only " curiously re- 
semble '' Swallows in those particulars, but are absolutely 
like them, and had not my friend been blinded by the idea 
of Cypselo-trochilidine affinities, he would have thought like- 
wise. How is it that he did not attempt to compare such 
Swallow-like characters in a Swift with what he might 
find in a Humming-bird ? Simply because the latter do 
not have themf. 

Among special Habits we note that in — 

Cypseli. Teochili. 

6, Nearly all species of the sub- 6. All species of the suborder 
order nest and roost, often in thou- known to me nest apart in pairs, 
sands, in caves, fissures iu clitfs, and roost separately in the trees or 
hollow trees, disused chimneys, or shrubberies. These birds are never 
similar places. seen in '■'■ Jlocks,^'' except when their 

great abundance makes this appear 
to be the case. 

7. The habits of nidification, the number of eggs, the manner of rearing 
the young, and all such matters are all things so well known in the 
Swifts and Humming-birds, and yet at the same time so absolutely, 

* Op. cit. p. 457. 

t Iu the same place Coues also says of the Chimney Swift, and it 
applies to many other species, I suppose, " So great are the volatorial 
powers of this bird that the sexes can come together on the wing " [!]. 
Let me ask Dr. Coues : Is that not the normal mode of copulation in 
Chadura, and has he ever seen the act performed in that manner among 
any of the Tvochili ? 



Sioifts and Humming -birds. 



89 



utterly different in tlie two suborders, that comparison here would simply 
mean to occupy valuable space that I prefer to use in making comparisons 
in structure. Let us remember, however, that Dr. Coues notes in the 
case of Swallows that " formerly they all bred on cliffs, in banks, in 
hollows of trees, and similar places, and many do so still " (o^j. cit. p. 321 ) ; 
and some Swallows, too, do lay xvhite eggs, and in number these are more 
apt to agree with the Cypseli, I think, than with the Trochili ! 

A few more points are as follows : — 



Cypskli. 

8. Sexes alike (as is generally the 
case in the Swallows ?) 

9. Birds all of moderate size (as 
is the case in the Swallows). 



Trochili. 

8. Sexes markedly unlike (with 
but one or two rare exceptions ?). 

9. Birds (with but one or two 
exceptions) all of the most diminu- 
tive size to be found in the class. 



10. Coloration extremely plain ; 
plumes, crests, gorgets, remarkable 
variation in tails never present. 
(Agreeing in the main with Swal- 
lows.) 

11. " One of the most remarkable 
points in the structure of the Cyp- 
selidaj is the great development of 
the salivary glands " (Sclater). 

12. General form of the plucked 
body in some species like the 
Swallows. 

13. Pterylosis is but a departure, 
in most species, from the common 
passerine pattern as seen in the 
Swallows. 



10. Coloration among the mos^t 
brilliant of all birds ; as a rule, the 
presence of freaks in feather-orna- 
mentation is frequent and extrava- 
gant in form and colour. 

11. Salivary glands not remark- 
ably or even abnormally developed. 



12. General form of the plucked 
body in none of the species ever 
having any resemblance to that of 
the Swallows. 

13. " Pterylosis is characteristic " 
(Coues). Differs in a number of 
particulars from what we find in 
either Swifts or Swallows. 



Dr. Sclater has said of NitzscVs ' Pterylography,' in 
his preface to the English translation^ '' that it is one of the 
most valuable and suggestive works on pure ornithology ever 
published.^' And until such labours are followed up and 
fully accomplished, " we can never hope to arrive at a correct 
knowledge of the affinities of this very difficult class of Ver- 
tebrates '^ [Birds]. Yet Nitzsch, in that work (p. 86), in 
speaking of the classification and pterylography of the 
" Macrochires/' was compelled to admit that^ — '' In this 
family I place the two genera Cypselus and Trochilus, whicb^ 



90 



Dr. K,. W. Shufeldt on 



indeed^ present but little external similarity;" and yet Nitzsch 
surely knew something of tlie external similarities o£ various 
forms of birds ! 

But let us examine a little further the " external cha- 
racters^'' or Topographical Anatomy of these two sub- 
orders : — 



Cypselt. 

14. Have characteristic parasites 
that infest them : one a large and 
peculiar species *. 

15. "Bill very small, flattened, 
triangular when viewed from above, 
with great gape reaching below the 
eyes ; unnotched, unbristled, the 
gape about six times as long as the 
culmen. Nostrils exposed, superior, 
nearer culmen than commissure, 
the frontal feathers tending to reach 
forward under them " (Coues), 



16. Wing has 10 primaries and 

9 secondary quill-feathers. Tail of 

10 rectrices. 



Trochili. 

14. Also have parasites infesting 
them, but of very different species 
from those found on the Cypseli. 

15. "The bill exhibits the teuui- 
rostral type in perfection, being 
long and extremely slender for its 
length ; it is usually straight, subu- 
late, or awl-shaped, or with lancet- 
shaped tip ; it is often decurved 
sometimes recurved, and again ben t 
almost at an angle ; in length it 
varies from less than the head to 
more than all the rest of the bird. 
The cutting-edges of the mandibles 
are inflected ; the rictus is devoid 
of bristles. The nostrils are linear, 
with a supercumbent scale or oper- 
culum, sometimes naked, often fea- 
thered " {Coucs). 

16. Wing has 10 primaries, 
never more than 6 secondary quill- 
feathers. Tail of 10 rectrices. 



In so far as any possible affinity is concerned as existing 
between Swifts and Humming-birds, surely those that think 
they see it can gain but little coaifort from the fact that the 
members of both groups possess 10 primaries in the wing 
and 10 rectrices in the tail. What significance can it possibly 
have when Swifts have 9 secondaries_, Humming-birds but 6^ 
while the pteryloses are so very different in both cases, as are 
also the patterns of the wings and tails themselves ? 

Caprimulgi, as a rule, says Dr. Cones, have 10 primaries 
in their wings, and " more than 9 secondaries/' while the tail, 
variable in shape, has 10 rectrices ; yet I hardly think that 



* See paper by Charles O. Waterhouse, P. Z. S. 1887, p. 163, 



Swifts and Humming -bh'ds. 



91 



my distinguislied friend is prepared to retain the Goatsuckers 
along with the Swifts in his group CypseJiformes, as he did 
in the revised edition of his 'Key^ in 1884, Dr. Cones 
has " looked over " some papers which I published in the 
journals of the Linnean and Zoological Societies of London 
since that date^ even if Mr. Ridgway has not. 



Cypseli. 

17. Wings extremely long ; pri- 
maries never of peculiar form. 

18. Feet small, weak, the enve- 
lope often skinny, and the tarsi may 
be naked or feathered. " Hind toe 
frequently elevated, or versatile, or 
permanently turned sideways or 
even forward ; lateral toes nearly 
or quite as long as the middle ; 
anterior toes deeply cleft, the basal 
phalanges extremely short, the 
penultimate very long, the number 
of phalanges frequently abnormal 
(2, 3, 3, 3, instead of 2, 3, 4, 5) " 
(^Coues). 



Teochili. 

17. Wings not specially long ; 
first primary frequently of very re- 
markable form. 

18. Feet (in proportion with size 
of bird) rather small, though strong 
and admirably adapted iov perching. 
Envelope not skinny. Tarsi naked 
or feathered (but the feathering of 
a very different cliaracter as com- 
pared with Swifts). Hind toe in- 
cumbent, never versatile or perma- 
nently turned sidewaj'S, and never 
forward ; lateral toes not as long 
as the middle one ; anterior toes 
not specially deeply cleft, the 
basal phalanges not extremely 
short, and the penultimate very 
long. The number of phalanges 
never abnormal. 

19. " Claws sharp, curved, never 19. " Claws all large, sharp, and 

pectinate" {Coites). curved" {Coues). 

And, as in the Swifts, so in the Swallows, we find that 
"the claws are comparatively strong, compressed, well-curved, 
and acute, apt for clinging '' (Coues, Rev. ed. ' Key,^ pp, 320, 
455,458), 

Passing next to a consideration of some of the deeper 
structures, we find : — 



Cypseli. 

20. Superior mandible wide and 
not prodnced. 

21. Triangular openings between 
nasals and frontals, divided by the 
premaxillary (^Chceturci). 



Trochili. 

20. Superior mandible naiTow 
and usually twice as long as the 
head, 

21. No such openings present. 



92 



Dr. R. W. Slmfeldt on 



22. Cranium above smooth and 
rounded. 

2.3. Vomer truncated. 

24. Maxillo-palatines prominent 
and produced well backwards, tend- 
ing to approach mesially. 

25. Postero-external angles of 
palatines produced as proihinent 
processes. 

26. Palatine beads of pterygoids 
nearly meeting mesially. 



27. Pars plana small and formed 
as in Swallows. 

28. Interorbital septum shows 
several vacuities, and these are dis- 
tinct from those on the posterior 
orbital wall. 

20. Mandible a wide V, without 
ramal vacuity. 



22. Cranium above showing a 
deep longitudinal groove for ends 
of hyoid. 

23. Vomer long and spine-lilio. 

24. Maxillo-palatines not promi- 
nent, being rounded and wide apart. 

25. External margin of each pa- 
latine nearly straight, and no angle 
present. 

26. Palatine heads of pterygoids 
widely separated mesially (and I 
have seen specimens where they 
nnchylose to the palatines). 

27. Pars plana very large and very 
different from that of the Swallows. 

28. Interorbital septum never 
shows but one vacuity, which 
merges with one that absorbs nearly 
all the posterior orbital wall. 

29. Mandible a long and ex- 
tremely narrow V, with ramal va- 
cuity. 



These cranial characters are extracted from a memoir of 
mine which appeared in the Linnean Society's ' Journal ' 
(Zoology) (London, vol. xx. p. 376), and I will, throughout 
the remainder of the present article, continue to quote from 
the same source in a great many instances. Ridgway puh- 
lishes the statement in his ' Humming- Birds " that " wiiile 
the skull in general shows but little to indicate relationship 
with other groups of birds, the base of the cranium is very 
Swift-like.^' It is obvious that Mr. Ridgway has never 
compared the " base of the cranium^' o£ Swifts with the cor- 
responding part of the skeleton in a Sivallow, for had he 
done so he most surely would have seen precisely what 
Professor Huxley saw years ago, when he said that " in their 
cranial characters the Swifts are far more closely allied with 
the Swallows than with any of the Desmognathous birds, the 
Swift presenting but a very slight modification of the true 
Passerine type exhibited by the Swallow " (P. Z. S. 1867, 
p. 456). 



Swifts and Humming-birds. 93 

Cypseli. Trochili. 

30. The entire tomjue or hyoidean 30. The entire hjoidean appara- 
apparatus essentially differing but tus characteristic, being utterly dif- 
very little from the Swallows. ferent from the Swifts, and the 

tongue capable of protrusion, with 
a mechanism much as is possessed 
by the Pici. 

31. Carefully comparing the bbain in several specimens of Humming- 
birds of different species and genera with the brains of Swifts and Swal- 
lows, I find that, although in all three groups the brain and its parts are 
strictly fashioned upon the true avian plan, in the Swifts and Swallows 
its general and special form is far more alike than it is when we compare 
it with the brain in a Trochilus. This we might naturally have looked 
for, since the inner shape of the cranial casket in the Ilumming-bird is 
very different from the corresponding cavity in the Cypseli and Hirundines 
(Journ. Linn. Soc. Loud. vol. xx. p. 376). This paragraph I also quote 
from my Linnean memoir, of which my friend Mr. J. E. Harting, F.Z.S., 
was good enough to write me in a valued letter under date of August 
20th, 1889, as follows : — ^" I have read this memoir very carefully with 
great satisfaction, and regard it as a most important contribution to 
the Anatomy of Birds. I am the more pleased with it because I have 
always held that the case for the relationship between the Cypseli and 
Trochili has been overstated, not to say exaggerated, and I am accord- 
ingly glad to find that the results of your researches support entirely and 
conclusively the view I have hitherto maintained." 

To sum up as far as we have gone, it would seem well to 
state here that in the case of a typical Swift and a Hum- 
ming-bird the anatomy of the entire head of the one 
is as essentially different from that of the other as it is pos- 
sible for two carinate birds to be in such particulars. When 
I say the anatomy of the head I mean the entire face and 
associated structures : the pterylosis ; special organs, as the 
tongue, salivary glands, air-passages, &c. ; the muscular 
nervous, and vascular systems ; the skull; and the character 
of the plumage. I challenge any fair-minded capable orni- 
thologist to come to any other conclusion after he has 
examined and compared a sufficient amount of material. 

Cypseli Trochili 

i^Chcetura pelagica). (Trochilus rufus). 

32. The last caudal vertebra is 32. The last caudal vertebra is 

the 35th. the 32ud. 



94 



Dr. R. W. Shufeldt on 



33. Pelvis essentially agreeing 
with the pelvis in most Swallows. 
The leading sacral vertebra do not 
markedly project be3^ond the ilia. 



34. Sternum unuotched poste- 
riorly ; comparatively large cos- 
tal processes ; small manubrium ; 
deep carina, which latter and the 
sternal body are always riddled 
with large vacuities. 

35. 12 cervical vertebrfe with- 
out free ribs ; 13th and 14th verte- 
brae possess freely suspended ribs ; 
while from the loth to the 19th 
inclusive they are ti'ue dorsal verte- 
bree (5 for this species), connected 
with the sternum by costal ribs. 

36. The last sacral vertebra is 
the 29th. 



33. Pelvis characteristic and pe- 
culiarly formed. Two entire ver- 
tebrse project beyond the ilia 
(18th and 19tli). No special re- 
semblance to the pelvis in any 
Swift. 

34. Sternum unnotched poste- 
riorly ; very small costal proce.sses ; 
no manubrium ; comparatively a 
much deeper carina ; sternal body 
and keel never perforated by va- 
cuities. 

35. 13 cervical vertebrae with- 
out free ribs; only the 14th ver- 
tebra possesses a freely suspended 
rib ; while from the 15th to the 
17th inclusive they are true dorsal 
vertebrce (only 3 for this suborder 
of birds !), connected with the 
sternum by costal ribs. 

36. The last sacral vertebra is 
the 27th. 



These last few comparisons simply go to show that in the 
plan of the Spinal Column^ Pelvis^ and Ribs, a typical 
Swift differs very materially from a Humming-bird. It is 
possible that Mr. Ridgway does not consider such differences 
as these to be '^ definite differences.^-' How is it, then, that 
the spinal column, pelvis, and I'ibs in a Swift agree so nearly 
with the corresponding parts of the skeleton in almost any 
species of Swallow ? Does not the significance of such facts 
bring any meaning to Mr. Ridgway's mind ? 

Cypseli. 
37. Furcula a very broad U- 
shaped one, with lateral abutments 
at its heads, and with rudimentary 



hypocleidium ; the bone harmon- 
iously proportioned with the rest of 
the skeleton. 

38. Coracoids much the same 
form as we find them in the Swal- 
lows. 



TUOCHILI. 

37. Furcula rather of a very 
broad V-shaped variety, with small 
lateral abutments at its heads, and 
Avith rudimentary hypocleidium, 
wdth the bone of hair-lilce dimen- 
sions as compared with others of 
the skeleton. 

38. Coracoids very peculiar, as 
the tendinal canal is closed by bone, 
and the shaft is perforated by a 
large foramen below it. Totally 
unlike this bone in the Cypseli. 



Swifts and Humming-birds. 95 

39. Blade of scapula nearly 39. Blade of scapula bent at a 

straight. marked angle at its posterior e.x;- 

tremity. 

That there is a superficial resemblance in the sternum 
and furcula of a Swift to tlie corresponding bones in the 
skeleton of a Humming-bird can signify but little when we 
find such real and radical differences in the other bones of 
the shoulder-girdle. In the first place, as exhibiting affinities, 
the coracoid is a far safer bone to rely upon than the 
furcula, and of the latter I have elsewhere said " Swifts are 
birds of long-sustained flighty Humming-birds are great 
fliers, and so are Albatrosses; and were we to increase in 
size the furcula of a Swift and a Humming-bird to the 
size of that bone in an Albatross^ we should be surprised to 
find how much they resemble each other." Finally, in the 
vast majority of birds, the pelvis is just as good a bone of the 
skeleton to decide kinships as is the sternum, although the 
latter bone, from an inveterate habit, is much relied upon. 
The availability of the sternum has had much to do with this. 
It is easily cleaned ; often saved by taxidermists ; and its 
notches are easily counted. 

Finding the skull and trunk skeleton so very difterent, 
fundamentally different, we now pass with considerable confi- 
dence to the skeleton of the limbs ■^. 

Cypseli. Teochili. 

40. Humerus may or may not be 40. Humerus always pneu- 

pneumatic ; radial crest claw- matic (y), with the pneumatic fossa 
shaped, produced and curved to- and foramina on the radial side of 
wards humeral head of the bone. the bone ! Radial crest not pro- 
General characters of the bone on duced, but truncated. Ulnar crest 
the passerine plan, but profoundly has the appearance of a powerful 
modified. decurved claw. A very peculiar, 

characteristic, and remarkably 
twisted bone. Quite unique. 

* Shufeldt, R. W. For figures of the anatomical structure of the Swifts, 
Swallows, Humming-birds, and many other types, see (1) my paper pub- 
lished in the Linnean Society's Journal — Zoology (London), vol. xx. 
pp. 299-394, plates 17-24. (This paper has already been mentioned above.) 
(2) In the P. Z. S. 1885, pp. 886-915, pis. Iviii.-lxi. (3) P. Z. S. 1886, 
pp. 501-503. (4) On the Tongue in the Humming-bird, 'Forest and 
Stream,' vol. xxviii no. 25 (New York), July 14, 1887, p. 531. 



96 Dr. R. W. Shiifeldt on 

41. Ulna proportionatelj longer 41. Ulna proportionately shorter 
than it is ia the Trochili as com- than it is in the Cypseli as com- 
pared with the humerus. It has a pared with the humerus. It has a 
character of its own, not especially character of its own, not especially 
trochilidine. cypseline. 

42. Badim markedly straight. 42. liadius markedly bowed or 

curved. 

43. Carpo-metacarpus very stout 4.3. Carpo-vutacarpus propor- 
in proportion ; index metacarpal tionately much longer than in the 
longer tlian that of medius, which Swifts ; index metacarpal shorter 
latter is curved along its entire than that of medius, which latter 
length. is straight along its entire length. 

44. Distal joints of index present 44. Distal joints of index present 
several minor, though good dilter- several minor, though good, distin- 
ential, characters. (See jjlate Ixi. guishing characters. In Micropus 
P. Z. S. 1885.) and Trochilus, for example, the 

distal joints of the manus are mor- 
phologically strikingly dissimilar. 

There are two or three sesamoidal bones to be found in the 
arm of a Humming-bird that do not occur in the Swift; but 
that is a small matter compared with the many and absolute 
differences that actually exist in the skeleton of the pectoral 
limb in representatives of these two suborders of birds. 
Were it possible to have the skeleton of a Humming-bird as 
large as the skeleton in a good-sized Gull, and the skeleton 
of a typical Swift of an equal size, and then compare them, 
these really marked differences in the two groups would at 
once be apparent to the eye. So far as those differences are 
concerned in the humerus in the various kinds of birds of 
which we have been speaking, they show very well in some 
figures which I published in the ' Proceedings of the Zoolo- 
gical Society of London' in 1886, and reproduce here in 
order to better illustrate my meaning. 

In both Cypseli and Trochili the humerus is short, but 
so far as proportionate lengths are concerned in the bra- 
chium, antibrachium, and manus they by no means agree 
in the representatives of the two suborders. Be this as it 
may, it is nothing to me here, for I am now dealing 
with charactei's, and not attempting to solve a problem in 
arithmetic. In this connection it is worthy of mention, 



Sivifts and Hiiininhig-blrds. 



97 




pig.i. 



Fio;. 3. 



Fie-. 5. 




Fig. 




Fig. 4. 




Fig. 6. 



Compaiisou of tlie Humeri of the Swallow, Swift, and Uuiuiuing-bird. 
(P. Z. S. 1886, p. 502.) 

Fig. 1. Anconal aspect of left humerus of Tachycineta thalassinn. X 3. 

Fig. 2. Palmar aspect of the bone shown in fig. 1. X 3. 

Fig. 3. Anconal aspect of the left humerus of Microjms melanoleucus. 

x4. 
Fig. 4. Palmar aspect of the bone shown in fig. 3. X 4. 
Fig. 5. Anconal aspect of the left humerus of Tvochihis alexandri. x8. 
Fig. 6. Palmar aspect of the bone shown in fig. 5. x8. 

By " anconal " I mean that side of the bone which is next to the body 
of the bird, and the reverse of this is the " palmar " aspect. All these 
figures are drawn from the specimens by the author, and />./. calls atten- 
tion to the pneumatic foi^sa. 

SKU. VI. VOL. V. H 



98 Dr. R. W. Shufeldt on 

liowever, that Professor Huxley, who has carefully examined 
the skeletons of Swallows and Swifts with the view of com- 
paring the relative lengths of the arm-bones in them, has 
said^ " No distinction can be based upon the proportions of 
the regions of the fore limb, since in all the Swallows which 
I have examined the nianus and the an tibrachium, respectively, 
greatly exceed the humerus in length, though the excess is 
not so great as in Cijpselus" (P. Z. S. 1867, p. 456). It is 
no wonder that Professor Huxley, at the conclusion of his 
researches in such fields, was prepared to say that " the 
Cypselidse are very closely related to the Swallows among 
the Coracomorphfe " {he. cit. p. 469) . 

Passing to the skeleton of the pelvic limb, we find no 
trouble in selecting a number of very " definite osteological 
differences,^' for in — 

Cypseli Trochili 

{Microjms). (Trochilus alexandii). 

45. Skeleton of the pelvic limb 45. Skeleton of pelvic limb not 
is characteristic. ' especially characteristic. 

Distal end of tibio-tarsus pecu- Distal end of tibio-tarsus normal. 
liarl}' twisted. 

46. Pro- and ectocnemial ridges 46. Pro- and ectocnemial ridges 
not developed. rudimentary. 

47. Patella absent. 47. A large patella present. 

48. JPYiw/rt! does not extend below 48. Not peculiar, 
the fibular ridge on tibia (as in 

Conurus). 

49. Ilypotarsus of tarsu-meta- 49. Hypotarsus of tarso-meta- 
tarsus containing one deep groove ^f/ysz^s both ^j/ercef/ and grooved for 
to pass the tendons. tendons. 

60. Joints of 7;e5 abnormal, being 50. Joints oi pes normal, being 

2, 3, 3, 3, and, upc.n the whole, the 2, 3, 4, 5, and, upon the whole, the 

skeleton indicating a very weak skeleton indicating a good, strong 

foot. foot for the size of the bird. 

So, instead of Cypseli and Trochili not exhibiting any 
''definite osteological differences^' in their pelvic limbs, there 
appear to be some very radical ones. 

Were we to meet with the fossil remains of the peUic limb 
of a specimen of Micropus melanoleiicus, and the same of a 
Trochilus, standing clearly out in their stony matrix, with all 
their characters in view — tell me, where could we find the 



Sir'/fts and Hii mining -birds. 



99 



oniitlulogist, i^iiided by sucli data alouc, who would restrict 
them to the same fainihj ? 

Upon examining and comparing the anatomy of the 
"soft parts" in Swifts, Swallows, and Humming-birds, 
we at once meet with numerous diffeiences of the most 
decided character in the case of the first and last mentioned, 
as com|)arison will show. 



Cypsf.i.i. 

51. Ill the arm, the tensor pntagii 
hrevis muscle is thick and quadri- 
lateral in form, and is inserted 
directlij upon a tendinous fascia on 
the suiface of the extetisor mefa- 
cmyi radidlis h>nr/ior (see fifr. 28, 
pi. 22, Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. 
(Lend.), vol XX. 

52. Three pectoral muscles, all 
well developed. 

63. Insertion of pccturnlis vmjor 
essentially agveeiu;; with that of the 
Swallows. 

54. Pcctornlis secundus muscle 
inserted at the head of the humerus 
upon its anconal side, between the 
summit and radial crest or hook. 

55. Arrangement of plraitar ten- 
dons of ]:es peculiar, and diftering 
entirely from that of the Trocliili. 
(See Garrod, Coll. Sci. Piipers, 
p. 294, and Shufeldt, Linn. Memoir, 
p. 374.) 

56. Carotid artery single (except 
in Ci/j)seIoides \) , and arising from 
the aorta at a considerable distance 
from the niediau line. 

67. Heart (in size), in proportion 
with the bird, short. (See Liuneau 
Soc. Mem. figs. .'55 and 3<), jil. 2.'>, 
vol. XX.) 

58. Trachea and bronchial tubes 
normal and entirely different from 
what we find in the Trochili, being 
more Hke those parts in the RwmI- 
luws. 



TuocHri-i. 

51. lu the arm, the tensor pafa(/ii 
breois muscle is thick and conical 
in form, and is inserted uj.on a 
special tendm, which latter passes 
to the carpus for insertion. Other- 
wise peculiar. '^See Garrod, Coll. 
Sci. Papers, tig. 1, pi. xxiv., and my 
tig. 29 of Linneau memoir.) 

52. Three pectoral muscles, ewor- 
moudy developed. 

53. Insertion of /7ec#o;'rt//s major, 
owing to absence of " radial crest," 
is inserted on shaft of bone. 

54. Pectoralis secimdiis muscle 
inserted at tlie distal margin of the 
pneumatic fossa, its tendon crossing 
the head of the humerus. 

55. Arrangement oi' plantar ten- 
dons of pes much as we find theiu 
in the Passe res ; quite ditlcrent 
froin the Ci/jfseli, and with a very 
" definite difference." 

56. ('arotid artery single (no 
known exceptions), and arising from 
the aorta not far from the median 
line. 

57. Heart of enormou.s size in 
proportion with the size of the bird, 
luarki dly Ian//. 

58. Trachea and bronchi.il tubes 
almost unique (their countei-part 
seen only [?] iu Ajajn !). (See 
.Iiiuru. Linn. Soc. lig. ."i-''!, jil. 23, 
\ 111. w. I 

II 2 



100 On Siriffs and Hnmming-hlrds. 

59. Tico pairs of s^yriugeal niiis- 50. Several pairs of syringeal 

cles; sterno-trachea/eshemg present. muscles (Macgillivray) ; sterno- 
Musciilature of the syrinx differing tracheales absent (rare in birds). 
entirely from anything seen in the Entire syrinx and its muscles differ- 
Trochili. eut from those of any l^nown Swift. 

CO. Morphology of the liver GO. Morphology of the /iV«- quite 

agreeing in the main with the difterent from that of the Swallows. 
Swallows. Lobes so disposed as to entirely hide 

the other abdominal viscera when 

viewed upon the ventral aspect. 

Gl. Morphology of the «?;'iVe di- Gl. Morphology of the eiitire 

gestive tract agreeing in the main digestive tract strikingly peculiar. 

with that of the Fasseres, and espe- Intestine of comparatively largo 

cially the Swallows. calibre and proportions ; stomach 

remarJitthlif reduced in size ; rectal 

cloaca bulbous. 

It is a fact that intestinal cseoa arc absent in hotli CypseJl and 
Trochili. but tliey are also present in some Parrots and absent 
in others of the same group. As a character, it would seem, 
these organs are not of any very great classificatory value. 

The comparative notes presented in the present paper have 
been carefully selected from my former writings upon this sub- 
ject, and a reading of what has been written about Swifts, Swal- 
lows, and Humming-birds for tlie last five years, and, finally, 
based on a critical examination of much additional material. 
It will be seen that I have selected only 61 anatomical points, 
but they are each and all points of "definite diiference," and 
to my mind clearly establish the fact that the Cypseli and 
Trochili are not, morphologicaliy speaking, related groups of 
birds. It will further be seen that the structures selected 
for comparison have been found in nearly every system of 
the economy, and there can be no doubt that by the aid of 
the dissecting-lens many others would come to light. 

It gives me pleasure to submit these 61 important struc- 
tural differences existing between the Cypseli and the Trochili 
to the thoughtful systematist in ornithology, confident as I am 
that after their weight has been duly appreciated there will no 
longer be any doubt in his mind that not only is a typical Swift 
a widely different kind of bird from a Humming-bird, but 
that in reality, after all, the Swifts are but greatly modified 
Swallows, as so much in their structr-re undoubtedly indicates. 



On C()U('Ctin(j in Koiia, Hairaii. 101 

VIII. — Notes ua Cullectlng in Kona, Hawaii. 
By R. C. L. Perkins, B.A * 

The district of Kona embraces a considerable portion of the 
western side of Hawaii, and includes portions of the two 
mountains Mauna Lja and Hualalai. The lower slopes up 
to 1500 or 1(300 feet have few forest-trees^ save, here and 
there, the kukui and lehua ; they are mostly covered with 
dense masses of the introduced lantana, the guava, and 
especialh'^ near the coast with prickly pear or cactus. 

From about 1700 to more than 3000 feet the forest has a 
distinct character. It consists mainly of the lehua-tree, 
which here is of an enormous size and height, the koa, and 
several other trees of smaller size. On the rough lava-flows 
these trees are thickest and most luxuriant ; in the spaces 
between the flows they have largely been destroyed by the 
cattle, and these spaces, which are up to about 3000 feet 
waist-deep in the hilo grass, more resemble English park- 
land than thick woods. Tree-ferns, which were once very 
numerous, are now much scattered in these spaces, but are 
more plentiful on the lava. That cattle destroy them is 
certain, for in dry seasons they are cut up by the natives for 
the purpose of feeding their animals. 

Both on the rough flows and in the more open country the 
Frey cine tin (ieie) climljs high up the trees, but except on the 
roughest lava it shows no leaves or flowers for a considerable 
height, the cattle eating off the shoots as high as they are 
able to reach. Even in the now open grass-covered land not 
many years ago the trees were all united by the ieie vines, while 
the tree-ferns were in profusion as low as 1 100 feet. Of the 
smaller trees mentioned above (some of which are still found 
in the open, though they are most luxuriant on the rough 
lava) the following are predominant : — The opiko, a broad- 
leaved tree of considerable size, which is largely destroyed by 
the cattle ; the olomea, with red- veined leaves ; the mamaki, 

* Cuinnmuicated on behalf of the Joint Committee appointed by the 
Koval Society and the Britisii Association to investigate the Zoology of 
the S.uuhvich Islands. 



10.2 :Mr. R. C. L. Perkins on 

from which the natives used to make their kapas ; the small- 
L;aved kulea, and the papain, from which they obtained their 
bird-lime. 

Somewhere between 3000 and 4000 feet there is a decided 
change in the flora, and at the same time the fauna also 
ciianges. The i-ough-barked koa and another smooth species 
of acacia still abound, or rather increase in numbers, Avhile 
the bastard sandal {aaka) grows in profusion, and the true 
scandal less abundantly. The rnamane, with its yellow 
blossoms prolific in insects, is ver}^ numerous, and also the 
alii, on which 1 several times saw feeding the beautiful 
little orange-coloured Loxops ['' Akakani''). On the rough 
lava-flows the maile, from which ai'e made " lets " (or wreaths), 
grows here and there, but has largely been eaten and destroyed 
by the cattle, and probably \;ill shortly disappear altogether 
in this locality. It exudes a white juice, and wlien the young 
shoots are taken and the peel and leaves stripped off entire, 
as is done in making the " Ids," the scent is veiy sweet, 
much like that of a hay-field. The flat table-land between 
Hualalai and Manna Loa is nearly bare of trees, but produces 
the ohelo or native strawberry, the pukiawe, with red or 
Avhite berries, and a creeping plant called ulei with white 
blossoms. The Cape goosebern^ or poka, w'ith yellow flowers 
attractive to the honey-bee, grows luxuriantly both above and 
below 4000 feet. It has a round acid fruit, the size of a 
cherry, from which excellent jam and jelly are made. A 
large proportion of the insects are restricted to one or other 
of these tAvo distinctly-marked regions, and this is also the 
case with some birds. The Oo{Acridocercus nobilis) appears to 
belong to the lower district only, the Finches Chloridups, 
Rhodacanthis, and Psittacirostra, and the short-billed Heini- 
gnathus to the upper. The long-billed Hemifjnathus is found 
in both districts, while Chasiempis and Phceor7iis range from 
the lowest to the highest limits of the forest proper. 

These western slopes of Mauna Loa may be truly called a 
bird-paradise. If one excludes those of our own birds which 
go in large flocks, I doubt whether there is any place in 
England so prolific in individuals, though t\\Q ftpecies here are 



Collecthiy in Kunu, Hawaii. 1C3 

of course limited in numbers. At about 4000 feet both 
species and specimens reach their maximum. Most abundant 
and widely-ranging of the Finches is the "On" {Loxioides 
bailleui). This bird often goes iu little companies and 
wanders quite below tlie true forest, being partial to the large 
kukui trees. It has a somewhat sweet song, which at times 
reminds one of the Canary, and frequently several will sing 
in concert. I have noticed that it often sings while on 
the wing. It belongs strictly to the lower of the two districts 
that I have mentioned, for its food is mainly the red flower 
of the ieie, but in the interval between the decay of the old 
blossoms and the opening of the new many specimens strayed, 
even up to 4000 feet, into the haunts of Psittacirostra, when 
the song of both migljt be heard in the same locality. The 
Ou po-papale ( Psittacirostra psittacea) is confined to the upper 
forest, where its chief food (the beans of the mamale) is found ; 
its song is pleasing, but to me less so than that of the Oa. I 
have found by dissection that it is also largely insectivorous, 
being particularly fond of lepidopterous larvae. In one case 
I found an adult male crammed with examples of a brilliant 
yellow, black, and green larva of moderate size which feeds 
on the mamane, and would certainly be regarded as possessing 
in the highest degree the so-called '^ warning colours." This 
species ranges to a considerable height up the mountains. I 
noticed it on Hualalai up to about 6000 feet. 

The Koa Finch {Rlwdacant/tis palineri) is the largest and 
most beautiful of all the Hawaiau Finches. It frequents 
the tallest and most leafy acacias, both when growdng on 
the roughest lava-flows and in the grassy openings in the 
forest. It belongs entirely to the upper forest, and is j^ro- 
bably most numerous at about 4000 feet. Its peculiar 
whistle, though not very loud, is very clear, and can be 
heard for a considerable distance. If imitated closely it will 
readily answer, and sometimes, after fruitless hunting for 
hours without even hearing a sound from this bird, a whistle 
has been immediately responded to. At other times a distant 
bird has been drawn close by the imitation of its wdiistle and 
easily secured. It devours the beans of the acacia, and these 



104 Mr. R. C. L. Perkins on 

it svvallows in very large pieces. I think that the enormous 
development of the abdominal portion of the body must be 
connected with this habit. I have seen both male and feuiale 
feeding the full-grown young, and as I could find nothing 
but the large pieces of koa beau in the latter, I conclude 
that the young are fed on pieces similar to those swallowed 
by the parents, without mastication. The young male soon 
acquires the peculiar whistle, for I have shot one in almost 
perfect song in quite immature plumage and with the skull 
still cartilnginous. It does not restrict itself to the koa 
bean, but varies its diet by feeding on lepidopterous larvse, 
just as the Psittacirostra does ; for this purpose it generally 
descends into the aaka or bastard sandal-wood trees, and, 
as was the case with that bird, I liave found in the crop of 
Hhodacanthis larvse with conspicuous "warning" colours. 
When it has been feeding on the koa beans its bill is often 
much stained with their green juice and green fragments. 
The female I have heard to utter a rather deep single 
note when alarmed. On one occasion when 1 had shot a 
male I heard his mate repeatedly utter this note, and she con- 
tinued to do so for some five minutes, but seemingly possessed 
some ventriloquial power — the sound seeming now in front, 
now behind, now near, now far ; yet it was utterly impossible 
that the bird could have flown Avithout my being aware of it. 
At last the bird became silent, and I never caught sight of it 
at all. 

The Pallia {Chloridops kona) , though an interesting bird on 
account of its peculiar structure, is a singularly uninteresting 
one in its habits. It is a dull, sluggish, solitary bird, and 
very silent — its whole existence may be summed up in the 
word "to eat." Its food consisting of the seeds of the fruit 
of the aaka (bastard sandal- tree, and probably at other 
seasons of those of the sandal- wood tree), and as these are 
very minute, its whole time seems to be taken up in cracking 
the extremely hard shells of this fruit, for which its extra- 
ordinarily powerful beak and heavy head have been developed. 
I think there must have been hundreds of the small white 
kernels in those that I examined. The incessant erackinff of 



Colli'ct'uiij ill Koiia, Hawaii. 105 

the fruits wlien one ol: these birds is feeding, the noise of which 
can be heard for a considerable distance, renders the bird much 
easier to get than it otherwise woukl be. It is mostly found 
on the roughest Liva, but also wanders into the open spaces 
in the forest. I never heard it sing (I once mistook the young 
Rhodacanthis' song for that of the Chloridops), but my boy 
infoi'med me that he had heard it once, and that its song was 
not like that of Rhoducant'iis. Only once did I see it display 
any real activity, when a male and female were in active 
pursuit of one another amongst the sandal-trecs. Its beak 
is nearly always very dirty, with a brown substance adherent 
to it, which must be derived from the sandal-nuts. 

Of the Drepaaididce the rarest species was Loxops coccinea. 
I saw only the adult and young male, and these were mostly 
feeding on insects either amongst the blossoms of the alii tree 
or on the foliage of the acacias. Their habits seemed almost 
identical with those of the yellow species of Himalione. I 
never heard any proper song, nothing more than a squeaking 
like that of the female Hiinatione. On several occasions it 
was in company with the small straight-billed Himatione ; on 
two of these I saw it pursue the latter from tree to tree, and 
on another the Himatione was itself the aggressor. On one 
of these occasions I shot the green bird, and it was bevond 
doubt the Hiinatione, and not a green female of Loxops. 
Loxops is apparently confined to the upper forest. 

Both the gr^en species of Himalione are abundant in Koiui, 
that with the curved bill (//. virens) especially so, and particu- 
larly in the higher forest. However, it ranges down in some 
numbers even as low as 1400 or 1500 feet. ^Ihe straight-billed 
species^, on the other hand, I failed to notice in the lower forest, 
though it was common enough at 4000 feet, nor did the male 
appear to assume a bright yellow plumage as in the other 
species. They are chiefly insectivorous, feeding on lepido- 
pterous larvse and other insects, but the curved-lnlled species 
is in places very paitial to the lehva flowers, as on Oahu. On 
the rough lava, on which this tree grows abundantly, at the 
foot of the Hualalai, where the moiintain rises suddenly from 

* //. ijicnni, S. I'l. ^^■ilsMll, Ann. »'v Miti^-. ;<. ILscr. li, \ ii. p. -JHO ( ISIM ). 



106 Mr. R. C. L. Perkins on 

the table-land, I frequently observed them sueking the honey 
of these blossoms, and, in company with Himatione sanguinea, 
on the same tree, certainly as high as 7000 feet up that 
mountain — at an altitude where in the morning the ground 
was covered with hoar-frost. 

But, besides feeding amongst the foliage and flowers, both 
these birds are very commonly seen to feed on the trunks 
and branches of trees living and dead, picking off the insects 
and tapping at the bark and rotten wood. The yellow species 
also comes down to feed on the po/ia plants. Whether it eats 
the fruit I cannot say ; it is more probable that it feeds on the 
insects {e.g. a species of Brachypephis) that are found in 
the fruits of this plant ; but, on the other hand, it is possibly 
the holes in the fruit that attract the beetles, for these holes 
are generally larger than the size and number of the beetles 
would account for. I have seen the nest in several trees, 
and at very different heights in these trees. It is lined with 
roots, and has many fruit-capsules of the poha, dry and 
more or less skeletonized, woven in the outside. 

Vestiuria coccinea is extremely common and wide-ranging, 
far more so than the crimson HimatioJie, which seems to 
prefer the higher forest. The Vestiaria even comes into the 
lots in front of the hou-es, visiting the peach and rose trees, 
and on one specimen, which was knocked over by a native giil 
-with a stone Avhile visiting the latter blossoms and brought to 
me, I found several specimens of a flattened parasitic fly, 
perhaps identical with the smaller of the two found on the 
Owl. At any rate, in form it is superficially quite the same 
sort of thing. 

But of all the birds of Kona the most interesting in habits is 
the shorter-billed Hemignathus [H. obscurus) . The mere sight 
of so extraordinary a form could hardly fail to awaken in any 
one a keen desire to witness the manner of its feeding, and this 
I have many times been able to accomplish. It is a common 
bird from rather below 4000 feet to some hundreds of 
feet above that altitude, and most probably much higher 
still. It is most partial to the larger acacias, running up 
and down the limbs and trunks with equal casic, and also 



Collecfi/n/ in Kona, Hawaii. 107 

both oil tlie upper and lower surfaces of the branches. It 
was on the 11th of July, soon after my arrival at a sufficient 
altitude for this bird, that I first saw one, a fine bright male, 
feeding. When 1 first caught sight of it it was some ten 
yards off; but I easily got closer without searing it in the 
slightest. Being bare-footed and bare-legged at the time, and 
the ground being overgrown with a very prickly introduced 
thistle, after following it for half an hour 1 found my feet 
somewhat painful. Meanwhile the bird kept straying over 
the fallen trunks, turning its head, now right, now left, in 
its desire for food. In this manner it searched both sides of 
the tree in one journey without retracing its steps. And 
this is how it uses its bill : — The upper inaudible it plunges 
into the small holes or cracks in the wood, while the lower 
presses on the surface of the bark. By this means, I imagine, 
it gets a considerable leverage to liclp it in opening out the 
burrows of the insects. In the same way it thrusts its upper 
bill under the loose bark, resting the lower one on the 
surface, and in this way strips the bark off. The upper 
mandible, though so thin, is very strong and somewhat 
flexible; while the curve of the bill follows the curve of the 
burrow, for insects nearly always barrow more or less in a 
cuive. Should the curve of the burrow not agree with the 
curve of the bill, the difficulty is overcome both by the 
slight flexibility of the beak and by the wonderful flexibility 
of the bird's neck, which it twists round so as to bring the 
curve of the bill to follow that of the burrow. In this 
manner it gets out its prey, being largely aided by the long 
tongue, which is as long as the upper beak. Every now and 
then it gives several blows to the trunk, the sound of which 
may be heard at a considerable distance, sometimes, I think, 
to frighten out its prey to the entrance of the burrow, some- 
times for the purpose of actually breaking the Avood. 

I had several other opportunities of observing this bird 
when feeding, afterwards ; the blows that it gives to the 
trunk and branches are dealt Avith great vigour and with 
the beak wide agape, so that the points of both mandibles 
come in contact with the surfnce. One hot morning, shortly 



108 Mr. R. C. L. Peildiis on 

before I left Koua^ I watched one of these birds for some 
time lying on a branch of the mamane and basking in the 
sun. Now and then it wonld lazily tnrn and peck at the 
bark withont changing its position. Suddeidy it started vip 
and commenced to feed in earnest^ dealing blows with 
savage energy. Into these blows it throws its whole weight, 
swinging backwards from the thighs to renew each stroke. In 
some cases at least these blows are for the purpose of driving 
out insects, or at any rate have that result ; for several times 
I saw the bird after a stroke make a sudden dart, sometimes 
even taking an insect on the wing, and, after swallowing it 
with evident satisfaction, return again to its labour. Its song 
is short but rather pleasing, and, as one would expect from 
its habits, full of life and energy. 

The long-billed species [Hemignathus oUvaceus) is also au 
interesting bird, as in its habits it is intermediate between 
Himatione and its short-billed relative. Himatione mainly 
feeds on insects amongst the leaves and flowers of the forest 
trees, but not infrequently pecks at the bark in true Wood- 
pecker style. In the long-billed Hemiynathus this mode of 
feeding becomes much more usual, and its tapping may often 
be heard in acacia and other trees; still it feeds largely on 
insects amongst the leaves of the lehiias, &c., while the short- 
billed species has almost entirely assumed a Woodpecker's 
habits. This bird is by no means confined to the lower forest, 
but extends its range right up into the haunts of the short- 
billed bird, where they may be seen even in the same tree. 
I rarely heard it sing. Its song reminded me somewhat of 
that of the yellow Himatione, but was distinct enough. 

And here it will be appropriate to notice the scent emitted 
by so many and so different species of Hawaian birds. I 
cannot liken this scent to any other that I know ; but I should 
certainly call it disagreeable. In Himatione it is strongest 
of all, so much so that when a small company of these 
birds was overhead in the trees the whole air was often full 
of it ; both my native assistant and myself noticed it again 
and again. Certain nests I could readily recognize as 
belonging to Himatione by the overpowering scent that 



CoUecthni in Konci, Hawuli. 109 

still clung to them after the young had flown. It may 
also be noticed in Hemignathus j Loxioides, Psittacirostra , 
Chloridops, and Rhodacanthis ; in some specimens much more 
strongly than others, in some perhaps not at all. Whether the 
red birds Loxops, Vest/aria, and Himatione sangumea possess 
it I have not noticed. It is absent from the birds related 
to the Australian forms — the Oo, Clinsienip'is, and Phccor'tiis. 
How this scent, exactly the same in quality, comes to be 
attached to the insect-eating Drepan\did(R, and to such species 
as Chloridops kona, which appears to live entirely on the 
seeds of the fruit of the sandal-trees, I cannot imagine. 

In the low er forest the Oo [Acrulocercus nobilis) was a com- 
mon bird, frequenting, as is well known, the lofty lehua-trees^, 
especially when growing on the rough lava. Save its anti- 
pathy to the rrd birds [Vestiaria) , its habits arc difficult to 
observe, as it usually keeps very high up in the trees. Its 
peculiar cry, rather more like " ow-ow '' than " oo," is very 
curious, and it would readily respond and even approach 
when I imitated its voice. The young bird is without the 
tufts of yellow feathers beneath the wings. I strongly 
suspect it builds in holes in the trunks of the le/ma-irees at 
a great elevation^ as my native assistant and a white boy, who 
was with him at the time, assured me that they saw one of 
these birds enter such a hole two or three times, but that 
they could not possibly climb up, though they made the 
attempt. This was about the middle of June — at the same 
time that I obtained the young, which certainly had not been 
long out of the nest. 

The single species of Chasiempis[C. sandwichensis) found in 
Kona is one of the commonest birds, extending its range from 
about 1100 feet to the limits of proper forest on Manna Loa, 
and also high up Hualahii. It is a pretty species, with great 
difference in colour between the young and the old ; in this 
respect resembling the Oahuan species, in both cases snowy- 
white feathers in the adult taking the place of rufous feathers 
in the young. On one occasion I obtained a rufous female 
along with the ordinarily coloured male and their young, 
just out of the nest ; but this I believe to be a very unusual 



110 iMr. R. C. L. Perkins on 

circumstance^ the female probably being a young specimen 
breeding before it had assumed adult plumage. The male 
Avas quite typical. The adult female closely resembles the 
male, but the latter is black under the gorge, and I believe 
the feathers there become blacker in the breeding-season, 
just as the hackles of our common Starling lose their white 
tips at this season^ bat the change is less marked in Chasi- 
empis. I have no doubt all the Kona birds belong to one 
species, the rufous birds nearly always having an entirely or 
partially unossified skull. These birds live chiefly on insects 
and their larvae. The insects they often take on the wing, 
their beaks closing with a very audible snap, often nearly as 
loud as the " cracking " of Chloridops. They frequently 
descend to the ground or on to fallen trees, where they get 
wood-boring larvse or small myriapods. With reference to this 
habit I had the following anecdote from a native woman in 
Kona ; — '' Of all the birds the most celebrated in ancient 
times was the Elepeio, and for this reason. When the old 
natives used to go up into the forest to get wood for their 
canoes, when they had felled their tree the Elepeio would come 
down to it. If it began to peck it was a bad sign, as the 
•wood was no good, being unsound ; if, on the contrary, 
without pecking, it called out ' Ona ka ia' ' Sw^eet the fish,' 
the timber was sound. ^' The names Elepeio and Ona ka ia 
(pronounced dnokdid) are both creditable Avord-imitations of 
the cry of Chasiempis under various emotions, here pre- 
sumably of disgust. 

Phoiornis obscvrus, though a dull-coloured species, is an in- 
teresting bird and by far the finest songster of any that I have 
so far met with in the islands. Its song somewhat resembles 
that of our Thrush^ but it also utters many curious sounds 
under different emotions. Especially noticeable are a deep 
gruff" single note, and a noise somewhat approaching to a hiss. 
Were it not for Dr. Gadow's investigations"^ I should have 
considered it a close ally to Chasiempis, which, instead of 
developing in colour, lias developed entirely in voice. In 

* Cf. 'Birds of the Sandwich Islauds/ by S. B. ^Vilson and A. II- 
Evans, part ii. 



CuUcct'nu/ In Kuna, Hairaii. 11] 

many of its liabits it differs from Chasiempis in degree rather 
than in kind. Some of their sounds uttered on distnrbaneo 
are very similar, though generally deeper in Phceornis. Both 
assume exactly similar positions when disturbed, with upright 
tail and down-drooped wings. Instead of the shivering 
wings of Plueornis you see a quicker, more jerky moveaient 
in Chasiempis ; but only the day before I left Kona, I saw 
the latter put on a genuine shiver exactly like that of PhcB- 
ornis, and the nosition in both species while these move- 
ments are performed is, as above stated^ exactly the same. 
Both live on insects and catch them in a similar manner. 
I have seen PhcBornis take them when on the wing just like 
Chasiempis. It would be interesting to compare the young 
of the two genera together, for so far as I can see from a 
single old and badly preserved, but evidently immature, 
specimen of P. lanaiensis in the Bishop Museum, this species 
shows reddish spots very similar to the young of Chasiempis. 
Of Chasiempis I have several times found the nest (wdthout 
eggs, unfortunately). It is small, very neat and compact, 
placed from 10 to 80 feet from the ground, and generally 
well concealed. That of Phaornis I have not found, though 
the bird is so common. The burst of song which Phceornis 
gives forth on the wing, usually when descending from the 
top of a lofty tree to a lower, is very striking, and different 
individuals sing in turn, quite evidently in rivalry of each 
other. 

The Hawk [Bnteo soli tar i us) is common on Mauna Loa, 
extending its range from near the sea-level to high up the 
mountains. It preys on mice (apparently the common hou'<(>- 
mouse). I have taken as many as five large ones froii a 
single bird. When thus gorged it can scarcely be made to 
move, and it is hardly possible to scare aw^ay the old from 
the vicinity of their young. 

The Crow [Corvus tropicus) chiefly belongs to the lower 
forest, where it feeds largely on i\\eieie flowers, more especially, 
I think, when decayed. In the interval between the disap- 
pearance of the old and the opening of the new flowers 
this bird came up the mountains in large numbers, often 



n.2 The Hon. W. Rotliscliild on new Birds 

even as liigli as 4000 feet, where they fed freely on the fruit 
of the jjoha. With the opening of the fresh flowers of the 
Freycinetia they disappeared again. 

As on Oahu, many of the birds in Kona had swellings on 
the legs and feet; in some cases they had even lost one or 
more claws and parts of the toes. The species affected were 
Himatione, Heiyiignathus, Chasiempis, Loxioides, and Rhoda- 
canthis. It is probably, I think, the result of damp, as in 
almost every case the birds affected were those shot within 
the raiu-belt, while those above, even of the same species, 
were almost if not quite always free. 



IX. — Dc script ions of Three new Birds from the Sandwich 
Islands. By the Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Fam. Dre PANiDiD.E. 

1. Heimignathus affinis, sp. n. 

This bird is very closely allied to H. hanapepe, of Kauai, 
but differs in having the head, throat, and upper breast more 
golden yellow, and the back, rump, and npper wing-coverts 
dull olive colour instead of greenish yellow. Moreover, in 
H. affinis the yellow of the head terminates abruptly at the 
occiput, while it gradually passes into the colour of the back 
in H. hanapejie. The anal region and under tail-coverts are 
yellowish green, whilst in H. hanapepe they are white. 
Total length about 5 inches, wing 3"05, tail 2, tarsus 0'85^ 
culm en 1"2. 

Hah. Island of Mauai, Sandwich group. 

2. LOXOPS OCHRACEA, sp. n. 

The male of this very distinct species differs from L. coc- 
cinea and L. flammea in its dull ochraceous colour on the 
upper parts, fading into yellowish chestnut on the lower 
breast and ventral region. Under ta'l- coverts dull orange- 
vellow^ tail-feathers plumbeous, edged externally with ochra- 
ceous yellow. Total length about 4 inches, wing 2'5, tarsus 
0*75, culmen 0-4. 

The female is very similar to that of L. coccinen, but on 



from the Sandivich Idands. 113 

the upper surface is of a more blackish-green colour, and on 
the underparts of a more olivaceous and dingy colour. Tail 
more blackish than in L. coccinea, and the pale greenish 
edges of the feathers less conspicuous. 

Hab. Island of Mauai. 

To prevent confusion I append the description of the 
hitherto undescribed first plumage of the male o£ L. coccinea, 
of the island of Hawaii : — 

Head, back, and rump deep sepia-brown, slightly flushed 
with red, becoming more conspicuous on the rump ; throat, 
breast, and ventral region salmon-coloured; thighs pinkish 
brown ; tail and wings blackish brown, each feather edged 
with dull red. 

Fam. Meliphagid^. 
Palmeria, gen. nov. 
This genus is nearest to Acrulocercus, but differs from it 
in the three following points : — 

(1) The tail is square and has no elongated central tail- 
feathers. 

(2) There is a heavy crest of long curled feathers on the 
forehead, much like the crest of certain species of Sturno- 
pastor. 

(3) The beak is straighter, much shorter, and more pointed 
than in Acrulocercus, and in this respect Palmeria more 
nearly approaches my genus Viridonia (Ann. N. H. ser. 6, 
vol. X. p. 112, 1892). 

3. Palmeria mirabilis, sp. n. 

Curled feathers of the forehead greyish white ; top of head 
with a crest of long and very narrow feathers of a dark grey 
colour, faintly tipped with vermilion, which latter colour 
gradually increases till the feathers on the back of the neck 
and occiput are only grey at their basal half. Feathers on 
the shoulders, back, and rump dull greyish black, with a 
narrow greyish-white shaft-line, which at the tip of the 
feather forms a roundish subterminal spot, followed by a ter- 
minal spot of a dull yellowish pink. Tail and quills blackish, 

ser. VI. VOL. v. I 



114 Bulletin of the British 

the latter with a white outer margin. Three innermost 
secondaries with broad wliite tips. Sides of the head and 
neck leaden grey. Round the eye is a broad circle of pale 
orange-pink feathers. Feathers of the breast leaden grey, 
with markings similar to the hack, only the sul)termiual and 
terminal spots are much smaller. Abdomen almost similar 
to rump ; thighs yellowish vermilion ; under tail-coverts 
yellowish grey ; bill and feet black. Total length about 
6*75 inches, wing 8-5, tail 275, tarsus 1-25, culmen 0'75. 
Hab. Island of Mauai. 



X, — Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. Nos. I. -III. 
No. I. (Nov. 1st, 1892.) 

The Inaugural Meeting of the British Ornithologists' Club 
took place at the Mona Hotel, Henrietta Street, Covent 
Garden, on Wednesday, October 5th, 1892. 

Chairman: P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. 

The following Members of the British Ornithologists' Union 
were also present: — E. Bidw^ell, W. T. Blanford, F.R.S., 
Philip Crowley, W. Graham, W. R. Ogilvie Grant, T. J. 
Monk, F. Penrose, Count T. Salvadori, Howard Saunders, 
W. L. Sclater, Henry Seebohm, Dr. R. Bowdler Sharpe, 
H. T. Wharton, and John Young. 

Guests : Mr. E. Dligen, Mr. W. P. Pycraft, Mr. Oldfield 
Thomas, Mr. A. Smith Woodward. 

The Rules of the Club were discussed and settled. A 
Committee was appointed, consisting of Mr. E. Bidwell, the 
Earl of Gainsborough, Mr. H. Seebohm, and the Editor 
of ' The Ibis.' Mr. Howard Saunders was elected Secretary 
and Treasurer to the Club. 

It was determined to hold a Meeting on the third Wednes- 
day in every month from October to June inclusive, an 
abstract of the proceedings to be printed as soon as possible 
after each Meeting, under the title of the Bulletin of the 



Ornithologists'' Club. 115 

British Ornithologists' Club, and distributed gratis to every 
Member. Copies of tliis monthly ' Bulletin ' will be published 
by Mr. R. H. Porter, 18 Princes Street, Cavendish Square, W. 

Dr. II. BowDLER Sharpe was appointed Editor of the 
' Bulletin.' 

Mr. Ed'ward Degen read a ])aper " On some o£ the main 
Features in the Evolution of the Bird's Wing/' which was 
illustrated by diagrams and specimens. After having briefly 
summarized the pterylography of the wing, Mr. Degen in- 
vited attention to two small feathers in the carpal region, 
lying between the cubital and metacarpal remiges. These 
had been considered by Wray to belong, the upper to 
the median, and the under to the major row of coverts. 
But Mr. Degen had come to the conclusion that the so-called 
major covert Avas really a degenerated remex, whilst the 
''median" tectrix was neither more nor less than its major 
covert. In short, Wray's '' rudimentary " major covert 
belonged to the remiges, and his " median " to the tectrices 
majores. Mr. Degen proposed to call the covert the "carpal 
covert," and the underlying feather the '' vestigial remex." 
He further pointed out that hitherto the major coverts had 
been held to lie proximally to their respective remiges, whilst 
in reality the reverse was the case. 

Finally, and as the result of the foregoing deductions, 
Mr. Degen advanced a theory with regard to aquincubitalisra 
and the probable derivation of the cubital remiges from the 
3rd and ^th metacarpo-digitals. 

A discussion followed, in which Messrs. Sclater, Seebohm, 
and Pycraft took part. 



No. II. (Nov. 1st, 1892.) 

The first regular meeting of the Club was held at the Mona 
Hotel, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, on Wednesday, 
October 19th, 1892. 

i2 



116 Bulletin of the British 

Chairman: P. L. Scl<^ter, F.R.S. 

Members present : — E. Bidwell, W. Eagle Clarke, 
Philip Crowley, W, Graham, A. P. Loyd, St. George 
MivART, F.R.S. , H. J. Pearson, Robert H. Read, Count 
T. Salvadori, Howard Saunders, Henry Seebohm, Dr. R. 
BowDLER Sharpe, Capt. Horace Terry, "VV. B. Tegetmeier, 
J. T. Tristram-Valentine, Charles A. Wright, John 
Young. 

Mr. Howard Saunders informed the Meeting that the 
number of Members who had joined the Club up to the 
19th of October was GO. 

Mr. ScLATER announced that he had received for 'The 
Ibis ' an excellent Memoir on the birds of the vicinity of 
Aden, prepared by Lieut. Henry E. Barnes, M.B.O.U., 
and lately attached to the Commissariat Department at 
Aden. It contained an account of 126 species of birds 
collected or observed in the vicinity of Aden. Mr. Sclater 
exhibited some specimens sent home by Lieut. Barnes from 
Aden for examination. Amongst these were examples 
of Falco barbarus, Halcyon semicceruleus , and Coturnix 
delegorguei, which last was stated to be equally abundant 
near Aden with C. communis. 

Mr. Henry Seebohm exhibited some interesting species 
of birds procured by Mr. Hoist in the ' Loo-Choo ' or ' Liu 
Kiu ' Islands. The collection would be fully described in the 
January number of ' The Ibis/ 

Dr. R. Bowdler Sharpe called attention to a collection 
of birds recently received by the Natural History Museum 
from Mr. A. H. Everett, the well-known Bornean traveller. 
Among other interesting specimens Mr. Everett had sent skins 
of Motacilla melanope from the Baram River, and an adult of 
the true Peregrine Falcon [Falco communis), not the dark 
Sunda race, from Pappan Island, Labuan, where it was 
procured in February 1892. Among the migratory species of 
which examples had been sent by Mr. Everett was a specimen 



Ornithologists' Club. 117 

of Embei'ha pusllla, new to the avifauna of Borneo. His 
brother, Mr. H. H. Everett, had procured the specimen in 
question at Tagora,in Sarawak, during the north-east monsoon. 
From the island of Mantanani, Mr. Everett had also 
forwarded examples of both phases of a new Owl, which 
Dr. Bovvdler Sharpc proposed to call 

Scops mantananensis, sp. n. 
S. similis S. elcgantl, Cass., sed subttis latius striatus, et 

tectricibus alarum conspicue albo notatis distinguendus. 

Long. tot. 8"5 poll., culm. 0*8, ahe G"2, caudse 3"0, tarsi 

1-25. 
Hub. in insula Borneensi "Mantanani^' dicta. Typus in 

Mus. Brit. 

Dr. Sharpe also proposed the following diagnostic charac- 
ters for some new species recently discovered by Mr. Charles 
Hose on Mount Dulit, in Sarawak, Borneo : — 

Scops urookii, sp. n. 
S. similis S. bourouensi, scd fascia alba lata, cervicali dis- 
tinguendus. Long. tot. y'5 poll., ake (rt)5. 

Oriolus hosii, sp. n. 
O. niger, subcaudalibuscastaneis. ^J rostro nigro ; $ rostro 
rubro. Long. tot. 8*0 poll., alse 49. 

Batrachostomus mixtus, sp. n. 

^ ptil. ruj'd. Similis B. stellutu ct tectricibus alarum eodem 
modo albo maculatis, sed subtus rufus, pectore et abdomine 
minime albicantibus et maculis pectoj'alibus maguis ovatis 
distinguendus. Long. tot. 8"0 poll., aho 4'8. 

$ ptil. brunned. Similis B. stellate, sed subtus vermiculatus 
et maculis maguis albis ovatis distinguendus. Long. tot. 
8"0 poll., alai b\. 

In a communication received from Mr. VV. 11. Ogilvie 
Grant a new species of Caloperdix was described as follows : — 

Caloperdix borneensis, sp. n. 
Similis C oculea, scd pileo guhique saturatioribus et magis 

ferrugineis, intcrscapulio nigerrimo, plumis lineis albis 

angustioribus et crcbrioribus ornatis, et pilco rufo valde 

detinito distinguenda. 
Hab.m montc Dulitensi provincial Borneensis "Sarawak" 

dictie. 



118 Bulletin of the British 

Mr. Grant likewise pointed out that the Caloperdix of 
Sumatra and Java differed from the typical Malayan form, 
and proposed to diagnose it as follows : — 

Caloperdix sumatrana, sp. n. 

Similis C. oculea, sed fasciis interscapulii dorsique pallida 
flavis et fore undique transversim irregulariter dispositis. 
Hab. in Sumatra et Java. 

In a communication received from Captain G. E. Shelley 
some new species of African Birds were described as follows: — 

CiNNYRIS NESOPHILUS, Sp. n. 

Similis C. notato, sed major ; rostro valde longiore, et gut- 
ture purpurascenti-violaceo distinguendus. liong. tot. 
6 poll., alse 2*9. 

Hab. in insula '' Augasija " vel ''Great Comoro" dicta. 
Typus in Mus. G. E. S. 

ZOSTEUOPS ANDERSSONI, Sp. U. 

Similis Z. senegalensi, sed valde major et pallidior. Long. 

tot. 4'3 poll., alse 2"35, 
Hab. in terra Damarensi Africae meridionalis. Typus in 

Mus. Brit. 

Parus xanthostomus, sp. n. 

Similis P. nigra, sed remigibus flavo marginatis, et ore 
intiis flavo distinguendus. Long. tot. 6 j)oll., alte 3" 15. 
Hab. in terra Zambesiana. Typus in Mus. G. E. S. 

Parus RovuMiU, sp. n. 

Similis P. albiventri, sed uotseo, tectrieibus alarum rainori- 
bus et prsepectore cinereis, minime nigris, distinguendus. 
Long. tot. G poll., ahe 3'15. 

Hab. prope flumen "Bovuma" dictum in Africa orientali. 
err Typus in Mus. G. E. S. 

Dr. BowDLER Sharpe exhibited the types of some of the 

new species of birds lately described by Mr. W. R. Davison 

<^ J, in 'The Ibis' (1892, pp. 99-103), from the eastern coast 

Vv" ^- ^^ ^^^ Malayan Peninsula. Mr. Davison had very kindly 

- -^' submitted these sjiecimens to Dr. Sharpe, who remarked as 

' follows :— 

<7^ 



r. \ \ 






Ornithologists' Club. 119 

" Campophaga minor, Davison^ t. c. p. 99 = Lalage culminata 
of the 'Catalogue of Birds in Brit. Mus/ (iv. p. 104). Mr. 
Oates considers that C. culminata should be j)laced in the 
genus Campophaga [cf. Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, i. p. 493). 

" G erijg one pector alls, Davison, t. c. p. 99= G. modiglianii, 
Salvad. Ann.Mus. Gen. (2) xii. p. 71 (1891, Sumatra). 

" This is a perfectly good species, and Mr. Davison has re- 
cognized its laeculiar character, viz. the dusky horseshoe on 
the sides of the fore neck — a point equally insisted on by 
(^ount Salvadori. The name given by the latter gentleman 
has a slight priority, for it bears the date of the 23rd of 
December, 1891, while Mr. Davison's name appeared on the 
1st of January, 1892. 

" Ptilocichla leucogastra, Davison, t. c. p. 100= Trichostoma 
roslrafum, Blytli {cf. Sharpe, Cat. B. vii. p. 562). 

'' I have compared Mr. Davison's type with our series in the 
British Museum, and there is no question as to its being 
identical with the above-named species. 

"The type of his Malacoptermn melanocephalum was not 
sent by Mr. Davison, but the type of Acridotheres torquatus 
[t. c. p. 102), which I exhibit, shows tliat the sp3cies is 
a very distinct one, characterized at once by the broad grey 
band on the fore neck, separating the pinkish isabelline of 
the throat from the isabelline of the chest and underparts. 
It belongs to my subgenus ^thiopsar, and should be called 
/Ethiopsar torquatus.'' 

Mr. Davison had also sent a Stachyins from Pahang 
which was apparently new to science. Dr. Sharpe proposed 
to call it 

StACHYRIS DAVISOiNI, Sp. U. 

Similis S. borneensi, rostro nigro, facie laterali et regione 
parotica pallide ochracescentibus, pectori concoloribus, 
distinguenda. Long. tot. 5'5 poll., alse 2"25. 

Captain G. E. Shelley sent for exhibition a series of 
birds from the collections recently made by Mr. Alexander 
Whyte, for Mr. II. II. Johnston, C.B., H.B.M. Commissioner 



120 Bulletin of the British 

for Nyassaland. These collections had been made on the 
Nyassa Highlands at Zomba and on the Milanji Plateau^ 
and were of great interest^ as showing the extension of the 
range of the South-African Fauna across the watershed of 
the Zambesi. Twelve species were new to science. 



No. III. (Dec. 1st, 1892.) 
The second regular meeting of the Club was held at the Mona 
Hotel, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, on Wednesday, 
November 16th, 1892. 

Chairman : Howard Saunders. 

Members present : — F. E. Beddard, F.R.S., E. Bidwell, 
H. E. Dresser, A. P. Loyd, E. Neale, Robert H. Read, 
Capt. Savile Reid, Count T. Salvadori, Henry Seebohm, 
Capt. Horace Terry, E. Cavendish Taylor, H. T. Wharton, 
John Young. 

Guest : Ernst Hartebt. 

The Chairman announced that the number of Members 
who had joined the Club up to the 16th of November 
was 72. 

Mr. Henry Seebohm exhibited two examples of the 
Siberian Pectoral Sandpiper (Tringa acuminata) which had 
been obtained on the Norfolk coast. These were the only 
authentic instances of the occurrence of the species in Great 
Britain. A series of specimens of T. acuminata and of its 
American ally, T. macidata, were placed on the table, and the 
differences between the two species, as also their geographical 
distribution, were pointed out. 

Count Salvador: gave diagnostic characters for two new 
species of Pigeons of the genus Phhgoenas, as follows : — 

PhLOO(EN4S BIMACULATA, Sp. U. 

Phlogatnas tristigmata, Gould (nee Temm.), B. Asia, vi. 
pi. 59 (1873). 
Ph. Ph. tristigmatfP simillima, sed cervice in medio omnino 



Ornithologists' Club. 121 

senea, parte superiore maculis duabus lateralibus pur- 
pureis oriiata; rectricibus quatuor mediis brunneis, 
quinta utrinque griseti, fascia subapicali brunnea notata^ 
quatuor extimis griseis, fa*cia subapicali nigra ornatis. 
Hab. Macassar, S. Celebes. 

Phlog(enas albicollis, sp. n. 

Phlogienas sp., Wiglesw, Aves Polyn. p. 55, no. 286 
(1891). 

Ph. Ph. erythropter(R simillima, sed capite et coUo cum 
pectore albis distinguenda. 

Hab. Bow Island, Pacific Ocean [Belcher). 

A communication from the Hon. Walter Rothschild 
contained the description of a new Pigeon of the genus 
Plilopus, which he proposed to call — 

Ptilopus salvadorii, sp. n. 
P. P. pectorali affinis, sed rostro longiore, colore Isetiore, 
tectricibus alarum minoribus albo-cinerasceute pustu- 
latis, et gula iuferiore luteo tincta haud difficile distin- 
guendus. Long. tot. 8 poll., alse 4"4, caudse 2"5. 
Hab. Island of Jobi, in the Bay of Geelvink. 
In his notes Mr. Rothschild pointed out that this new species 
was intermediate to a great extent between P. pectoralis and 
P. musschenbroeki. It was, however, most closely allied to 
P. pectoralis, from which species it was distinguishable by the 
generally lighter shade of the ground-colour and by the 
characters given above in the diagnosis. The purple pectoral 
patch, which was somewhat irregular in shape in P. pectoralis, 
was slightly larger in P. salvadorii. It was much smaller than 
in P. musschenbroeki, and its inferior margin formed a straight 
line. In P. pectoralis the lesser wing-coverts were entirely 
unspotted, in P. musschenbroeki they had a large cinereous 
patch, Avhile in P. salvadorii they had several distinct and 
separate spots of grey. 

The types had been forwarded to Mr. Rothschild from Sou- 
roui, in the island of Jobi, by the late Mr. A. Bruijn, and 
had been procured in January. Mr. Rothschild had named 
the species in honour of Count Tommaso Salvador!, whose 
knowledge of the family of Pigeons was unrivalled. 



122 Bulletin of the British 

Mr. Henry Seebohm exhibited a specimen of the new 
Ground- Thrush, Oreocincla cuneata, De Vis, which had been 
lent to him by Mr. De Vis for illustration in his forthcoming 
' Monograjjh '' of the group. This species was stated to be 
a very interesting one, and specimens of the allied forms 
were laid upon the table for comparison. 

Mr. Seebohm likewise made some remarks on the occur- 
rences of the Barred Warbler [Sylvia nisoria) in the British 
Islands, an example of the species having been obtained in 
Yorkshire about a fortnight previously. He gave details of 
all the authentic British captures of this Warbler, the chief 
interest being in the fact that four specimens had been 
captured in the United Kingdom within a few weeks of each 
other — one having been taken in Ireland, one in Scotland, 
and two in England, only one previous occurrence of the 
bird in this country having been known. 

Count Salvadori read some notes on a rare Parrot, Conurus 
~j- 7'ubritorques of Sclater. The species had been described 
by Mr. Sclater from a specimen which lived in the Zoological 
Gardens, and the typical skin, in not very perfect condition, 
had passed into the collection of the British Museum. When 
writing the volume of the ' Catalogue of Birds •" which dealt 
with the species, Count Salvadori thought that the red feathers 
on the throat and neck were due to a Itisus naturce ; and this 
conclusion Avas supported by the fact that in allied species, 
especially in C. ivagleri, red feathers were occasionally found 
on the throat, sometimes forming a red collar. Thus the 
Count had concluded that C. rubritorques was only an 
accidental variety of C holochlorus. Recently, however, 
Messrs. Salvin and Godman had received from Nicaragua 
a series of ten specimens collected by Mr. W. B. Richardson, 
all of which had the red throat, and most of which showed 
some red feathers on the side of the neck, forming an incipient 
collar. Mr. Salvin had already referred these specimens to 
C. 7'ubr'itorgues ('Ibis,' 1892, p. 328), and had suggested that 
the conclusion of the ' Catalogue ' required reconsideration. 
Having examined the scries in the Salvin-Godman collection, 



Ornithologists' Club. 123 

Count Salvaclori agreed tliat C. I'ubritorques must be recog- 
nized as a specieSj though the name had not been very happily 
chosen, as there was no red collar round the neck, but only 
a few red feathers on the side of the neck joining the red 
throat, and these feathers were not present in every individual. 
The bird was rather red-throated than red-collared. 

Mr. Ernst Hartert made remarks on some new and 
interesting birds from the islands of the Dutch West 
Indies, near to the Venezuelan coast. Among other im- 
portant facts established by Mr. Hartert during his recent 
exploration of these islands was the discovery of the true 
habitat of Columha gyrnnophthalma, which turned out to be 
the islands of Curayao, Aruba, and Bonaire, On Bonaire Mr, 
Hartert had met with Columha corensis, Margarops fuscatus, 
and Ammodromus savannarum. The last-named species was 
also found on Curasao, where also Crotophaga sulcirosiris was 
procured. Icterus vulgaris was common to Curasao and 
Aruba ; but a very curious fact was the distribution of the 
three species of Conurus, each island having its own peculiar 
form — C. pertinax being met with in Curasao, C. (sruginosus 
in Aruba, and C. xanthogenius (apparently a subspecies of 
C. pertinax) in Bonaire. 

Mr. Hartert described the following species as new to 
science : — 

I Myiarchus brevipennis, sp. n, 

M. similis M. tyrannulo, sed tarso lougiore, alis caudaque 
brevioribus, rostro nigro et notsei colore pallidioi-e dis- 
tinguendus. Long. tot. 7*3 poll., alse 3"4-3"5, caudae 3*5, 
culm. 0- 7-0-8, tarsi 0-75-0-85. 
Hab. Islands of Aruba, Cura(;ao, and Bonaire. 
It was remarkable that this bird should be closely allied to ^ 
the continental M. tyrannulus rather than to M. oberi of the 
Windward Islands, which was quite a distinct species. It 
might, perhaps, be considered a subspccific form of M. ty- 
rannulus. 

t Chrysotis rothschildi, s}). n. 

C. similis C. ochropter^, sed rostro minorc, marginis cubitalis^ ^ 



124 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

colore rubro magis extensOj et colore flavo capitis, 
mentij et alarum tectricum minorum minus extenso 
clistingueudus. 

Hab. Island of Bonaire. 

Remarks. No species of Chrysotis is found on Curasao, but 
Bonaire and Aruba each possess a species, the latter island 
having C. ochroptera of Venezuela. The new species is 
named after the Hon. Walter Rothschild, who took very 
great interest in the author's expedition to Venezuela and 
the West Indian Islands. 

-r Strix flammea bargei, subsp. n. 

S. minima : similis <S. flammece verse, sed multo minor et alis 
valde brevioribus distinguenda. Long. tot. 12 poll., alee 
9*7, caudse 4'3, tarsi 2"2. 

Hab. Island of Curafao. 

Remarks. This is a very small insular form, totally unlike 
the ordinary Bani-Owl of the West Indies. It is more like 
typical S. flammea, but is very much smaller and has such 
short wings that it is impossible to unite it to that species. 
It is named after Mr. Harry Barge, Governor of the Dutch 
West India Islands. 



XI. — Notices of recent Ornithological Publications. 
1. Allen on the Woodpeckers of North America. 

[The North-American Species of the Genus Colaptes, considered with 
special reference to the relationships of C. auratus and C. cafer. By 
J. A. Allen. Bull. Am. Miis. Nat. Hist. iv. p. 21, 1892.] 

This is a philosophical discussion of the well-known case 
of Colaptes auratus and C. mexicanus of North America, and 
their intermediate forms, their allied species and subspecies 
being also considered. Mr. Allen has taken great pains in 
this matter, and for its investigation has collected together from 
his friends and correspondents a series of 785 specimens, 
"representing all the North-American and West-Indian forms 
of the geniis.^' The main question is as to the status to be 
assigned to the numerous " mixed ^' forms between the very 



Recently published Ornithological Works. 1 25 

distinct C. auratus and C mexicanus, which Baird in 1858 called. 
C. hybridus. Formerly only known from the Upper Missouri 
and Yellowstone districts, these " hybrid Flickers " are now 
ascertained to extend in a broad belt all across the continent, 
from British Columbia to the Gulf of Mexico, as shown in Mr. 
Allen's excellent maps, separating the area of C. auratus on the 
north-east from that of C. mexicanus on the south-west. They 
present " ever varying combinations of the characters of the 
two birds/'' from individuals of C. auratus that show only the 
slightest traces of C. mexicanus, or conversely individuals 
of C. mexicanus with very slight traces of C. auratus, to 
examples in which the characters of the two species are 
almost equally blended. After a full discussion of the facts, 
the author's conclusion is that his investigations ''tend 
strongly to confirm Baird's startling hypothesis of hybridi- 
zation on a grand scale"" between these two species. " None 
of the other hypotheses so far advanced so fully, or in fact to 
any great extent, meet the requirements of the case.'' 

2. Allen on Birds from Venezuela. 

[Notice of some Venezuelan Birds, collected by Mi"s. H. H. Smith. 
By J. A. Allen. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. iv. p. 51, 1892.] 

The indefatigable collector, Mrs. H. H. Smith, made '' a 
brief vacation trip " to the northern coast of Venezuela in 
the autumn of 1891, and in less than ten days procured 
about 60 specimens at Carupano and El Pilar, which are 
refei-red by Mr. Allen to 48 species. Of these Rhamphocoelus 
atrosericeus capitalis, Lophotriccus subcristatus, and Picumnus 
obsoletus are described as new. Some other specimens are 
referred provisionally to described species. 

3. Allen on a new GalUnule. 

[Description of a new GalUnule from Gough Island. By J. A. Allen. 
Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. iv. p. 57, 1892.] 

Mr. Allen describes a new flightless Gallinule from Gough 
Island, which is situated in the Atlantic, about 200 miles 
S.W. from the Cape and south of Tristan d'Acunha. He 



126 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

calls it Porphyriornis comeri (gen. et sp. nov.), and refers 
Gallinula nesiotis, Scl. (P. Z. S. 1861, p. 261, pi. xxx.), from 
Tristan d'Acunha, to the same genus. 

4. Bendire's Life- Histories of North- American Birds. 

[Life-IIistories of Nortli- American Birds, with special reference to 
their breeding-liabits and eggs, with twelve lithographic Plates. By 
Charles Bendire, Captain U.S. Army (Retired). 1vol. 4to. Washington: 
1892. (Smiths. Inst. U.S. Nat. Mus., Special Bulletin, No. 1.] 

Capt. Bendire^s name is well known to us as that of one 
of the most observant and experienced of the field-naturalists 
of North America, and a leading authority upon its birds and 
their eggs. As Honorary Curator of the Department of 
Oology in the National Museum, he has splendid oppor- 
tunities for preparing a comprehensive treatise on this subject, 
of which he appears to have fully availed himself. But the 
work does not consist merely of descriptions of nests and 
eggs. '' Special attention has been given to the life-history, 
the migratory and breeding ranges, and the food of each 
species.'^ 

The classification and nomenclature are those of the Check- 
list of the A. O. U., and every species and subspecies is treated 
of separately, and its breeding-range defined as accurately 
as possible according to the most recent sources of informa- 
tion. 

The present volume contains the account of the Gallinse, 
Columbse, Accipitres, and Striges, altogether 146 species. 
The twelve plates contain figures of the eggs of most of the 
species. They are beautifully drawn and coloured. 

5. Bocage on Birds from Benguela. 

[Aves do Sertao de Beuguella. Por J. V. Barhoza du Bocage. Jorn. 
Sc. Lisboa, (2) vii. p. 157.] 

In consequence of the death of de Sousa, M. Barboza du 
Bocage has again assumed the direction of the Lisbon 
Museum for some months, and continues the account of 
Anchieta's collections in Quissanga, commenced by de Sousa 
in 1889 (see Ibis, 1890, p. 120). The present paper gives 



Recently published Ornithological Works. 127 

the raraes of 71 species^ with remarks^ especially on Thamnolaa 
sheUeyi, Sharpe. 

6. Bocage on Birds from Dahomey. 

[Aves de Dahom6. Por J. V. Barboza clii Bocage. Jorn. Sc. Lisboa, 
(2) vii. p. 185.] 

M. Barboza gives a list of 16 species of which specimens 
were obtained during a second visit of Sr. Newton to Dahomey, 
and transmitted to the Lisbon Museum. The specimens 
obtained during Sr. Newton's first visit were worked out by 
de Sousa, and published in the same Journal in 1887 (see 
Ibis, 1887, p. 468). 

7. BuUer on New Zealand Birds. 

[Notes and Observations on New Zealand Birds. By Sir Walter L, 
Buller, K.C.M.G., F.R.S. Trans. New Zealand Inst.^xiv. p. 64.— 
Further Notes and Observations on certain species of New Zealand Birds 
(witli Exhibits). Ihid. p. 75.] 

In these two articles Sir Walter Buller continues his notes 
on the rarer birds of New Zealand and on additions to its 
avifauna. The occurrence of Platycercus eryihrotis, a close 
ally of P. nov(B-zealandi(e , on Antipodes Island, associated 
with P. unicolor (a peculiar endemic species), is certainly a 
very curious fact in distribution. jMany particulars are 
given of the ranges of the Albatrosses, including the newly-» 
differentiated Diomedea regia, and of the different Penguins 
in their breeding-grounds on the Antarctic Islands. It is very 
unsatisfactory to learn that the supposed bevies of the New 
Zealand Quail [Coturnix nov(E-zealandi(B) asserted to have 
been recently met with in the Three-Kings Islands [cf. Birds 
N. Z. i. p. 228, footnote) turn out to belong to the Brown 
Quail (^Synoecus australis), introduced from Australia, and 
that the native species is undoubtedly extinct. 

8. Buller on Apteryx maxima. 

[On the large Kiwi from Stewart Island {Apteryx maxi7na). By Sir 
W. L. Buller. Trans. New Zealand Inst. xxiv. p. 91.] 

The author gives further particulars concerning the large 
Kiwi of Stewart Island, not recognized as distinct in the 



128 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

' Birds of New Zealand/ but lately referred by him to Apteryx 
maxima of Verrcaux (Trans. N. Z. Inst. xiii. p. 602). Four 
specimens were brought to Wellington alive, and thence 
shipped to Europe. These are, no doubt, tbe birds belong- 
ing to Mr. Walter Rothschild, which were placed under 
the care of Mr. Doggctt, of Cambridge, Avhere we had the 
opportunity of examining them in August 1891. They are, 
we believe, the only specimens of this fine species ever seen 
in Europe. 

9. Bilttikofer on the Genus Tatare. 

[The Specimens of the Geuus Tatare in the Leyden Museum. By 
J. liiittikofer. Notes Leyd, Mus. xiv. p. 13.] 

The author discusses the specimens of the genus Tatare 
in the Leyden Museum. Of these 7 are referred to T. longi- 
rostris, 1 to T. mendame, and 1 to T. luscinia. 

10. Bilttikofer on Thamnolsea nigra. 

[On the Specific Vahie of Levaillant's Traquet Commandeur. By J. 
Bilttikofer. Notes Leyd. Mus. xiv. p. 17.] 

Mr. Bilttikofer gives the synonymy and special characters 
of Levaillant's Traquet Commandeur [Thamnolcea nigra) 
of West Africa, and remarks on its allied forms of South 
and East Africa. 

11. Bilttikofer on Birds from Liberia. 

[On the Collections of Birds sent by the late A. T. Demery from the 
Sulymah River (W. Africa). By J. Bilttikofer. Notes Leyd. Mus. xiv. 
p. 19.] 

The last collections of Archey Thomas Demery — an ener- 
getic naturalist, whose death in Liberia was announced in 
1891 — have now been received, and Mr. Bilttikofer gives us 
an account of the birds, Avhich were obtained at the western 
end of Liberia, on the frontiers of Sierra Leone. They are 
referred to 96 species, 10 of which are new to Liberia. 
Critical notes on the Weavers of the genus Malimbus and 
other species are added. 



Recently published Ornithological Works. 129 

12. Bilttikofer on a Sumatran Weaver-bird. 

[On a Chestmit-and-Black Weaver Finch from Sumatra. By J. 
Riittikofer. Notes Loyd. ^^^ls. xiv. p. 13i\] 

The author (h\scribcs two Weavcr-birtls from Sumatra 
allied to Mania atricapilla, but is not confident as to their 
dift'erenccs being specific. 

13. Bilttikofer on Birds from Flores, Sumba, and Rotti. 

[On a Collection of Birds from the Islands of Flores, Sumba, and "Rotti. 
By .T. Buttikofer. Notes Leyd. Mus. xiv. p. 19;J.J 

Dr. H. ten Kate has sent to the Leyden Museum collections 
of birds from the East Indian islands o£ Flores, Sumba (or 
Sandalwood), and Rotti, a small island near Timor, and 
Mr. Bilttikofer gives us an account of them. The specimens 
from Flores belong to 13 species, of which one {Acanthiza 
lenkalei) is described as new. The occurrence of this 
Australian genus so far away from its focus is remarkable. 
From Sumba examples of 32 species were received. 
These are mostly birds that also occur in Flores, but 
Dicceum wilhelminoi is new and peculiar. Mr. lUittikofcr 
also makes important remarks on Stigmatops ocularis and 
Munia nisoria from this island. From Rotti five species are 
catalogued, of which Rhipidura lenkalei is described as new. 

11. Cherrie on two new Tyrannidic. 

[Description of two apparently new Flycatchers J'rom Costa Rica. 
Hy Georgt! K. Cherrie. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. xv. p. 27.] 

Mr. Cherrie describes Mionecles semiscldstacevs and 
Ornith/oii pusil/ujii, snbjldvttiii,, both from (Josta Rica, belong- 
ing to the family Tyrannida\ 

15. Clarke's Report on t1ie. Great Skua. 

[Report on the Great Skua (Stercoranus catayrhaetcn, Liniifeus) in 
Shetland during the Season of 1891. By William Eagle Clarke. Ann. 
Scottish Nat. Hist. 1892, p. 87.] 

Ornithologists will be greatly pleased to hear that the 
attention lately called to the persecution of the Great Skua, 

SER. VI. VOL. V. K 



130 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

and the bestowal by the Zoological Society of London of 
their Silver Medal to representatives of the families of Scott 
and Edmondston for the preservation of this bird, have been 
" undoubtedly the means of doing much good/^ Foula, it 
appears, was visited in 1891 by about 100 pairs of this bird, 
and although nearly all the first laying of their eggs was 
taken, about 60 birds of the second laying were reared. 

As regards the colony at Unst, Mr. Thomas Edmondston, 
in 1891, as already stated in this Journal (Ibis, 1891, p. 633), 
engaged a special keeper to live for three months on Her- 
manness and guard the Bonxies. The result was that of 
nine pairs that nested seven succeeded in hatching and rearing 
their young. All naturalists, as Mr. Clarke well puts it, 
''will accord Mr. Edmondston their warmest thanks for his 
great and happily successful efforts " to protect these birds. 

16. Collett on the Birds of Arctic Norway. 

[Das Leben der Vogel im Arctisclien Norwegen. Oeffentlicher Vortrag 
aus Anlass des zweiten Congresses zii Budapest gelialten am 13 Mai 1891 
im Palaste der Ungarisclien Akademie der Wissenschaften, vou Professor 
Robert Collett.] 

Amongst the many products of the International Ornitho- 
logical Congress of 1891 is an excellent address on the Bird- 
life of Northern Norway by Prof. Collett, of which we have 
lately had the pleasure of receiving a copy from the hands 
of the author. Prof. Collett, who is a well-known expert on 
this subject, describes the physical aspect and winged in- 
habitants of the district round the Nortli Cajje in a manner 
which will inspire every ornithologist who reads his address 
with a wish to visit these solitudes. 

Here, in 1880, Prof. Collett found Tringa minuta breeding 
in two separate spots on the banks of the Porsangerfjord, in 
company with colonies of Tringa temmincki. Here, in 1872, 
on the little island of Tamso, were about 30 pairs of Cvlymbus 
septentrionalis nesting. Here also Phylloscopus horealis, 
unknown except as an occasional straggler in the rest of 
Europe, comes every year to rear its young, and Anser 
erythropus is widely diffused along the bushy banks of the 



Recently published Ornithological Works. 131 

lakes and streams. As regards resident species, our author 
remarks that some of them show local variation in the direc- 
tion of ivhite. This is the case with examples of such birds 
as Pica caudata, Parus horealif^, Dendrocopus minor, and 
Picoides tridactylus procured in Finmark. Dendrocopus 
major, on the other hand, appears to be unaffected by its 
nearer approach to the polar snows. 

Speaking of the enormous development of the Lemming 
and other rodents in certain years. Prof. Collett states that 
a corresponding increase of beasts and birds of prey seems 
to take place at the same time. The mountains are rife with 
Astur palumharius, Archihuteo lagopus, Asio accipitrinus, 
Nyctea scandica, and other Accipitres and Striges. Of the 
Snowy Owl, a remarkable instance of its productiveness in 
some years is given in the case of a nest found in July 1872, 
which contained four half-grown young, 2 of smaller size, 3 
just hatched, besides an egg half hatched — altogether ten of 
one family, for the support of which, it is evident, a large 
supply of rodents would be required. 

We need say no more of this most interesting essay, except 
to recommend every ornithologist to read it. It is a foretaste 
of what awaits us when Prof. Collett^s long-expected volumes 
on the Vertebrates of his native country, which he has studied 
so long and so well, shall make their appearance. 

17. D' Urban and Mathew's ' Birds of Devon.' 

[The Birds of Devon. By W. S. M. D'Uibau, F.L.S., aud the Rev. 
Murray A. Mathew, M.A., with an Introduction and some Remarks on 
the Migrations of Devonshire Birds. 8vo. London : 1892.] 

After Mr. Pidsley's not quite satisfactory work on the 
Birds of Devon (c/. Ibis, 1891, p. 460) follows, rather 
quickly perhaps, another work on the same subject, which 
is, at all events, more complete. After an introduction, in 
which the geographical position and varied features of the 
different parts of the county are set forth in glowing 
periods, the " Faunistic Position of Species •" is considered. 
This to us somewhat ambiguous heading will be found to 

k2 



132 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

indicate a general review of the Devonshire Ornis under 
seven categories. Of these we would remark that "^ Casual'^ 
and " Accidental " are terms much too nearly equivalent to 
be used in different senses. For the 68 " Casual " visitors 
to Devonshire we think " Irregular ^^ a much better name, 
while we should agree with our authors in limiting the term 
'^Accidental" to the waifs and strays. 

In the main portion of the work we find ample notes on 
the 292 species included in the list, to which " no bird not 
actually obtained by competent persons has been admitted/' 
except the Black-headed Warbler [Sylvia melanocephala) , 
Water- Pipit [Anlhus spipoletta), and Hawk-Owl [Surtiia 
funerea), about which "the authors entertain no doubt.'' 
Good coloured figures by Keulemans are given of four 
species — Ruticilla titys (a regular winter visitor on the 
south-western coast of Devon), Montagu's Harrier, the 
Rough-legged Buzzard, and Larus ichthyaetus, from the only 
example of this bird ever killed in the British Islands. 
There are likewise views, taken from photographs, of the 
Birds at Lundy, Start Point, Slapton Ley, and the Eddy- 
stone, all characteristic sceues of the county of Devon. 

18. Evans on the Birds of the Melrose District. 

[A Pvelimiiiaiy List of the Birds of the Melrose District. Tiy A.. H. 
Evans, M.A., F.Z.S. Reprinted from the ' Scottish Naturalist,' 1892.] 

Mr. Evans's list of the birds of the Melrose district will 
be useful to students of the British Avifauna, as giving 
much information on the Ornithology of the Border Country. 
Its scope includes the whole county of Roxburgh, and 
portions of those of Selkirk, Peebles, Berwick, and Northum- 
berland. Many local ornithologists have rendered assistance 
to the author. The Ring-Ouzel breeds plentifully in the hills 
of this district; the Redstart is said to be more abundant 
than formerly ; the Grasshopper Warbler is common '' on 
the rough heathery sides of the Cheviots, and one pair of 
Ravens is still known to nest there." 



Recently published Ornithological Works. 133 

19. Evans on the Grebe of Ross-shire. 

[On the supposed Breeding of the Sclavouiau Grebe (Podicipes auritus, 
L.)in Ross-shire. By A. H. Evans. Ann. Scott. N. H. i. p. 171, 1892.] 

Mr. Evans, having examined carefully into the supposed 
case of the Sclavonian Grebe breeding in Koss-shire, reported 
by E. T. Booth (' Rough Notes/ vol. iii.)^ has come to the 
conclusion that these Grebes are Tachyhaptes fluviatilis and 
not Podiceps auritus. 

20. Forbes on Extinct Birds of Neiv Zealand. 

[Preliminary Notice of Additions to the Extinct Avifauna of New 
Zealand. By H. 0. Eorbes : communicated by J. T, Meeson, B.A. 
Trans. New Zealand Inst. xxiv. p. 185.] 

This is an abstract of a paper in which the author describes 
" twelve species nesv to the ancient bird-life of New Zealand/' 
based on specimens accumulated from various localities^ and 
makes many additions to our knowledge of species previously 
described. Amongst tlie new forms are two large Harriers 
[Circus haniiltoni and C. teauteensis), a presumed new 
Notornis [JSf. parkeri), two new species of Cnemiornis {C. 
minor and C. gracilis), a Cereopsis Goose [Cereopsis nova- 
zealandia>) , a gigantic Rail [Ocydromus insignis), a Musk- 
Duck [Biziura lautouri), and what, if jVEr. Eorbes is correct 
in his views, is a discovery of the highest interest — a new 
genus of Moas, " with many Casuarine characters^'' pro- 
posed to be called Pal(So-casuarlus. Of this genus the author 
recognizes three species, P. haasti, P. elegans, and P. velox, 
founded on a series of tibise in his collection. We trust that 
there Avill be no delay in the publication of this memoir 
entire^ as not even specific characters are given in this 
abstract. 

21. Forbes on Cyanorhamphus erythrotis. 

[Note on a Species of Platycercus (P. erythrotis, Wagl.) from Antipodes 
Island. By H. O. Forbes : communicated by J. T. Meeson. Trans 
New Zealand Inst. xxiv. p. 190.] 

IVIr. Forbes is not correct, we believe, in his identification 
of the Cyanorhamphus of Antipodes Island belonging to the 



134 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

group of C. novce-zealandicE. As Count Salvadori has pointed 
out tons, it is C. Jwchstetteri, Reischek (Trans. N. Z. Inst, 
xxi. p. 87 ; cf. Salvad. Cat. B. B.M. xx. p. 577) . C. erythrotis 
is the representative form on Macquarie Island. C. saisseti 
of New Caledonia is quite distinct. 

22. Godman and Salvin's ' Biologia Cent rali- Americana.' 

[Biologia Centrali-Americana ; or, Contributions to the Knowledge of 
the Fauna and Flora of Mexico and Central America. Edited by 
F. DuCane Godman and Osbert Salvin. (Zoology.) Parts ciii. & civ. 4to. 
London : 1892. Published for the Editors by R. H. Porter, 18 Princes 
Street, Cavendish Sc[uart), W. J 

In these parts the history of the Central- American Hum- 
ming-birds is continued, and the genera Petasophora, Pan- 
terpe, Agyrtria, Arinia, Cyanomyia, Amazilia, Floricola, 
Cyanophaia (melius Cyanophaa), Damophila, Polyerata, 
Chrysuronia, and Basilinna are treated of. These, except 
Petasophora, belong to the " intermedii/^ with the tomise 
slightly serrated. The " Trochili Isevirostres " are then com- 
menced, and the Central-American species of the following 
genera are described : — Eutoxeres, Threnetes, Pha'ethornis, 
Pygmornis, Sphenoproctus, Campy lopter as, Phceochroa, 
Eugenes, Coeligena, Oreopyra, Delattria, Lamprolama, Helio- 
doxa, Florisuga, Abeillea, Kldis, Doricha, Tilmatura, Culo- 
thorax, Selasphorus, Trochilus, and Atthis. 

Cyanomyia guerrerensis is described as a new species from 
the State of Guerrero, discovered by Mrs. H. H. Smith. It is 
nearly allied to C. viridifrons.. 

The following species are figured in part ciii, : — Delattria 
margarethce, D. sgbillce, Selasphorus ardens, S. torridus, 
Lophornis adorabilis, and Eupherusa rdgriventris. 

23. Hamilton on Moas' Gizzard-stones. 

[Notes on Moa Gizzard-stones. By A. Hamilton. Trans. New Zealand 
Inst. xxiv. p. 172.] 

The author gives an account of the discovery of several 
lots of Moas^ gizzard-stones " of pure white quartz " in a 
peaty district near Dunedin, Otago. In one example the 



Recently published Ornithological Works. 135 

whole mass (supposed to belong to one bird) weighed -l^ lb,, 
in another 6 lb. The total disappearance of the bones of 
these Moas is supposed to be due to the "strongly acid 
character of the decaying vegetable matter^' in Avhich they 
were imbedded. 

24;. Hamilton on the Genus Aptornis. 

[On the Genus Apto>-nis, with more especial reference to Apturti.'s 
defossor, Owen. By A. Hamilton. Trans. New Zealand Inst. xxiv. 
p. 175.] 

After a preliminary notice of the authorities on Aptornis 
(now known to be an extinct Rail^ allied to Octjdronms, but 
originally referred to Dinornis), Mr, Hamilton describes a 
series of bones of Aptornis defossor found in some limestone 
caves on the Oreto River^ Otago. The collection comprises 
one perfect and three imperfect skulls, a complete set of 
vertebrae, an. absolutely perfect pelvis, and three perfect 
sterna, besides bones of the extremities and many others. 
This paper adds greatly to our knowledge of the genus 
Aptornis. 

25. Hartert on a neiv Batrachostomus. 

[On a new Species of Batrachostomus. By Ernst Hartert. Notes 
Leyd, Mus. xiv. p. 63.] 

Herr Hartert publishes a description of a new Batracho- 
stomus, based on a specimen in the Ley den Museum obtained 
by Horner in the province of Padang, Western Sumatra, in 
1837, for which he adopts the MS, name B. poliolophus of 
Temminck. (C/. Hartert, Cat. Birds, xvi, p. 638.) 

26. Hartlauh on Birds from China. 

[Eiu Beitiag zur Ornithologie Chinas. Von Dr. G. Hartlaub. Abhandl. 
naturw. Ver. Bremen, xii. p. 295.] 

Dr. Hartlaub has examined three collections of birds from 
China lately received by the Bremen Museum, and now 
gives us an account of them. One, received from Herr 
Schmacker (whose name is already known in connection 



]36 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

with Chinese ornithology, see above_, p. 54), is principally 
from Formosa ; a second, presented by Herr A. Schomberg, is 
from Hainan and from Pakhoi, in the Gulf of Tonquin ; and 
the third, from the vicinity of Tientsin, was made by Herr 
A. Walte. After preliminary remarks on these and a list of 
the principal authorities on Chinese birds, Dr. Hartlaub gives 
us a list, with notes on 186 species represented in the three 
collections. 

Amongst the rarer species in the list are Erithacus sibilans 
(Swinh.), an example from Hainan ; Ixos hainanus and 
Poinatorhi7ius nigro-stellaius, both from the same island ; as 
also Psaropholus nigellicauda, which Dr. Hartlaub regards as 
a good species. Of Palaornis lathami, Finsch, adult and 
young examples were likewise obtained in Hainan, and are 
doubtless correctly determined. But as regards the second 
Chinese species of Palceornis mentioned by Dr. Hartlaub and 
supposed to be P. derbyanus (Dav. & Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 1, 
pi. 1) we believe that there has been some error ^. 

Other interesting species in the Hainan list are Ibis 
melanocephala, Eurinorhynchus pygmceus, and Larus saun- 
dersi. 

27. Harvie-Broivn and Buckley on the Fauna of Argyll 
and the Inner Hebrides. 

[A Vertebrate Fauna of Argyll aud the Inner Hebrides. By J. A. 
Harvie-Rrown and Thomas E. Buckley. Royal 8yo. Edinburgh : 1892.] 

In our notice of Messrs. Buckley and Harvie-Browne's 
^Vertebrate Fauna of the Orkneys^ (Ibis, 189.2, p. 166) we 
spoke of that volume as completing a '' trilogy.'^ But we 
find that the whole series consists of ,^i'e volumes, of which 
the last is now before us. That these excellent books have 
been much appreciated is sufficiently evident from the fact that 
the first two (those on Sutherland and the Outer Hebrides) 
are already out of print. 

Of the present volume it is sufficient to say that in general 
execution and in the beauty of its illustrations it fully equals 

* Cf. Salvadori, Cat. B. xx. p. 464. 



Recently published Ornithological Works. 137 

the four wliich preceded it. The series of maps contains not 
only one of the whole area treated, but also separate charts of 
Rum, Eigg, Tiree, and other islauds which are not so well 
known. The physical features of Argyll and the Inner 
Hebrides are very fully described and illustrated by these 
maps. 

Of the 368 species of birds attributed to Great Britain by 
the most recent authorities no less than 210 have been ascer- 
tained to be resident in or migrants to the area comprised in 
this volume. Amongst these, the rarest, we suppose, is 
Xema sabinii, of which an example in adult plumage was shot 
on Loch Spelve, Mull, in September 1883. 

28. Hutton on the Moas. 

[The Moas of New Zealand. By Captain F. W. Hutton, F.G.S. Trans. 
New Zealand Inst. xxiv. p. 93.] 

We have already mentioned the abstract of this memoir 
(Ibis, 1892, p. 565), which is of great importance, as cou- 
taiuing an excellent resume of the present state o£ our 
knowledge of the Dinornithes. We are glad to observe that 
Mr. Lydekker has taken up the question of the discrepancy 
between his arrangement of his genera and that of Capt. 
Hutton, and has already given us explanations of the 
subject. (See ' Natural Science,' 1892, p. 588.) 

Capt. Hutton's conclusions as to the date of extinctiou 
of the Moas are (1) that in the North Island "^^ we have 
undoubted proofs that the ancestors of the present Maoris 
killed and ate Moas," and that they were probably exter- 
minated " not less than four or five hundred years ago '■■; 
(2) that in the South Island, where the fresh remains have 
been found, the date of extermination was probably a hundred 
years later. 

29. Junker's Travels in Africa. 

[(i.) Travels in Africa during the years 1879-1883. By Dr. Wilhelm 
Junker. Translated from the German by A. H. Keane, F.R.6.S, 
London: 1891. 



138 Bece fitly published Ornithological JVorhs. 

(ii.) Travels in Africa during the years 1882-1886. By Dr. Wilhelm 
Junker. Translated from the German by A. H. Keane, F.R.G.S. 
London: 1892.] 

These two volumes complete the account o£ Junker's 
explorations of the tropics of Eastern Africa, and, we regret 
to say, announce the death of this celebrated traveller, which 
took place at St. Petersburg in February 1892. Ornitholo- 
gists will recollect Dr. Sharpens paper on Bohndorff's 
collection published in 1884 (see Ibis, 1885, p. 115). Now 
Bohndorff was Junker's companion for some years, but left 
him just in time to make his escape by the northern route 
from the Upper Nile before it was closed by the Mahdist 
rebellion. Bohndorff thus saved a part of his own collections, 
but those that he made for Junker were unfortunately lost 
when the latter was forced to escape towards the south and 
join Emin Pasha at Wadelai. Many allusions to birds, 
however, will be found in Junker's journals, and some good 
woodcut illustrations of characteristic species. Junker met 
with Balaeniceps rex on the White Nile (i. p. 45) and 
obtained living specimens (i. p. 65). The Numida obtained 
in Amadi-land on the Welle and figured (i. p. 423) could 
hardly be N. vulturina and is probably new. The northern 
limit of Psittacus erithacus in this country is stated to 
*' coincide with the course of the Welle-Makua," although 
stray birds are sometimes met with to the north of that 
river (ii. p. 260). 

30. Macpherson and Fergtison^s ' Vertebrate Fauna of 
Lakeland.' 

[A Vertebrate Fauna of Lakeland, including Cumberland and West- 
morland with Lancashire north of the Sands. By the Kev. H. A. 
Macjjherson, M.A. With a Preface by R. S. Ferguson, F.S.A. 8vo. 
Edinburgh : 1892.] 

This volume makes a good addition to the well- organized 
series on the Scotch Avifauna of Messrs. Harvie-Brown and 
Buckley, and, taken in conjunction with IVIr. IVIuirhead's 
' Birds of Berwickshire ' (of which we presume the second 
volume will appear shortly), will serve to complete our 
knowledge of the Ornis of Northern Britain. 



Recently published Ornithological Works. 139 

Lakeland, as our author appropriately terms the area of 
which he writes, is one of the most attractive portions of 
England, and very varied in its character, containing not 
only the whole of the " Lakes,^^ as they are commonly called, 
and the splendid mountain district in which they lie, but 
also a long line of sea-coast broken by many estuaries, of 
which " the sands, creeks, and marshes, feeding and sheltering 
innumerable flocks of Avaterfowl, are happy hunting-grounds 
alike for the sportsman and the naturalist/' Under these 
circumstances it was to be expected that Lakeland would 
furnish a goodly list of birds, and we find 262 species 
recorded as occurring within its limits. Of these we may 
perhaps pick out the Pied Flycatcher {Muscicapa atricapilla) 
and the Dotterel {Eudromias morinellus) as two of the 
most characteristic birds of the Lakeland Avifauna, whilst 
the Isabelline Wheatear [Saxicola isabellina) , to which a plate 
is devoted, is its greatest rarity *. 

Our readers, however, must not confine their attention to 
the Birds of this work. They will find the whole volume of 
interest, especially the introductory chapters on the Natural- 
ists of Lakeland, the extinct mammals, and the various 
modes of bird-fowling. Moreover, like all Mr. Douglas's 
books, it is well printed and nicely illustrated, and con- 
cludes with an excellent map. 

31. Merriam on Geographical Distribution in North 
America. 

[The Geographic Distribution of Life in North America, with special 
reference to the Mammalia. By C. Hart Merriam, M.D. Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Washington, vii. pp. 1-64, 1892.] 

Dr. Merriam's Presidential Address to the Biological 
Society of Washington relates principally to the Mammals 
of North America, on which subject he is a well-known 
expert. But the author also refers to birds, and his essay 
deserves the careful attention of every naturalist. Its main 
object is to vindicate his position [cf. Ibis, 1891, p. 134) that 
we have hitherto been altogether wrong in our views as to 

* (/. Ibis, ] 883, p. 149. 



140 Recently publislied Ornithological Works. 

the Nearctic Region, There is no such region at all ! North 
America is divisible^ according to its Mammal-life at all 
events^ into three regions : — (1) The Boreal^ which extends 
also over Northern Europe and Asia, and is circumpolar; 
(2) The Sonoran, or Mexican Table-land Region^ which is 
'' unique ''; and (3) a Tropical Region, which belongs to 
South America. This scheme of division is clearly set forth 
in well-ordered paragraphs and illustrated by an excellent 
" Bio-geographic Map/' To this we will reply shortly. 
In the extreme north, no doubt, the Nearctic Region in its 
phase of life closely approximates, as it does geographically, 
to the Palaearctic. Where two great regions join by land 
it is not possible to draw a definite boundary between them. 
But what Dr. Merriam calls the '' Sonoran " is the true 
autochthonic portion of the Nearctic Region. Here is the 
original home of the Mniotiltidse, the Vireonidae, and other 
forms, the possession of which at once separates it from 
the Palaearctic Region. As regards the proposed new 
subdivision of the Nearctic Region into two subregions 
('^Boreal" and '^ Sonoran^') instead of three ('' Eastern '' 
'' Central,-' •* and '^^ Western") as heretofore generally used, 
we have little doubt that Dr. Merriam is right in the main, 
and that in this point the birds, when carefully studied, 
will be found to conform to the same law as he has shown 
to prevail in the case of the Mammals. 

32. Meyer on Birds from Kaiser-Wilhelms-Land. 

[Beitrag zur Kenutuiss der Vogelfauna voii Kaiser-Wilhelms-Land. 
Von A. B. Meyer. J. f. 0. 1892, p. 254.] 

Dr. Meyer's fourth contribution to our knowledge of the 
Avifauna of German New Guinea^^ is based on some 
collections made by the brothers Geisler at several localities, 
mostly on the coast. The specimens are referred to 33 
species and subspecies, of which are described as new Eupetes 
geislerorum, Diphyllodes clirysoptei-a septentrionalis, and 
Ptilopus coronulatus huonensis. 

* For the preceding articles see (1) Zeitschr. f. d. ges. Orn. 1886, p. 30; 
(2) Ibis, 1890, p. 412 ; and (3) Abh. k. zool. Mus. Dresden, 1890-1,, no. 4. 



Recently piiblislied Ornithological Works. 141 

33. Meyer on the Birds of Sumba. 

[The Birds of Sumba By A. B. Meyer. Notes Leyd. Mus. xiv. 
p. 265.] 

Dr. Meyer points out that in his artiele on the Birds of 
Sumba (see above^ p. 129) Mr. Biittikofer has overlooked a 
list of the birds of that island published by Dr. Meyer in 
1881 (Verb. k. k. zool.-bot. Gesellsch. Wienj, based upon 
materials received from Dr. Riedel^ in whieh 40 species are 
enumerated. Adding those registered by Mr. Biittikofer, 
Dr. Meyer shows that 64 species are now known from 
Sumba, of which 3 are peculiar. He further vindicates the 
claim of the Geoffroyus of Sumba, previously referred to 
G. jukesi, to be distinguished as G. tjindance, and makes 
corrections concerning other species named in the list. 

34. Meyer and Helm's Sixth Rejwrt on the Birds of 

Saxony. 

[VI. Jahresbericlit (1890) der ornithologisclien Beobachtuno-stationen 
im KonigTeiche Sachsen, bearbeitet von A, B. Meyer und F. Helm. 4to. 
Berlin : Friedlander, 1892.*] 

The report from the Saxon observing-stations for 1890 is 
drawn up from the contributions of 37 reporters at 36 
stations, and relates to 1M9 species. To it is appended a 
complete list of the birds hitherto recorded as met with in tlie 
Kingdom of Saxony, altogether 274 species. The total 
number of German birds according to Homeyer^'s list 
is 357. 

35. Nicolls and Eglington' s ' Sportsman in South Africa/ 

[The Sportsman in South Africa : the haunts, habits, description, and 
the pursuit of all game, both fur and feather, found south of the Zambezi 
(including the Cape Colony, Transvaal, Bechuanaland, Natal and Damara- 
land) at the present day, with brief notices of the best known fresh- and 
salt-water fish. By James A. Nicolls, F.R.G.S., F.Z.S., and William 
Eglington. 1 vol. 8vo. London : 1892.] 

This is likely to be a useful book to the many travellers 
in South Africa who wish to know something about the 

* For notice of previous report see Ibis, 1891, p. 458. 



142 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

game that they kill. The Mammals naturally occupy the 
most prominent place in the volume, but there are chapters 
on the Francolins, Quails, Guinea-fowl, Sand-Grouse, and 
other " game-birds.'^ Considerable trouble has been taken 
with the compilation o£ this portion of the work. Short 
descriptions are given of all the species, and good original 
notes on the babits, from the observations of the authors, are 
added. These experienced observers do not appear to be 
well affected towards the Secretary-bird [Serpentarius secre- 
tarius). " It may possibly content itself, when other food is 
unobtainable, with a diminutive reptile or snake, as will 
several of the Hawk and Eagle tribe, the Bateleur or Short- 
tailed Eagle [Helotarsus caiidatus) being an even more 
formidable antagonist in this resjaect. The natives term 
this bird Bulai-nogha (snake-killer) or Peekeewe. Although 
opinions differ, those who really have iiad proper oppor- 
tunities of judging will say that the Secretary-bird should 
itself be exterminated whenever occasion offers, as it is not 
only a most destructive enemy to the young of all feathered 
game, but also to the young of the smaller antelopes and 
hares. Instances of its susceptibility to this description 
of food are too numerous to mention, while others can 
be adduced in which these gay deceivers will most carefully 
avoid coming into contact with even small snakes.'' 

The rare Duck Thalassomis leuconota was met with in the 
Vaalpens Pass in Bechuanaland in 1881, and also on Lake 
Ngami (see footnote, p. 125 of the book). The plates of 
this volume which are devoted to birds will no doubt be 
of material assistance to the sportsman in identifying the 
species, but we cannot view them as the result of great 
artistic skill, as the authors themselves appear to do. 

36. North on Australian Nests and Eggs. 

[Supplement to the Descriptive Catalogue of ' Nests and Eggs of Birds 
found breeding in Australia and Tasmania.' Part II. By A. J. North, 
F.L.S. Rec. Australian Mus. ii. p. 11.] 

Mr. North gives us the second part of his Supplement to 
his Catalogue of Nests and Eggs of Australian Birds, the 
first part of which has been already noticed (Ibis, 1892, 



Recently published Ornithological Works. 1 43 

p. 337). The principal novelties described are those of 
Edoliusoma tenuirostre, Turnix melanotus, Ptilotis frenata, 
and Polytelis alexandrce. 

37. Parker on the Development of Apteryx. 

[Additional Observations on the Development of Apteryx. By T. 
Jeffeiy Parker, B.Sc, F.R.S. Phil. Trans. R.Soc. London, vol.clxx.\;iii. 
(1892) B, pp. 73-84.] 

This is a supplement to the memoir on the same subject 
which we noticed in 1891 (Ibis, 1891, p. 619), and is based 
on the examination of three additional embryos, which 
" fill important gaps in the series formerly studied, and serve 
to correct one or two erroneous conclusions.^^ 

38. Quelch on the Birds of Prey of British Guiana. 

[Our Birds of Prey. By J. J. Quelch, B.Sc. London. ' Timehri,' vi. 
new ser., pt. i. p. 117 (1892).] 

IVIr. Quelch gives a list of 43 species of the Diurnal Birds 
of Prey occurring in British Guiana, thus adding 8 to the 
number mentioned by Mr. Salvin as met with in Whitelv's 
collections (Ibis, 1886, p. 72). A long series of interesting 
field-notes on the various species is appended. 

" Owing to the enormous abundance of food of all kinds, 
and to the immense uninhabited tracts of forest and savannah 
lands, furnishing splendid shelter and breeding-haunts, in all 
parts of the colony, these birds have multiplied to a remark- 
able extent, the species being not only distributed all over 
the colony, but represented by hosts of individuals to be 
met Avith in all directions. It is along the coast-districts 
generally, however, and more especially along the tidal parts 
of the larger creeks, that these birds are seen in greatest 
profusion and variety — though there are a few larger species, 
such as the Crowned Eagle (Spizaetus), the Crested Eagle 
{Morphnus), the Harpy [Thrasa'etns) , etc., that are met with 
only in the higher parts of the rivers, in the dense recesses 
of the forest, or on the open bushy savannah lands, in which 
latter places also the little Kestrels (Tinnunculus) are most 
commonly to be found.'' 



144 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

39. Regalia on the Claws and Spurs of the Bird's-hand. 

[Su le Ungliie e gli Sproni della Mano ornitica. Da Ettore Regalia. 
Monitore Zool. Ital. iii. do. 1-2, 1892.] 

In this essay the author commences by reviewing the 
literature on the claws and spurs of the bird's-hand at some 
length, especially alluding to the article on the subject 
published in this Journal for 1886 (pp. 147, 300), and to 
Mr. Jeffries's memoir which is there quoted. Dr. Regalia 
then gives us a summary of his own researches on this 
subject^ under the usual three heads: (I.) Species with a 
claw on the pollex only ; (II.) Species with a claw on the 
index only ; (III.) Species with a claw on both the pollex 
and index. Of the first he gives 35 examples among Italian 
birds, of the second 1, of the third 27 examples, adding ex- 
planatory notes in many cases. Thus Dr. Regalia claims to 
have added 27 species to the third category, amongst which 
are members of the Orders Striges, Odontoglossae, Limicolae, 
and Gavise. 

We are thankful to the author for what he has done, but 
consider the subject worthy of further investigations through- 
out the whole Class of Birds, and likely to yield useful results. 
The necessary examination can, however, be properly made 
only in fresh birds or in those preserved in spirit. 

40. Report of the International Ornithological Congress at 

Budapest. 

[Zweiter internationaler ornithologischer Cougress. Ilauptbeiiclit ii. 
WisseiMchaftliclier Teil. Mit zwei Tafeln. Budapest : 1892. 1 vol. 4to.] 

This is the first part of the official report of the proceedings 
of the International Ornithological Congress held at Budapest 
in May 1891. It contains two addresses and 21 memoirs, 
mostly by well-known ornithologists, upon different branches 
of our subject. Major A. v. Homeyer's address gives an 
account of a visit to Pungo Andongo in Angola in 1875, 
with field-notes on the birds observed during the excursion. 
Prof. CoUett discourses on the Bird-Hfe of Arctic Norway 

* See notice of Dr. Regalia's previous paper, Ibis, 1889, p. 124. 



Recently published Ornithological Works. 145 

(see our notice o£ this capital essay above, p. 130). The 21 
memoirs are as follows (we can give little more than their 
titles) : — (1) Prof. King writes upon the digestion and digestive 
organs of Birds, especially of the Geese, which he complains is 
a rather neglected subject. (2) M. A. Milne-Edwards con- 
tributes an important essay on the Fossil Birds of the Eocene 
phosphatic lime-deposits of the south of France, in which 
the following new forms are described : — Aquila hypogcea, 
Necrobyas (gen. nov. Accipitr.) harpax, N. rossignoli, Otus 
henrici, Bubo incertus, Dynamopterus (gen. nov. Zygodact.) 
velox, Archceotrogoii venustus. Geranopterus alatus, Tachyornis 
hirundo, Filholornis pardasca, F. gravis, F. debilis, Pterocles 
validus, P. larvatus, Pakeortyx ocyptera, P. cayluxensis, Ge- 
ranopsis (gen. nov. Gruid.) elatus, Ardea amissa, Rallus 
dasypusjR. arenarius, Orthocnemus gallicus, 0. major, 0. minor, 
Elaphrocnemus phasianus , E. gracilis, E. crex, and Tapinopus 
(gen. nov.) ellioti. (3) M. F. de Schaeck treats of varieties 
of plumage in birds as exhibited by specimens in the Paris 
Museum. (4) M. Alphonse Dubois, of Brussels, in reply to 
the question suggested by the Congress in one of its circulars 
as to tlie establishment of a " classification interuationale,"'' 
puts forward the system adopted in his " Revue des dernieres 
classifications ornithologiques/' of which we have previously 
spoken (Ibis, 1892, p. 167). (5) Dr. E. Oustalet con- 
tributes a report on " la Biologic des Oiseaux," at the close 
of which he gives a list of 27 questions in the domain of 
" la Biologie Ornithologique," and directs the attention of 
the Congress to them. (6) Herr Johanu v. Csato furnishes 
a report on the Diurnal Birds of Pj-ey of Transylvania. 
(7) Dr. Karl Russ writes on the nests and nestling-plumages 
of foreign cage-birds — a subject in which, as we all know, he is 
well versed. (8) Herr Stefan v. Chernel describes the breeding 
and migrations of the Red-necked Phalarope [Phalaropus 
hyperboreus) and adds a beautiful coloured plate, illustrating 
the nestlings of this species. (9) Herr Adam v. Buda writes 
upon the rare birds of certain districts of Hungary, observed 
during the past 32 years. (10) Dr. R. Blasius discourses 
on the principles of "^ Oology/'' (11) Mr. Henry G. Hall 

SER. VI. VOL. V. L 



l46 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

on '^ odd-coloured e^gs/^ and (12) Mr. A. J. Campbell 
on " Australian Oology/^ Mr. Campbell gives illustrations 
of the nest of Memira victoriee and of a breeding-colony 
of Anous stolidus from photographs. (13) Dr. Giglioli^s 
introductory memoir on the distribution of birds (" Avi- 
geografia") follows next. Dr. Giglioli wishes to add 
two " Polar " Regions to the six of Sclater and Wallace 
usually adopted, and thus makes the number of primary 
zoological regions eight. (14) Mr. John Cordcaux gives a 
disquisition on the migration of birds — a subject on which 
lie is no mean authority. (15) Ilecr J. Buttikofcr of Leyden 
treats of the European migrants that ho has found in Liberia. 
Twenty-three of our familiar species occur there during the 
winter season. (IG) INI. le Baron Edm. de Selys-Longchamps 
writes of the occurrence of Loxia bifasciata, Garrulus glan- 
darius, and PfO'iifi p/eskii in Belgium. (17) Our friend Hans, 
Ereiherr v. Berlepsch, makes an energetic protest against the 
destruction of small birds in Southern Europe *. The chief 
sinners are the Italians, who carry on a regular business in the 
capture of small birds for the market on an enormous scale. 
During the September migration more than 2000 birds are 
caught every morning at one of the establishments (between 
Lago Maggiore and Lago Lugano) w4iich are elaborately con- 
structed for the purpose, and the whole number of songsters 
destroyed every year must amount to millions. Under these 
circumstances, who can wonder that our migratory birds are 
groAving scarce in Northern Europe ? The Ereiherr suggests 
that all bird-catching by nets and all sale of singing-birds for 
food shall be ])rohibited by law in Italy ; but we fear there is 
little chance of these proposals being carried out. (18) The 
next essay in the series is on the importance of the poultry- 
trade in Hungary, by Prof. E. v. Rodiczky, which we need not 
enlarge i;pon. Then follow (19 and 20) accounts of the two 
excursions made by the members of the International Orni- 
thological Congress to the Neusiedler-See by Dr. E. Schaeff, 
and to the Little Balaton-See by V. R. v. Tsehusi-Schmid- 

* " Die Vernichtung uuserer Vogel im Siideu luid die daraus resultironde 
Schadeu,'' op. cit. p. 179. 



Recently published Oy^nithological Works. 147 

hoffen. This remarkable series of ornithological essays 
concludes with a long report by Herr Leverkiihn on his 
journey to Hungary, and on the general proceedings of the 
International Congress, as witnessed by him. 

41. Rhoads on the Birds of Texas and Arizona. 

[The Birds of South-eastern Texas and Southern Arizona observed 
during May, June, and Jul}', 1892. By Samuel N. Rhoads. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Philad. 1892, p. 08.] 

Mr. Rhoads made an ornithological tour in Florida, Texas, 
and Arizona in the spring of 1891, and gives us an agreeable 
account of it. His camp on Mount Lemon, in Arizona, at 
7000 feet altitude, must have been a delightful experience ! 
In Southern Texas birds, especially Passeres, are said to be 
abundant everywhere, in spite of the drouth. This is attri- 
buted to the recent vast extension of tree-covered areas into 
the prairies, and to the increase of insect and vegetable food 
resulting therefrom. Mr. Rhoads found specimens of Larus 
franklini in Texas on June 1st, and two large flocks of Rosy 
Spoonbills (Ajaja rosea) on the Nueces river at the end of 
May. In Texas he met with examples of 100 species of birds, 
in Arizona of 124, on all of which field-notes are given. 
In the pine-belt of the Catalina Mountains in Arizona, 
Mr. Rhoads obtained an adult male of the Rivoli Humming- 
bird [Eugenes fulgens), believed to be the most northern 
record of this species, which, the season of its capture being 
considered, was probably breeding there. Other scarce species 
met with in Arizona were Peucaea arizonce and Auriparus 
flaviceps, the latter abundantly near Tucson. 

42. Ridgway on the Hwmning -birds. 

[The Humming-birds. By Robert Ridgway. Rep. U.S. Nat. Mus. 
1890, pp. 253-383.] 

Mr. Ridgway kindly sends us a separate copy of his pane- 
gyric on the Humming-birds, extracted from the report of 
the National Museum of the U. S. for 1890. After singing 
its praises in an introduction, the author treats of the early 
history, names, geographical distribution, migrations, habits, 

l2 



l48 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

disposition, and intelligence of the " minutest of the feathered 
kind." Particulars as to the nests and eggs of various species 
are then given. These are illustrated by 14 plates, mostly 
copied from Gould's Monograph, hut original in the case of 
Stellula calliojje. Next we find a chapter on the pterylosis 
and anatomy of the Humming-birds (contributed by Mr. 
F. A. Lucas), and a copiously illustrated essay on the varia- 
tions in their structure and plumage. Finally, we have a 
'M)rief description of some of the more brilliantly-colored 
kinds *^ of this wonderful family, and an account of the 17 
species wdiich have been found within the limits of the United 
States, embracing the principal synonymy, characters, and 
habits, so far as they are known. Nearly the whole of these 
species are figured on lithographic plates — uncoloured, but 
excellently drawn, and of material use for identification. 
Altogether this is a very elaborate and interesting memoir 
upon Avliat is evidently one of the author's favourite subjects. 

43. Ridgway on two new Subspecies of Basileuterus. 

[Descriptions of two new Forms of Basileuterus rufifrons, from Mexico. 
By Robert Ridgway. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xv. p. 119.] 

Mr. Eidgway characterizes as subspecies Basileuterus rufi- 
frons jouyi from North-east Mexico and B. r. dugesi from 
Western Mexico. 

44. Scott's ' Notes on the Birds of Florida.' 

[Notes on the Birds of tlie Caloosahatchie Region of Florida. By 
W. E. D. Scott. ' Tlie Auk/ ix. p. 209.] 

Mr. Scott devoted five months in the wdnter of 1891-2 to 
the study of the birds of the Caloosahatchie River in Florida, 
his central point being Fort Myers in Lee County. It must 
be a good station, and Mr. Scott an energetic collector, for 
1200 specimens were obtained, which are referred to 259 
species. Of these a list is given, to which are appended 
field-notes on the most remarkable of them. This part of 
Florida is the home of Botaurus neoxenus (Cory), little know^n 
in European collections, and Himantopus mexicanus breeds 
there. 



Recently published Ornithological Works. 149 

45. Stune on the Birds of West Greenland. 

[Birds collected by the West Greenland Expedition. By Witmer Stone. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1892, p. 145.] 

Greenland is a country of special interest to European 
ornithologists, and it is always agreeable to liave additional 
information on its avifauna. The Heilprin expedition of 
1891 did not make any serious advance in our knowledge of 
this subject, but vehat was eflFected by Dr. Wm. E. Hughes 
and Dr. B. Sharpe is set forth in Mr. S toners memoir. The 
147 specimens collected are referred to 21 species, most of 
which were found to be in full breeding-plumage. A series 
of Mandt^s Guillemot [Cepphus mandti) ''shows considerable 
variations in plumage." Eight males of the Ivory Gull 
[Larus eburneus) were collected in Melville Bay. The only 
Passeres met with were the Snow and Lapland Buntings and 
the Wheatear. 

46. Suchetet on Wild-bred Hybrids. 

[Les Oiseaux Hy brides rencontres a I'etat sauvage. Par Andre Suchetet. 
Troisieme Partie : Les Passereaux. Mem. Soc. Zool. France, v. p. 253, 
1892.] 

Wc have now the concluding portion of M. Suchetet^s 
exhaustive account of hybridism in birds {cf. Ibis, 1892, 
p. 344) ; it is devoted to such cases as have occurred in the 
Passeres and Picarise. The author notices not only clear cases 
of hybridism, such as between Carduelis elegans and Cannabina 
linota, but also transitional forms between representative 
species, such as those between Coracias indicus and C. affinis, 
which occur on the borders of their respective ranges. He, 
however, distinguishes these in his "Conclusions.^'' The most 
remarkable instances of hybridization known in the Passeres 
are perhaps those between the North American Hehninthophila 
pjinus and H. chrysopjtcra (which produce the forms called 
H. leuco-bronchialis and H. laitTencii) and the so-called 
Ptilonorhynchus raionsleyi, supposed to have originated from 
a cross between Sericulus chrysocephalm and Ptilonorhyn- 
chus holosericeus ! {Cf. Kamsay, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 69.) 



150 Letters, Extracts, Notices, ^c. 

47. Winge on Birds observed at the Danish Light- stations. 

[Fuglene ved de danske Fyr i 1891. 9de Aarsberetning om danske 
Fugle. Ved Herluf "Winge. Vidensk. Medd. naturli. Foren. Kjbhvn. 
1892, p. 77.] 

Mr. Wingers report on the birds observed at the Danish 
Light-stations in 1891 is elaborately worked out^ as on former 
occasions [cf. Ibis, 1892, p. 344). It is accompanied by a 
coloured figure of the chick of Sy?'rhaptes paradoxus in two 
stages, nicely drawn by Mr. H. Gri^nvold from specimens in 
the Zoological Garden, Copenhagen, also an excellent chart 
of the Light-stations. 

XII. — Letters, Extracts.^ Notices, ^c. 

We have received the following letters, addressed to the 
Editor of ' The Ibis ' :— 

Sir, — I dare say it will interest your readers to hear of a 
new addition to our Dutch Avifauna. On the 11th October 
a young male of Xema sabinii was shot on the Hock van 
Holland. The specimen Mas sent to the Leyden Museum, 
where it was identified by Dr. Jentink. After it has been 
stuffed it will probably go to the Museum of the Zoological 
Gardens of the Hague. Yours &c., 

's Graveland, Hilversum, Holland. F. E. Blaauw. 

24tli October, 1892. 



Sir, — The following notes on the occurrence of Numenius 
tenuirost?'is and Glareola pratincola in Holland may be 
worthy of a place in ' The Ibis.^ 

These rare stragglers from the south have been observed 
in the Netherlands on various occasions. 

The earliest discovery of the Slender-billed Curlew {Nu- 
menius tenuirostiis) was made known by my friend the late 
Mr. J. P. van Wickevoort-Crommelin, who obtained a 
male example of this species shot at Spaarndam, in North 
Holland, on the 15th of December, 1856. It forms part of 
his choice collection, the whole of which, according to his 
■wish, after his death, was presented by his daughter to the 
National Museum of Leyden. 



Letters, Extracts, Notices, ^c. 151 

A second specimen I have lately seen in the collection of 
Mr. Jos, van der Harten, at Eindhoven, in North Brabant. 
This bird was killed near Zieriksee, in the Isle of Schouwen, 
in Zeeland, December 5th, 1888. 

A third example, a male, according to Mr. Albarda, 
captured on the coast of Friesland, near Hallum, on 
December 27th, 1889, is now in the Museum of the Royal 
Zoological Society ' Natura Artis Magistra/ at Amsterdam. 

It is remarkable that our specimens were all met with in 
December. 

Respecting the Common Pratincole {G [areola pratincola), 
Temminck says in the first and second editions of his 
' Manual ' (1815 and 1820) that it is " tres rare en Hol- 
lande/' Since that date the first authenticated instance of 
the occurrence of this bird in the Netherlands took place ou 
the 24th of July last, when a specimen was obtained in the 
neighbourhood of Bois-le-Duc in North Brabant. This 
example, which I have seen, was set up by Mr. Zinling of 
that place, and is in that gentleman's possession. It is an 
adult female, captured in a net amongst Lapwings and 
Ruffs, in the immediate vicinity of the lake of Vlymen. 

123 Noordeinde, The Hague. Yours &c., 

October 4tli, 1892. H. W. DE Graaf. 



Sir, — On looking through the recently-published Vol. 
XVII. of the Cat. B. Brit. Mus., I observe that in the 
synonymy of the Meropidse there are some omissions 
which it will, I think, be advisable to point out. These are 
as follows : — 

(1) Meropiscus gularis australis, Reichenow, J. f. O. 
1885, pp. 222, 468 *. 

Melittophagus (/ularis australis (Reichenow), Dresser, 
Monogr. Merop. Introd. p, xviii (1886), 

Meropiscus australis, Reichenow, J. f. Orn. 1890, p. 116. 

Under this name Dr. Reichenow has separated the 
southern from the northern form of Melittophagus gularis, 

* Just as the above had gone to press I observed that Dr. Sharpe refers 
to the above species at the close of his article (p. 51 ), but it is omitted 
from the index, aud hence was overlooked. — H. E. D. 



152 Letters, Extracts, Notices, ^c. 

and says : — " In the typical form from the Gold Coast, 
and also in specimens from Liberia, the forehead and a 
broad superciliary stripe are light cobalt-blue, as is also 
the rump. Individuals from Angola and the Congo, on 
the other hand, have the stripe on the forehead blue-green, 
and a but slightly defined superciliary stripe olive-green. 
Individuals from the Gaboon and Camaroons agree with the 
Angola birds, but the superciliary stripe is more clearly 
defined and blue-green. Whether there is a third race 
must be decided later on, but at present it is only the 
northern and southern races that are in question, the division 
between them being probably the Camaroons district, that 
being the northernmost point reached by the southern form. 
In the Niger district the typical form most probably occurs.^'' 
It is the southern form to which Dr. Reichenow gives the 
subspecific name aiistralis. 

(2) Melittophagus, nov. sp. aff. M. albifrons, Matschie, 
J. f. O. 1887, p. 151. 

Mr. Matschie (/. c.) speaks of a Bee-eater obtained by 
Dr. R. Boehm at Lukifue, which he says differs from Melit- 
to^jJiagus albifrons in having the breast cobalt-blue, and not 
cinnamon. He does not, however, give it a name, 

(3) Merops MENTALis, uov. subsp., Cabauis, J. f. O. 
1889, p. 70. 

Under this name Dr. Cabanis describes a Bee-eater from 
the Camaroons which is, he says, closely allied to Merops 
muelleri (Cassin), but differs in lacking the blue on the chin, 
this colour commencing only below the chin. 

Whilst pointing out the above omissions I must, at the 
same time, bear witness to the care and accuracy with which 
Dr. Sharpe has done his portion of the volume in question. 
To avoid, altogether, omissions and errors is, as I know from 
experience, an almost hopeless task, and in point of fact, so 
far as I can see. Dr. Sharpe's only error is in not having 
referred with sufficient care to the later volumes of the 
' Journal filr Ornithologie.^ Yours &c., 

TopclyfFe Grange, Faruborougli R.S.O., Kent, H. E. Dresser. 
1st November, 1892. 



Letters, Extracts, Notices, S^c. 153 

Sir,— On the 15tli of September, 1892, Mr. J. C. Gie 
brought me a duck which his herd had shot at Rictaley, 
about eight miles from Capetown. I recognized it as the 
European Shoveller [Spatula clypeata) ; but, to be quite 
certain on the point, I compared it with the description 
given in Mr. Seebohm's book on British Birds, and found it 
to correspond exactly. It was in male plumage, and dis- 
section confirmed the sex. The head and upper parts of the 
neck were slightly spotted with brown, owing, I presume, to 
some change of plumage. 

The specimen has been presented by Mr. Gie to the 
South- African Museum. Mr. Roland Trimen, the curator, 
confirms the identification. Mr. Gie states that his herd, 
who is an intelligent nian^ says there Avere several others, 
and that two years ago he saw others of the same species. 

A few days previously I had seen a duck Avith a distinctly 
white breast. I forebore to shoot at it^ as I thought it must 
be a tame bird, none of our ducks having white breasts. 
The light was bad, and I could not make a closer examina- 
tion, as the bird rose and flew away. I then saw it was not 
a tame bird and flred, but without eS"ect. 

I may mention that there was no trace on the plumage of 
the specimen having ever been in confinement, and I know of 
no one who keeps foreign waterfowl in this part of the 
Colony, or, indeed, in any other part. 

The Shoveller does not appear to have been previously 
recorded in Africa south of Abyssinia. So distant an ex- 
tension of its range to the end of the continent is very 
interesting. I am, yours &c., 

Capetown, W. B. Fairbridge. 

12tli October, 1892. 



Report of the British Museum for 1892. — The annual 
Parliamentary "Return^' of the British Museum for 1892 
contains a statement as to the progress of the Zoological 
Department in 1891. Amongst the ''principal events^'' 
alluded to is the " arrangement of the collection of 
birds' eggs.^' This is described as follows : — " In the old 



154 Letters, Extracts, Notices, ^c. 

Museum this collection consisted of a small number of 
specimens of more or less historical value, and of an im- 
perfect series of deteriorated specimens of those of British 
species, which were exhibited in three table-cases. The 
first important addition was received in the ' Gould ' 
Collection, purchased in 1881; other miscellaneous series 
followed ; and finally, the magnificent donations of Europaeo- 
Asiatic species by Messrs. Godman, Salvin, and Seebohm, 
and of Indian eggs by Mr. A. O. Hume, added so much to 
the number of specimens, and imparted such a great value 
to this collection, that its systematic arrangement could be 
no longer delayed. At the same time the formation of a 
perfect series of British Birds' Eggs for exhibition and con- 
sultation by the public had become more and more urgent. 
A requisite grant having been made by the Lords Commis- 
sioners of the Treasury, Mr. Seebohm undertook the work of 
arranging both the general and the British series, and in 
the course of this year he has made such progress that about 
24,000 specimens, belonging to fifteen families, are catalogued 
and beautifully arranged in thirteen cabinets, and that the 
British series can probably be opened to the public in the 
present year.''* 

Amongst the most important acquisitions in the Zoological 
Department are specially mentioned : — 

(1) The first instalment of a collection of birds' eggs, 
comprising upwards of five thousand specimens, belonging to 
the following families : — Spheniscidce, Procellariidai, A/cidce, 
Laridce, Charadriida, Turnicidce, Gallince, Rallidce, Ardeidm, 
CoJymbidce, Podicipetidce, Anatidce, Pelecanida, and Accipitres ; 
presented by Henry Seebohm, Esq. 

(2) The collection of eggs of Laridce, formed and pre- 
sented by Howard Saunders, Esq., five hundred and one 
in number. This is one of the most important collections 
of this family, all the sj)ecimens having been authenticated 
by the donor himself as regards origin, locality, and other 
particulars. 

* [A portion of the British series, we may state, is already on view. — 

Ed.] 



Letters, Extracts, Notices, ^c. 155 

Under the special head of " Birds " we find the follow- 
ing remarks : — 

" Besides the collection of eggs presented by Mr. Seebohm, 
7866 specimens of skins and eggs have been added to this class. 
Some of these additions have already been mentioned. Of 
the others the following are the most important : — Twenty- 
six eggs ; presented by P. L. Sclater, Esq. Fifty-four 
Parrots and fifty eggs, including the type of Lorius tibialis, 
purchased of the Zoological Society of London. Twenty- 
eight specimens of Game-birds from Argyllshire; presented 
by F. Menteith Ogilvie, Esq. Fifty-five Game and Wading- 
birds from Lincolnshire ; presented by J. H. Caton Haigh, 
Esq. Sixty birds from St. B riders, South Wales ; presented 
by the Hon. W. Edwardes. Twelve specimens from Croatia, 
including examples of a supposed new species of Shag 
[Phalacrocorax croaticus*) ; presented by Professor S. Bru- 
sina. Twenty-three birds from various parts of Asia ; 
presented by Henry Seebohm, Esq. A collection of fifty- 
six birds from the vicinity of Muscat ; presented by Surgeon- 
Major A. S. G. Jayakar. Four hundred and eighteen 
specimens collected by the late Dr. Stoliczka in Yarkand, 
during Forsyth's second expedition in 1874 ; received in 
exchange from the Indian Museum, Calcutta. A pair of 
Bed-billed Curlew [Ibidorhynchus struthersi) , together with 
thirty-seven other birds and nests, from the Pamir; pre- 
sented by St. George Littledale, Esq. Ninety-six specimens 
from Corea, including an example of Thriponax kalinoivskyi, 
a large Woodpecker, new to the collection ; presented by 
C. W. Campbell, Esq. Thirteen specimens from the Shan 
Hills, Burmali; presented by Eugene W. Gates, Esq. A 
hundred and four specimens of birds, collected during the 
Steere Expedition to the Philippine Islands, containing 
types of Crijptolopha nigrorum and Abrornis olivacea ; ob- 
tained by exchange. Eighty-two specimens from the above- 
named expedition, containing examples of eighteen species 
new to the collection ; purchased. A pair of Loriculns 
bonapartii, a species of Lorikeet from the Sulu Islands, new 
* [Orn. Jahrb. ii. p. 27.— Ed.] 



156 Letters, Extracts, Notices, &^c. 

to the collection ; presented by the Hon. Walter Rothschild. 
A tail-feather of an Argus Pheasant^ the type of Argus 
trijjunctatus ; presented by Edward Bartlett, Esq. An 
example of a rare species of Lark {Spilocori/don hypermetrus) 
and of a Bunting [Fringillaria poliopleura) from Shoa, both 
new to the collection ; received in exchange from the Turin 
Museum. Thirty-two specimens from St. Thomas' and 
Prince's Islands, West Africa^ comprising examples of six 
species new to the collection ; presented by Professor Bar- 
boza du Bocage. Sixteen birds from East Africa, including 
SIX new to the collection ; received in exchange from the 
Berlin Museum. Ten birds from the Pacific Islands, in- 
cluding examples of two species of Petrel new to the col- 
lection ; presented by J. J. Lister, Esq. The type specimen 
of a new species of Petrel {CEstrelata cervicalis) from the 
Kermadec Islands ; presented by Captain Carpenter. The 
type of Erythrura regia, a Weaver Finch from Api, New 
Hebrides; presented by P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.R.S. Speci- 
mens of three Kingfishers of the genus Tanysiptera {Tany- 
siptera obiensis, T. emil'ue, and T. eUioti), new to the collec- 
tion, received in exchange from the Leyden Museum. Two 
specimens of a Kingfisher (Halcyon aJhicilla) and of a new 
species of Honey-sucker [Cleptornis marctiU) from the 
Marianne Islands, both new to the collection ; presented by 
the Paris IMuseiim. Nine specimens of Buzzards, and 
thirteen other specimens from Montana and Dakota; pre- 
sented by E. S. Cameron, Esq. Three hundred and twenty 
skins of birds from Chili and Tarapaca, including a rare 
Avocet {JRecurvirostra andhia) and examples of several other 
species new to the collection ; presented by H. Berkeley 
James, Esq. Thirty-four nests and eggs from Barbados, 
presented by Colonel H. W. Feilden, R.A." 



The Bird-Collections in the Oxford University Museum. — 
In last year's volume of this journal (Ibis, 1892, p. 187) I 
called attention to the state of the collection of birds in the 
Oxford University jMuseum. I have lately paid another 
Adsit to the Museum, and was pleased to find that some pro- 



Letters, Extracts, Notices, ^c. 157 

gress has been made towards bringing the birds into a more 
satisfactory state. Tiie boxes of skins which I found " in- 
accessil)le ^^ in 1891 have been opened and examined, and 
rough lists have l)een made of their contents. Tliey can 
now be inspected by any one desirous of seeing them. But 
the specimens are still, in many cases, stored in huge un- 
manageable chests, which are kept in several different parts 
of the building. What ornithologists would wish is that all 
the unmounted skins of the various collections, probably 
some 4000 or 5000 in number, should be brought together 
into one room, labelled and classified, and arranged in a 
uniform series, either in cabinets or in convenient boxes, so 
that all the specimens of any particular group might be 
seen together. There is a vacant " upper chamber " Avhich 
would answer for this purpose very well, if the Delegates of 
the Museum could be induced to devote it to this object. 
Besides tlie Burchell Collection, which, I believe, was in- 
herited from the old Ashmolean Museum, and which pro- 
bably contains many " types ^' long lost sight of, there are 
series of skins from Europe and Australia (/^(?e(/), from Bi^itish 
India [Lord Northbrook), from New Gfuinea {Lawes), and 
from Borneo {Treacher). There are also a European set 
belonging to the Hope Collections, and the general collec- 
tion of the late Sir Harford Brydges. All these should be 
brought together and amalgamated into one series. — P. L. S. 



The Godwin- Austen Collection of Birds. — Lt.-Col. II. II. 
Godwin-Austen, r.R.S., wishes to dispose of his collection of 
N.E. Indian birds. It contains about 3730 skins, in good 
condition, representing 592 species, and was formed in the 
years 1868-1877 by himself and by collectors under his 
orders during his service with the Topographical Survey in 
the Garo, Khasi, Jaintia, North Caehar, Naga, and Munipur 
Hills, in the plains of Sylhet, Caehar, and Mymensing, aud 
in the Assam Valley as far east as Sadya. There are also 
series from the Dafia and Mishmi Hills, north of the Brahma- 
putra. The exact localities are on the labels, and the dates 
and sexes are given in most cases. There are 18 types or 



158 Letters, Extracts, Notices, ^c. 

typical specimens in the collection. Col. Godwin-Austen's 
address will be found in the List of Members of the B. O. U. 



Birds of Antigua, W.I. — In a paper read before the 
Zoological Society of London on the 14th June^ 189.2 "^^ I 
remarked that^ so far as I knew, no ornithological collector 
had previously been in Antigua, and that its ornis was 
'' entirely unknown." In making these statements I much 
regret to find that I had overlooked one of Mr. Cory's 
papers on West Indian birds, published in ' The Auk ' for 
1891 (p. 4G). From this it appears that Anguilla was 
visited by Mr. Winch, Mr. Cory's collector, in 1890, and 
that examples of 13 species of birds were procured there. 
Of these 8 are identical with 8 of the species in my list of 
those obtained by Mr, Elliot, and 5 are different. Adding 
these 5 to my list of 16, we have 21 birds now known to 
occur in Anguilla. These are all well-known West-Indian 
species, and none of them are of special interest. — P. L. S. 



The Preservation of Native Birds in New Zealand. — In 
'Nature' of September 22nd lastf will be found a memo- 
randum drawn up by Lord Onslow, the late Governor of 
New Zealand, and presented to both Houses of the General 
Assembly, which is of great interest to ornithologists. It 
relates to a proposal for the preservation of the native birds 
of New Zealand, so many of which are now threatened with 
extermination, not only by the increase of population, but 
still more by the attacks of cats, stoats, Aveasels, and other 
animals lately introduced into the colony. Lord Onslow 
comes to the conclusion that the only way to preserve the 
indigenous birds against such ravages is to set apart suitable 
islands for the purpose, and to place them under very strict 
protective regulations. After careful enquiries upon the 
subject, it has been ascertained that the two most readily 
available islands for this purpose are Little Barrier Island in 
the north and Resolution Island in the south. As regards 
the first of these islands, which is in the Gulf of Hauraki, 

* See P. Z. S. 1892, p. 148. 

t See ' Natiu-e/ vol. xlvi. p. 502. 



Letters, Extracts, Notices, 6fc. 159 

the laud is still part of the Maori reservation^ but uegotiatious 
are iu progress for its acquisitiou, aud Lord Ouslow urges 
the Assembly to lose no time in bringing them to a con- 
clusion. Resolution Island^ which is situated on the south- 
west coast of Otago, has already been proclaimed a reserve 
for the native fauna and flora^ so that it only remains to take 
proper steps to stock it with the birds which it is desired to 
preserve. Lord Onslow suggests the various species of 
Kiwi (Apteryx) aud the Kakapo {Stringops hahroptUus) as 
being pre-eminently suitable for this island_, which is supposed 
to be the final refuge of Notornis mantelJi, if it really still 
exists. To these he proposes to add, amongst other species, 
the Huia-bird {Heteralocha gouldi), which is at present con- 
fined to a limited area in the North Island. We are quite 
sure that all ornithologists will agree in applauding Lord 
Onslow for the good work he has thus inaugurated, and we 
trust that Lord Glasgow, his successor in the Government of 
New Zealand, will not fail to carry it on. 

Surnames taken from Birds. — In reference to the enquiry 
(Ibis, 1892, p. 579) as to the locality of the original spot 
called '^The Gled^s-stones," whence the surname '^Glad- 
stone " was formed, one of our correspondents kindly sends 
us a little book by Mrs. Oliver (of Thornwood), written in 
1878 for the Hawick Archseological Society, and entitled "The 
Gledstones and the Siege of Coklaw.^' From this it appears 
that the Premier is descended from a younger branch of 
the " Gledstones of Coklaw," also called '"^ Gledstones of 
that Ilk.'' But it would seem that that Ilk was not in 
the neighbourhood of Hawick, where Coklaw Castle once 
stood, but in Lanarkshire, whence the family migrated 
into the neighbourhood of Hawick some five hundred 
years ago, and that the estate of " Gledstones " in Lanark- 
shire passed out of the hands of " Gledstone of that Ilk " 
about the middle of the sixteenth century, and became 
the property of a Sir William Menzies. It is therefore in 
Lanarkshire that the original " Gleds' Stones,'' whence the 
name " Gladstone " is derived, should be sought for. 



160 Letters, Extrada, Notices, ^c. 

New Ornithological Periodical. — Dr. Ant. Reichenow an- 
nounces the commencement witli this year o£ a new orni- 
thological periodical; to be called ' Ornithologische Monats- 
berichte/ and to be published by Messrs. Friedlander of 
Berlin, under his editorship. The subscription-price will be 
six marks. 

Prince Albert's, Lyre-bird in Captivity. — From ' The 
Northern Star and Richmond and Tweed Rivers Advocate/ 
published at Lismore, N. S. VV.^ on October Sth^ 1892, of 
which some kind correspondent has sent us a copy, we learn 
that Mr. A. P. Goodwin, of that town, has been fortunate 
enough to obtain a live specimen of the Lyre-bird {Menura 
alberti^ belonging to that district. Several specimens of 
Menura superba have been brought alive to England and 
exhibited in the Zoological Society^s Gardens, but we are 
not aware that Menura alberti has ever been seen in captivity 
before. 



The British Museum Catalogue of Birds. — Three more 
volumes of the great Catalogue of Birds are in a forward 
state, and will probably be published in the course of the 
year. The 21st volume, devoted to the Pigeons, has been 
undertaken by Count Salvadori, than whom no ornithologist 
could have been found more competent for this arduous 
task. Count Salvadori has been in London all the autumn 
at work upon it, and has only recently returned to Turin. 
The 22nd volume, containing the Pterocletes, Gallince, and 
Hemipodii, is being prepared by Mr. Ogilvie Grant. Dr. 
Bowdler Sharpe is at work on the 23rd volume, which, we 
understand, will contain the Aledorides, Fulicarice, and 
Liiuicola. When these three volumes are complete, we 
reckon that one or two volumes more will finish the work. 
It is to be hoped, however, that a good index will not be 
forgotten. The Editor of 'The Ibis^ has already made an 
index of the first 20 volumes in MS., and finds it extremely 
useful. 



Letters, Exti^acts, Notices, S^c. 161 

Naturalists Abroad and at Home. — Mr. O. V. Aplin has 
arrived at his collecting-station — an estancia in the Depart- 
ment of Soriano^ in Uruguay, between the rivers Monzon 
and Rio Grande. It is QQ miles from the nearest railway- 
station, but seems likely to be an excellent place for his 
purpose, with a varied surface of wood and water, and " birds 
abundant." 

Mr. R. C. L. Perkins, the naturalist sent out by the 
Committee for the Zoological Exploration of the Sandwich 
Islands, was in the district of Kona, in Hawaii, at the date 
of his last letters. We owe the Committee our best thanks 
for allowing us to publish Mr. Perkinses very interesting 
notes on the avifauna of this district (see above, p. 101). 

We learn with great satisfaction that Mr. J. G. Gregory, 
of the Geological Department, British Museum, has received 
the permission of the Trustees to accompany, as naturalist, 
Lieut. Villiers's new expedition into the interior of Eastern 
Africa. The original intention of this expedition was to 
proceed up the Juba, but we are told that at this season the 
Jiiba is unnavigable for want of water. The party will, 
therefore, probably go up the Tana to Mount Kenia, and 
thence to Lake Rudolf, returning through Northern Somali- 
land. There can be no doubt that this route passes through 
a most interesting and, zoologically, almost unknown dis- 
trict, and that Mr. Gregory has a splendid field for his 
investigations. 

Three of the Dundee whalers which are now in the Ant- 
arctic Seas carry surgeons specially selected for their scien- 
tific qualifications. Mr. W. S. Bruce, the surgeon of the 
'Balsena^ (Capt. Fairweather), has a very complete equip- 
ment for biological collecting of every description, and a 
" large and representative collection of birds " is expected to 
be obtained. Good series of the Penguins and Petrels of the 
South Polar Ocean will add much to our knowledge of these 
groups. 

Dr. T. Jeffery Parker, F.R.S., of Dunedin, Otago, New Zea- 
land, who is now in this country, will read a paper on the 
Cranial Osteology, Classification, and Phylogeny of the 

SER. VI. VOL. V. M 



163 Letters, Extracts, Notices, 6f<:. 

Moas (Dinornithidse) at the Zoological Society's Meeting on 
February 1 Itli, 



Obituary. Harry Berkeley James and Robert W. 
Shufeldt. — Harry Berkeley James was born on the 9th of 
March, 181-6, at Walsall, Staffordshire, in the house of his 
father Mr. Frank James, of the same place, and was educated 
at Sj)ringhi]l School, Southampton. In 1867 he went out 
to South America as clerk in the house of Messrs. Gunston 
and Edmundson, of Valparaiso. After four years^ work at 
Valparaiso he entered the mercantile house of Messrs. 
Anthony Gibbs and Co., and was appointed manager of one of 
their large nitrate establishments, called La Limeha, near 
Iquique, then in Peru, but since annexed to Chili. After 
four years' residence in this establishment, which is situated 
on the high ground of the interior, about thirty miles inland, 
he resigned his post and went into business as a merchant 
at the port of Iquique. On May 9tli, 1877, tlie frightful 
earthquake, which ruined a great part of that town, took 
place. This was accompanied, as is usual in such cases, by a 
huge seismic wave, which completed the destruction com- 
menced by the earthquake. James was as nearly as possible 
drowned by the cataclysm ; he was immersed waist-high in 
water, and narrowly escaped by running up to some higher 
land. His house at Iquique and all its contents were carried 
into the sea, and he lost everything he possessed there 
except the clothes that he was wearing. The site of the 
house was so completely cleared that after the flood was over 
it could not be distinguished from the rest of the beach. 

In 1878 James made a journey into the interior of Peru, 
starting from liima by the Oro^a railwa}-, and penetrated on 
mule-back, by a rough and dangerous route, as far as Chan- 
chamayo. During this excursion, besides making general 
observations on the natural history of the country, he col- 
lected a large series of Lepidoptera, to which group he at 
that time paid special attention. In April 1879 war was 
declared between Peru and Chili, and in the following 
October, business being at a standstill, James left Iquique 



Letters, Extracts, Notices, ^c. 163 

for England^ making a short stay in the West Indies on liis 
way home. 

Upon his return to England, James spent several months 
on a collecting-tour in Sutherlandshire, and in October 1880 
married Miss Lucy Constance Clarke, the daughter o£ a 
near neighbour in Staffordshire. 

Early in 1881, accompanied by his wife, James returned 
to his business at Iquique ; but, owing to other claims on 
his attention and to the unattractive character of the sur- 
rounding country, was able to do very little in the way of 
natural history. Two years later, however, on moving to a 
country-house (called Las Salinas) in the neighbourhood of 
Valparaiso, he found himself in a better position for his 
favourite pursuit. Here he began his collection of Chilian 
birds, which were sought for both round his home and in the 
neighbouring Cordilleras. To these he made frequent 
expeditions, often camping out at night in order to effect 
a more complete exploration of the surrounding ranges. 
Besides birds and their eggs, James also collected butterflies, 
moths, beetles, and other insects. 

In 1885 James prepared and printed a pamphlet of sixteen 
pages containing a list of the birds of Chili^. In this 
memoir ate arranged, in three parallel columns (1) the 
scientific names of Chilian birds adopted by Mr. Sclater in 
his ' List of Chilian Birds,' published in 1867 ; (2) the names 
employed in the Santiago Museum; and (3) the corresponding 
vernacular names used by the natives. 

In 1886 James returned finally to England, having realized 
largely by the nitrate trade, in which he had been extensively 
engaged, and two years later purchased as a residence the 
well-known property called '' The Oaks,^^ near Epsom, in 
Surrey. 

In order to complete his series of Chilian birds James, 
before he left Valparaiso, had arranged with Carlos Ralmer, 
a German naturalist in the Museum of Santiago, to make a 
special expedition into the interior of Tarapacii. The bird- 

* ' List of Chilian Birds,' compiled by Harry Berkeley James, F.Z.S- 
Valparaiso, 1885. 



164 Letters, Extracts, Notices, &;c. 

skins obtained on this occasion were brought to England^ and 
described by tlie Editor of this Jonrnal in the ' Proceedings ' 
of the Zoological Society"^, Amongst these a fine novelty 
was a new three-toed Flamingo, which was dedicated to James 
as Phoenicojiterus jamesi. 

Again, in 1889, James, acting on the Editor^s suggestion, 
sent out another collector, Mr. Ambrose A. Lane, to explore 
various parts of the Chilian Republic. Mr. Lane first visited 
Tarapacat, and afterwards several places in the southern 
provinces, but was forced to return home before his work 
was accomplished by the outbreak of the Chilian revolution. 

James was attached to the study of Natural History from 
his boyhood, and took the keenest interest in collecting and 
observing birds. He was also an excellent horseman and 
ardently fond of outdoor sports. He was a Fellow of the 
Linnean, Zoological, and Royal Geographical Societies, and 
was elected a Member of the British Ornithologists^ Union 
in 1886. He died at his home in Surrey on the 22nd July, 
1892. All his collections of birds and eggs have been placed 
in the British Museum. 

Robert W. Shufeldt. — With much regret we see recorded 
in the last number of ' The Auk ' the death at an early age 
of Robert W. Shufeldt, the son of our much-esteemed friend 
and contributor of the same name. Mr. Shufeldt was a 
student of Marietta Academy, Ohio, and was Taxidermist and 
Collector of the Natural History Museum of Marietta College. 
This enthusiastic young savant, of unusual promise, was 
accidentally drowned in the Ohio, near Marietta, on July 
11th last, whilst on a collecting trip for birds for his 
Museum. 

* See " List of a Collection of Birds from the Province of Tarapaca, 
Northern Chili,'' by P. L. Sclater (P. Z. S. 1886, p. 395). 

t See article '' On a second Collection of Birds from the Province of 
Tarapaca, Northern Chili," by P. L. Sclater (P. Z. S. 1891, p. 131). 



THE IBIS. 



SIXTH SERIES. 



No. XVIII. APRIL 1893. 



XIII, — On the Birds of Aden. 
By Lieut. H. E. Barnes, F.Z.S. 

[Concluded from p. 84.] 

64. Treron, sp. inc. 

I neither saw nor heard of a Green Pigeon during the 
time I was in Aden, and suspect that its occurrence (recorded 
by Major Yerbury, Ibis, 1886, p. 18) is somewhat exceptional. 

65. CoLUMBA LiviA, Bonu. 

These Pigeons are abundant, breeding in hundreds in the 
caves above the tanks and many other places. They are 
seldom or never interfered with. 

66. TuRTUR sENEOALENsis (Linn.). 

The Little Brown Dove is a common permanent resident 
in Aden, breeding freely at the tanks and also on the rafters 
in the open verandahs of the dwelling-houses, notably in the 
one previously alluded to as being in the occupation of 
Captain Light. 

67. TuRTUR RisoRius (Liuu.). 

The Ring-Dove is another rather common permanent 
resident. 

SER. VI. — VOL. V. N 



166 Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 

68. CEna CAPENsis (Linn.). 

The Long-tailed Dove is found occasionally at Huswah 
and Sliaik OtlimaUj but I have never seen it in Aden itself. 

69. Pterocles exustus^ Temm. 

The Common Sand-Grouse is very abundant inland, and 
is netted in large numbers by the Arabs and brought into 
Aden for sale. I did not measure any, but they struck me 
as being of very small size compared with the birds we get 
in India. 

70. Pterocles lichtensteini, Temm. 
Lichtenstein^s Sand-Grouse is not uncommon inland, but 

does not occur in such numbers as the Common Sand- 
Grouse ; I do not think that any remain to breed, as I have 
not seen or heard of them^ except in the cold season. One 
shot on the 27th October measured as follows : — Length 
10'8 inches^ expanse 21, wing 6*7, tail 3, tarsus \'\, bill at 
gape 0-66, bill at front 0-54. Bill fleshy brown, paler 
beneath ; feet dull orange-yellow ; iris brown. 

71. Caccabis melanocephala (Riipp.). 

The Large Black-headed Chukar is common in the 
ravines at the base of the hills, some distance inland. They 
also frequent the clayey cliffs along the river-banks, 
especially near pools of water, the river-bed being generally 
dry. 

They are often brought in alive by Arabs, and command 
a ready sale, as they form an agreeable addition to the meagre 
fare generally obtainable in the settlement, especially if 
kept a little while and allowed to get fat — a process which 
does not take long, as they are very tamable birds. 

They are permanent residents, laying their eggs about 
March. Early in June an Arab offered to sell me some 
half-grown birds which he said he had caught near the river 
not far from Huswah. 

72. Caccabis chukar (J. E. Gray). 

The evidence regarding the occurrence near Aden of this 
bird is still inconclusive. Manv times I have heard of 



Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 167 

specimens having been sliot^ but in each instance when I have 
been able to inspect the birds they have proved to belong to 
the Large Black-headed kind. 

The Arabs assert that there is a smaller Cliukar, and Captain 
Onslow, R.E., who has been in Aden some time, informed me 
that the year previous he had had five sent to him. He knows 
the bird well and was quite certain about them ; at the time 
he had seven of the larger kind which he had recently 
purchased, so I think there can be little doubt that the 
Indian Chukar does occur at Aden, but it would be much 
more satisfactory if a specimen could be procured. 

73. Ammoperdix bonhami (Fraser). 

The Seesee Partridge occurs in the hills in the vicinity of 
Aden, but whether it is common or not I cannot say ; the 
only one obtained was bought from an Arab, and was mis- 
taken by the purchaser for a Chukar, which he knew I was 
on the look-out for. This bird was sent to the Zoological 
Gardens, London, and it was not until its arrival there that 
it was correctly identified, as I was at the time seriously ill 
from the eflFects of an unfortunate accident, and could not 
examine it. 

The Arab who sold it says he caught it among the hills, 
along with two others, which had since died ; he had in his 
possession at the tinae about twenty Sand-Grouse and a few 
Common Quail. 

74. COTURNIX COMMUNIS, BoUU. 

The Common Quail is found occasionally in Goldmore 
Valley and also in the Shum-shum Gorge ; but these birds 
do not remain long, staying apparently only to rest them- 
selves. 

Inland during the cold season they are very common, and 
are caught in some numbers by the Arabs. They are generally 
kept for fighting. 

The following dimensions were taken from a female shot 
on 8th March: — Length 8*2 inches, tail 1'4, tarsus Tl, bill 
from gape 0'6, bill from front 04. Bill horny brown ; feet 
pale yellowish white. 

N 2 



1(58 Lieut. H. ¥j. IJarucs on the Birds of Aden. 

75. CoTURNix DELEGORGUEij Delcg. Vov. FAfr. Austr. ii. 
p. 615 (1847). 

This Quail is equally abundant and oceui's in tlie same 
loealities and at the same season as the last. It is, if pos- 
sible, even still more pugnacious, and is a great favourite 
with the Arabs. 

76. TuRNix LEPURANA (Smith). 

This is the only speeies of Button Quail that I have met 
witli ; it is not uncommon during the cold season, but, so far 
as I could learn, does not remain to breed. I have not met 
with any in Aden itself. 

The following are the measurements carefully taken from 
a bird in the flesh: — Length 6 15 inches, expanse 11, wing 
3"4, tail 1-4, tarsus 0-9, bill at gape 06. Bill bluish, dusky 
on culmen ; legs pale yellow ; iris yellow. 

77. EupoDOTis ARABS (Liuu.) . 

This Bustard appears to be fairly common inland, I 
have not been fortunate enough to meet with one alive, but 
have seen several brought in for sale. 

T have not seen any other Bustard, but the Arabs fre- 
quently speak of one or two others. 

78. HOUBARA MACQUEENI (J. E. Gr.). 

An Arab sold me two eggs of a Bustard in March, un- 
fortunately just as they were on the point of hatching. 
They were exactly similar to eggs of the Houbara received 
from Persia, so that I think there can be little doubt of its 
occurrence somewhere in the neighbourhood. 

These eggs were broadish oval in shape, pointed a little at 
one end, measuring 2*5 inches in length by 1*8 in breadth. 
The ground-colour was a darkish drab, showing in a good 
light a slightly reddish tint ; the markings consisted of clouds 
and blotches of blackish and reddish brown. 

79. CuRsORius, sp. inc. 

The Courser alluded to by Major Yerbury still remains 
unknown. I met with this bird on one occasion only, on 
the shore between Huswah and the Barrier Gate, but failed to 
secure the specimen. It was a solitary individual and was 



Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 109 

running rapidly along the beach, occasionally stopping, for 
no purpose that I could see except to stretch out its neck and 
spread its wings, and just as suddenly starting off again. 

I think this bird was feeding on small shrimps, the sea at 
this place being simply swarming with them ; so much so 
that a couple of Arabs, with a small dhotie (sheet), caught 
over a bushel at a time, by simply holding the corners and 
dragging it through the water for a yard or so. 

80. Squatarola helvetica (Linn.). 

The Grey Plover occurs during the cold season in 
moderate-sized flocks. They are of course confined to the 
sea-shore, very rarely coming any great distance inland. They 
seem always to keep in the open, and, as they are excessively 
wary, are difficult to shoot. 

One shot in December on the beach at Goldmore Valley 
measured as folloAvs : — Length 11*75 inches, expanse 24, 
wing 7'7, tarsus 1*7, tail 2'9, bill at front \'Z, bill at gape 
] '3. Bill, legs, and feet black ; iris brown. 

All the birds obtained were in winter plumage. 

81. Charadrius PLUviALis, Linn. 

I have never met with the Golden Plover at Aden ; twice 
I have had reputed birds sent me, but on both occasions I 
found them to be Grey Plovers. 

Major Yerbury says, " The Golden Plover is an occasional 
cold- weather visitant;" and he is very possibly right, as the 
Officers of the Connaught Hangers were very positive that 
they had shot the Golden Plover on several occasions. 

82. ffinicNEMus scoLOPAX (S. G. Gm.). 

The Stone-Curlew occurs occasionally in the vicinity of 
Aden during the cold season. I liave never seen one in the 
hot weather, neither have I ever met with it in Aden proper, 
by which I mean inside the Barrier Gate. They are fairly 
common at Little Aden, on the opposite side of the harbour. 

83. yEoiALITIS MONGOLICA (Pall.). 

This Sand-Plover is occasionally met with during the 
cold weather; one shot on the 2nd November measured 



170 Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 

as follows : — Length 7*5 inches^ expanse 14*75, wing 5_, 
tail 1-8, tarsus 1, bill at front 1. Bill black ; legs blackish ; 
iris very dark brown, almost black. 

84. tEgialitis cantiana (Lath.). 

The Kentish Plover is not uncommon. I obtained spe- 
cimens from the 25th September to the 15th April. One 
measured in the flesh: — Length Cy7 inches, expanse 13'5, 
wing 4-4, tail 1"95, tarsus 1"1. Bill black; legs and feet 
blackish ; iris brown. 

85. Strepsilas interpres (Linn.). 

The Turnstone is very common during the cold weather, 
frequenting the beach both in Aden itself and in the neigh- 
bourhood. Those obtained in September were in winter 
plumage, but one shot late in May (the last one I met with) 
was commencing to assume the summer plumage. The 
following are the dimensions of one shot on the 29th 
September : — Length 8*75 inches, expanse 17-5, wing 5-8, 
tail 2-3, tarsus 0-85, bill at front 08, bill at gape 09. Bill 
black; legs and feet dusky red ; iris deep brown. 

86. Dromas ardeola, Payk. 

The Crab-Plover is a regular visitor during the cold 
season, appearing in the early part of October. I saw one as 
late as the 5th of May in Goldmore Valley, and felt sure 
that it had a nest near at hand ; but a close and persevering 
search was not rewarded with the success it deserved. 

This bird is known to breed in the islands in the Persian 
Gulf (from which locality I have received eggs), laying a 
single white egg in a hole burrowed in the sand, so that my 
assumption is not so very unreasonable. 

The egg is very large for the size of the bird. 

87. H/EMATOPUs osTRALEGus, Linn. 

As noted by Major Yerbury, Oyster-catchers remain at 
Aden all the year round. Like him I doubt the fact of their 
breeding here, simply because I have never met with any 
young birds ; but when we think of the many all but inac- 
cessible creeks in the vicinity where the solitude is seldom 
broken by the voice of man, it is very possible they may do 



Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 171 

so. Most undoubtedly they are much more numerous in 
the cold weather. 

88. Gallinago ccelestis^ Frenzel. 

The Common Snipe is not very abundant, but at times a 
small bag can be made along the bed of the river. This is 
the only Snipe that I have personally examined, but I have 
no doubt that the Jack Snipe occurs also. 

89. Terekia cinerea (Giild.). 

The Avocet Sandpiper is occasionally met with during the 
cold season. It frequents the mudbanks in the harbour at 
low tides, and is very wary and difficult to shoot. 

90. NuMENius ARQUATA (Linu.). 

The Curlew is abundant in the cold season, and is occa- 
sionally met with throughout the year; but I think that 
these are only young and unpaired birds, and do not breed 
anywhere in the neighbourhood. 

91. NuMENius PH^opus (Linn.). 

The same remarks apply equally well to the Whimbrel, 
except that it is much more common. 

I took careful measurements of both the Whimbrel and 
Curlew, but cannot now find them. 

9.2. Tringa alpina, Linn. 

The Dunlin is fairly common during the cold season, 
remaining quite up to the end of May, by which time they 
commence to assume the summer plumage. 

93. Tringa mtnuta, Leisl. 

The Little Stint is often met with during the cold weather. 

94. Caliuris ARENARiA (Linn.). 

The Sanderling occurs also in large flocks during the cold 
season. 

95. Tringoides hypoleucus (Linn.). 

The Common Sandpiper occurs on the seashore wherever 
it is at all rocky ; it is more abundant from September to 
May ; but individual birds are met with occasionally during 
the cold weather, though I do not think they breed. 



172 Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 

A disabled bird having a damaged wing frequented 
Captain Light's compound during the month of April ; what 
brought the bird there I cannot say, as his bungalow is in 
the very middle of the Crater. 

96. Helodromas ochropus (Linn.). 

The Green Sandpiper is very abundant, occurring in 
immense flocks on the mud islands in the harbour, but only 
during the cold season. 

97. ToTANUs cALiDRis (Linn.). 

The same remark applies to the Redshank. 

98. Crex pratensis, Bechst. 

The Land-Rail is one of the last birds one would expect to 
meet with on a barren spot like Aden, yet I have on several 
occasions procured them. The first was on the 20th August, 
another on the 24th of the same month, one on the 17th of 
September, and the last on the 15th of February. The first 
was caught alive, and I did not kill it till next morning, as 
I was too busy to stuff it ; it kept up a low plaintive cry, 
like a young kitten, the whole night through. 

I fancy all these birds were introduced into Aden from the 
interior in the following manner : — After the jowaree crop 
is reaped, the stalks or kirbee (often seven or eight feet long) 
are tied up in large bundles, which remain in the fields some- 
times for weeks together, and form excellent hiding-places 
for the birds during the day. Early in the morning when 
the camels are being loaded with these bundles of kirbee for 
transport to Aden, where it is extensively used as fodder, the 
birds do not fly out, as they keep very close, but as soon as 
the bundles are opened for sale they escape. In some of the 
valleys there are patches of salsola, and, for a short time after 
rain, wild portulaca springs up and covers the otherwise bare 
hillsides with verdure, but it has a very brief existence. 
With these exceptions, there is absolutely no cover for 
Land- Rails, and of course they are soon discovered and 
caught. On the mainland there is plenty of cover, and 
some few birds may possibly straggle in thence. It is only 
at the Crater where forage is sold, and there only that I 



Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 173 

have found the birds, although there are places at Steamer 
Point and in Goldmore Valley more suited to them. I give 
the measurements of one shot on the 17th September, which 
was a female : — Length 9"62 inches, expanse 16*44, wing 
5-06, tail 1-66, tarsus 1-61, bill at front 0-67, bill at gape 1. 
Legs and feet dusky pink ; bill fleshy, dusky on culmen ; iris 
dark hazel-brown. 

99. Ardea cinerea, Linn. 

The Common Heron occurs sparingly during the cold season. 
It is very shy and difficult to approach, occurring singly on 
the sea-beach, where it may occasionally be seen fishing in 
shallow water. 

100. Ardea alba, Linn. 

The Large White Heron is more often met with, especially 
in the neighbourhood of the salt-pans, between the Isthmus 
and Shaik Othman. 

Its snow-white plumage makes it a very conspicuous 
object, and it is in consequence often detected in places 
where its more sober-coloured relative would escape un- 
noticed. It is very wary, taking wing long before one can 
get within range. 

101. Ardea, sp. inc. 

I have not met with the Egret alluded to by Major Yerbury. 

102. Ardea asha, Sykes. 

I often met with a bird which I think was the Ashy Egret; 
it was always alone, frequenting the rocks in sheltered places 
on the sea-shore. I have frequently passed an hour watching 
the bird feeding on small shell-fish and shrimps. By re- 
maining perfectly still, under the shadow of a rock, one has 
an excellent opportunity of observing them, as they come 
within a few yards, but at the least movement or noise they 
rise slowly on the wing and fly away seawards. 

103. Ardeola podiceps (Bp.). 

On the 12th October I purchased a bird from an Arab fisher- 
man, which has been doubtfully identified as of this species 
by Dr. Bowdler Sharpe. It had probably been in confinement 
some time, and was in bad condition, most of the primaries 



174 Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 

having apparently been pulled out^ some time before, to 
prevent its escape. The legs and feet were malformed^ the 
bird having most likely met with some injury when young, 
and in addition it was an immature specimen. 

The measurements were as follows : — Length 14 inches, 
wing (imperfect) 3'5, tail 2, tarsus 1 -75, bill at front 1-75, bill 
at gape 2*25. Iris greenish yellow ; bill brownish horny on 
top, greenish yellow beneath; legs and feet oily green. 

104. Platalea leucorodia, Linn. 

The Spoonbill only occurs as a somewhat rare cold- weather 
visitor. 

105. Ibis, sp. inc. 

I have been unable to procure a specimen of the dark- 
coloured Ibis observed by Major Yerbury. 

106. Phcenicopterus roseus, Linn. 

The Flamingo is often met with during the cold weather, 
occurring in small flocks of six or eight along the sea-shore. 
It is still more often seen near the salt-pans. 

107. Anas boschas, Linn. 

A flock was seen, early in the cold season, near Huswah, 
but none were shot. 

108. Querquedula crecca (Linn.). 

109. Querquedula circia (Linn.). 

Both the Common and Blue-winged Teal are frequently 
met with during the cold season near Huswah, Khor Maksor 
Creek, Little Aden, and other places. 

Several other species of Duck occur, but as I have not had 
an opportunity of examining them, I am unable to give their 
names. 

110. Podiceps nigricollis, Brehm. 

I obtained a specimen of the Black-necked Grebe ofi" Seera 
Island on the 2nd October. 

I have often seen what I took to have been others, but 
they were always at too great a distance to identify with any 
certainty. 

My specimen, which was a male, measured as follows : — 



Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 175 

Length 12 inches, expanse 24'5, wing 5*3, tarsus \'Qi), bill at 
front 0*9, bill at gape 1*2. Bill slaty blue, bluish beneath; 
legs and feet outwardly black, in\\ardly a peculiar leaden 
blue or greenish, dusky at joints. 

111. PuFFiNUs PERSicus, Hume. 

This Shearwater is not uncommon in the vicinity of Aden ; 
it is, however, rather difficult to procure, keeping, as a rule, 
well out to sea. The first specimen I obtained, after surviving 
a chapter of accidents, mysteriously disappeared. I had placed 
it on a low wall to dry with several other skins, and never saw 
it afterwards ; it was most probably carried off by a Kite. 

Another was found by my eight-year-old son, floating dead 
in the sea, in Holket Bay. He recognized it as the bird his 
father was so sorry at losing, and brought it home. 

The following were its dimensions : — Length 11*2 inches, 
expanse 26"5, wing 8'6, tail 3, tarsus 1"4, bill at front 1*2, 
bill at gape 1"6. Bill plumbeous black ; legs and feet pearly 
or opalescent white, claws and web between toes black. 

I feel sure that the birds pointed out to passengers on 
board vessels sailing in these seas as " Mother Carey's 
Chickens " belong to this species. 

112. Larus, sp. inc. 

I failed to procure a specimen of the Black-backed Gull 
alluded to by Major Yerbury, although I have occasionally 
seen it. 

113. Larus ichthyaetus, Pall. 

The Great Black-headed Gull is not uncommon, but does 
not occur in such large flocks as some of the others do. 
It disappears during the hot season, probably for breeding 
purposes only, as it is absent but a short time. 

114. Larus brunneicephalus, Jerd. 

The Brown-headed Gull is fairly numerous. One caught 
on the 25th January became quite tame in a couple of days, 
and would have made a capital pet, only the dogs could not 
be induced to let it alone ; they worried it so much that at 
last I was compelled to make away with it. Its wings having 
been clipped, it could not keep out of their way. 



176 Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 

I give the measurements of the only two specimens I 
shot : — Length 16"5, 16 inches^ expanse 39^ 40, wing 13*4, 13, 
tail 5'5, 5"5, tarsus 1*8, 1'75, bill at front 1*3, 1*28, bill at 
gape 2*2, 2*23. Bill and feet dusky red ; iris yellow-brown. 

115. Larus kidibundus, Linn. 

Not uncommon ; one caught on a fishing-line on the 12th 
January measured : — Length 14*75 inches, expanse 34, wing 
11-4, tail 4*2, tarsus I'S, bill at front 1-3, bill at gape 2-12. 
Bill and feet red, tipped dusky ; iris brown. 

116. Larus hemprichi, Bp. 

Hemprich's Gull is the commonest Gull in Aden harbour, 
and must breed not very far away ; they are much less 
common during the months of June, July, August, and 
September than at other times. I have eggs from the 
Persian Gulf; but I am of opinion that they also breed in 
the vicinity of Aden, as even in the hot season, when they 
are presumably away breeding, a flock will often appear and 
remain for an hour or so. 

At low tide they frequently assemble in huge flocks of 
some hundreds, standing so closely packed together that if 
a gun were discharged amongst theai some fifteen or twenty 
Avould be shot ; they remain packed in this fashion for hours 
together, scarcely one moving, until the fishing-boats return, 
when they rise in an apparently confused crowd, and with 
clamorous cries hover over the boats, waiting for the fisher- 
men to throw out their dead and unused bait, which consists, 
as a rule, of sprats and other small fishes. These flocks do not 
consist exclusively of Hemprich's Gull ; on one side may be 
fifty or a hundred of Larus ridibundus, and here and there, 
conspicuous by their greater size, may be seen small parties 
of the Great Black-backed Gull. 

A male shot on the 28th January measured : — Length 17 
inches, expanse 44, wing 13, tail 5, tarsus 2, bill at front 1*8, 
bill at gape 2"3. Bill bluish, black at tip ; legs and feet leaden 
black ; iris dark brown. 

117. Sterna albigena, Eeichenb. 

The White-cheeked Tern is not very common. I saw a 



Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 177 

pair at Seera on the 28th May, and on one or two occasions 
since. 

118. Sterna minuta, Linn, 

The Little Tern is not common ; I have seen it in June 
both on the Malla Beach and near Seera Island. I did not 
succeed in shooting one on either occasion, and they may 
possibly be Sterna saundersi, that is so common and breeds 
so freely at Kurrachee. Personally I am inclined to think that 
the differences between Sfernae minuta, sinensis, saundersi, and 
gouldice are so slight as hardly to merit specific distinction. 

119. Sterna bergi, Licht. 

The Large Sea-Tern is very common, and breeds on many 
of the islands in the neighbourhood. 

Dr. Bartlett procured a lot from an island near the 
French settlement of Obok, many of which he gave me ; and 
I obtained a large number from an island near the Somali 
coast in the month of August. 

The eggs are indescribably beautiful. They are broadly oval 
in shape, very much pointed towards one end, but variations 
from the type are not uncommon ; they have no gloss, but 
the texture of the shell is firm and compact. The ground- 
colour varies a good deal — white, greenish and pinkish white, 
pale yellowish, pale buff, pinkish stone-colour, and warm 
salmon-pink all occur. 

The markings are also very variable, consisting of specks, 
spots, streaks, blotches, and jagged lines of a deep burnt- 
sienna brown, in some eggs almost black ; the secondary 
markings are the usual pale washed-out underlying clouds 
and blotches of lilac and faint inky purple. 

The full number of eggs in a clutch is three, but occa- 
sionally two fully incubated eggs will be found. There is no 
nest, the eggs being placed in depressions scraped in the 
sand. They vary a good deal in size, but not more so than 
those of most large Terns do. The average of a large 
number was 2*45 inches in length by about 1'7 in breadth. 

These Terns fly with their beaks pointing straight down, and 
follow shoals of small fish, hovering in the air just above 



178 Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 

thenij plunging into the water at short intervals with some 
force^ each bird generally emerging with a small silvery 
fish in its beak^ which it disposes of by a backward jerk 
of the head, when the fish slips down its throat. If the bird 
has young ones in the neighbourhood, instead of swallowing 
its finny prey, it flies straight away with it. 

120. Sterna media, Horsf. 

The Lesser Sea-Tern is still more plentiful, breeding in 
great numbers on the adjacent islands. 1 procured a splendid 
series of eggs. 

The full complement of eggs is three, and they are laid ou 
the bare ground, after the manner of those of its larger 
relative. They are oval in shape, occasionally moderately 
broad, and are pointed at one end. The texture is fine, but 
glossless. The ground-colour is white, rarely bufiy white. 
The primary markings, which, as a rule, are thinly scattered 
over the whole surface, are very dark in colour, almost black ; 
there are generally one or two large blotches of this colour, 
blackish in the centre, but becoming reddish brown at the 
edges ; the smaller spots, too, are often surrounded by a kind 
of reddish nimbus, which adds much to the beauty of the 
egg. The secondary markings are pale lilac or faint inky 
purple, and have the appearance of lying beneath the surface 
of the shell, but they are few in number and often not very 
apparent. 

The eggs vary greatly in size, from 236 inches to 1"9 in 
length and from 1*5 to I '37 inch in breadth ; but the average 
of a very large series, carefully measured, was 2- 15 by 1*44. 

121. Sterna an.estheta. Scop. 

The Panayan Tern is not uncommon; a female shot on 
17th December measured : — Length 14 inches, expanse 30, 
wing 10, tail 5*75, tarsus 0'8, bill at front 1*6, bill at gape 2. 
Legs and feet black ; Jerdon says coral-red and dusky reddish 
respectively. 

122. Sterna fuliginosa, Gra. 

The Sooty Tern is fairly common and breeds close by. 
Dr. Bartlett received two eggs from an island near Obok 



Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 179 

that were exactly like those in my collection, which were 
taken on an island in the Persian Gulf. A dead bird picked 
up on the beach had a large wound in the neck ; it had evi- 
dently been struck with a stone shot from an Arab's double- 
string bow, with which some of that race are remarkably 
expert. 

In July I paid a very brief visit to Berbera, where I met 
Captain INlereweather, who informed me that the previous 
month he had landed on the small island of Zaila, on the 
Somali coast, and found the whole ground covered with the 
eggs of many sorts of Gulls and Terns. At my request he sent 
a boat, but the men returned with the news that the birds had 
all hatched out. 

123. Phaethon indicus, Hume^. 

A Tropic-bird was seen by Mr. Gaye, of the Eastern Tele- 
graph Company, in May ; he says that the long tail-feathers 
were pure white. Several others have been reported to me 
at different times, and I have frequently gone out in the 
Telegraph yacht after them, but have never had the good 
luck to see one. 

124. SuLA FIBER (Linn.). 

This Booby is very common in May and June. They fly 
very low over the water, either singly or in small parties 
numbering not more than six birds. 

125. Pelecanus onocrotalus, Linn. 

This Pelican is very common, frequenting the bays near 
Seera Island. I have noticed them several times swimming 
amongst the native craft lying at anchor off Malla Pier and 
at other places. 

They must breed not very far away, as they are seen at 
different times during the year. I possess an egg taken in 
Persia. 

126. Phalacrocorax, sp. inc. 

The Brown Cormorant alluded to by Major Yerbury is 
very common and a specimen could be obtained at any time. 

* [Cy. Hume, ' Stray Feathers,' x. p. 146.— Ed.] 



180 



Lieut. H. E. Barnes on the Birds of Aden. 



In addition to the locality given by him, they are frequently 
to be seen sitting on the rocks near Seera Mole Battery. I 
have several times shot them, but something has always pre- 
vented me from skinning them ; perhaps the knowledge that 
I could always get one at any time made me indifferent. 



Index. 
Part I. 



9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 



Gyps fiilvus, p. 63. 35. 

Neophron percnopterus, p. 64. 36. 

Falco peregrinus, p. 64. 37, 

Falco barbarus, p. 64. 38. 

TinnuncLilus alaudarius, p. 65. 39. 
Accipiter nisiis, p. 65. 

Aqiiila chrysaetos, p. 65. 40. 

Aquila imperialis, p. 66. 41. 

Pandion baliaetus, p. 66. 42. 
Haliaetus leucogaster, p. G6. 

Melierax polyzonus, p. 67. 43. 

Milvus segyptius, p. 67. 44. 

Elanus casruleus, p. 67. 45. 

Strix flammea, p. 68, 46. 

Carine, sp. inc., p. 68. 47. 
Scops giu, p. 68. 

Hirundo rustica, p. 68. 48, 

Ootyle obsoleta, p. 69. 49. 

Cypselus, sp. inc., p. 69. 50. 

Caprimulgus, sp. inc., p. 69. 51, 

Merops cyanopbrys, p. 70. 52. 

Merops persicus, p. 70. 53. 

Merops, sp. inc., p. 71. 54, 

Coracias garrulus, p. 71. 55, 

Ooracias abyssinicus, p. 72. 56, 

Halcyon semic£eruleus, p. 72. 57, 

Cuculus canorus, p. 72. 58. 

Coccystes, sp. inc., p. 73, 59. 

Centropus, sp. inc., p. 73. 60, 
Nectarinia metallica, p. 73. 

Upupa epops, p. 73. 61, 

Lauius labtora, p. 73. 62, 

Lanius nubicus, p. 73. 63. 
Lanius, sp. inc., p. 74. 



Hypocolius ampeliniis, p. 74. 
Terpsipbone paradisi, p. 74. 
Muscicapa grisola, p. 74, 
Monticola cyanus, p. 74. 
Cercotricbas melanoptera, 

p. 75. 
Argya, sp. inc., p. 75. 
Pycnonotus arsinoe, p. 76, 
Pycnonotus xantbopygus, 

p. 75. 
Oriolus galbula, p. 76. 
Saxicola cenantbe, p. 76. 
Saxicola stapazina, p. 76. 
Saxicola plescbanka, p, 76. 
Myrmecocicbla melanura, 

p. 77. 
Ruticilla, sp. inc., p. 78. 
Prinia, sp. inc., p. 78. 
Pbylloscopus, sp. inc., p. 78. 
Motacilla alba, p. 78. 
Motacilla feldeggi, p. 79. 
Oorvus culminatus, p, 79. 
Corvus corax, p. 80. 
Dilopbus carunculatus, p. 80. 
Ilypbantornis galbula, p. 80. 
Estrelda rufibarba, p. 82. 
Uroloncha, sp. inc., p. 82. 
Passer, sp. inc., p. 83. 
Pyrrhnlauda melanaiichen, 

p. 83. 
Alauda cristata, p. 83. 
Alsemon desertorum, p. 83. 
Mirafra, sp. inc., p. 84. 



On the Sharp-tailed Sandpiper 



181 



64. 
65. 
66. 
67. 
68. 
69. 
70. 
71. 

72. 
73. 
74. 

75. 
76. 
77. 
78. 
79. 
80. 
81. 
82. 
83. 
84. 
85. 
86. 



89. 
90. 
91. 
92. 
93. 
94. 



Part II. 

Treron, sp. inc., p. 165. 95. 

Golumba livia, p. 165. 96. 

Turtur senegalensis, p. 165. 97. 

Turtur risorius, p. 165. 98, 

CEna capensis, p. 166. 99. 

Pterocles exustus, p. 166. 100. 

Pterocles liclitensteini, p. 166. 101. 

Caccabis melanocephala, 102. 

p. 166. 103. 

Caccabis cliukar, p. 166. 104. 

Ammoperdix bonhami, p. 167. 105. 

Coturiiix communis, p. 167. 106. 

Cotumix delegorguei, p. 168. 107. 

Tiirnix lepurana, p. 168. 108. 

Eupodotis arabs, p. 168, 109. 

Houbara macqueeni, p. 168. 110. 

Cursorius, sp. inc., p. 168. 111. 

Squatarola helvetica, p. 169. 112. 

Chavadrius pluvialis, p. 169. 113. 

(Edicuemus scolopax, p. 169. 114. 

.^gialitis mongolica, p. 169. 115. 

^gialitis cantiana, p. 170. 116. 

Strepsilas interpres, p. 170. 117. 

Dromas ardeola, p. 170. 118. 

Htematopus ostralegus, p. 170. 119. 

Gallinago ccelestis, p. 171. 120. 

Terekia ciuerea, p. 171. 121. 

Numenius arquata, p. 171. 122. 

Numenius pbaeopus, p. 171. 123. 

Tringa alpina, p. 171. 124. 

Tringa minuta, p. 171. 125. 

Calidris ai'euaria, p. 171. 126. 



Tringoides hypoleucus, p. 171. 
Helodromas ochropus, p. 172, 
Totanus calidris, p, 172, 
Crex pratensis, p. 172, 
Ardea cinerea, p. 173, 
Ardea alba, p. 173. 
Ardea, sp. inc., p. 173. 
Ardea aslia, p. 173. 
Ardeola podiceps, p. 173, 
Platalea leucorodia, p. 174. 
Ibis, sp. inc., p. 174. 
Phoenicopterus roseus, p. 174. 
Anas bosclias, p. 174. 
Querquedula crecca, p. 174. 
Querquedula circia, p. 174. 
Podiceps nigricollis, p. 174. 
Puffinus persicus, p. 175. 
Larus, sp. inc., p. 175. 
Lams ichthyaetus, p. 175, 
Larus brunneicepbalus, p, 175, 
Larus ridibundus, p. 176. 
Larus hemprichi, p. 176. 
Sterna albigena, p. 176. 
Sterna minuta, p. 177. 
Sterna bergii, p. 177. 
Sterna media, p. 178. 
Sterna anaestheta, p. 178. 
Sterna fuliginosa, p. 178. 
Pbaetbon, sp. inc., p. 179. 
Sula fiber, p. 179. 
Pelecanus onocrotalus, p. 179. 
Pbalacrocorax, sp. iuc, p. 179. 



XIV. — On the Occurrence of the Sharp-tailed Sandpiper 
(Tringa acuminata) in Norfolk. By Henry Seebohm. 
With an Appendix by The Editor. 

(Plate V.) 

An example of the Siberian Pectoral or Sharp-tailed Sand- 
piper, shot oil the 29tli of August, 1892, at Breydon, near 

SKK. VI. VOL. V. o 



182 Mr. H. Seebolim on the 

Great Yarmouth, by Mr. T. Ground, has been sent to mc for 
examination by the Editor of ' The Ibis.^ 

It is an adult bird, with most of the underparts marked 
with dark brown spots, which are small and nearly terminal 
on the throat and breast, large, subterminal, and squamate 
on the belly and flanks, and large and lanceolate on the 
under tail-coverts. 

The squamate markings on the belly, and especially on the 
flanks, are very characteristic of the adult, in summer dress, 
of the Siberian sjiecies, and serve to distinguish it at a glance 
from the adult of the American species, and from the young 
of both, in which the belly is unspotted white and the 
markings on the flanks are confined to a few obscure shaft- 
streaks. 

I have also examined a second example which was pre- 
sented to the Norfolk and Norwich Museum by the late 
Mr. J. H. Gurney as an American Pectoral Sandpiper with 
no locality, but dated September 1848. It was said to have 
been killed on the Denes near Yarmouth (Gurney, * Zoologist,' 
1849, p. 2392), but shortly afterwards the fact that two 
examples, also in the flesh, of another American bird (the 
Red-winged Starling) were offered to Mr. Gurney through 
the same source, induced him to believe that he had been 
imposed upon as to the locality (Gurney, 'Zoologist,' 1849, 
p. 2568). 

Mr. Gurney's bird is also an adult Siberian Pectoral 
Sandpiper, and it is more probable that it was really shot 
near Yarmouth (as was alleged) than that it was brought 
from either its summer-quarters in Eastern Siberia, its 
winter-quarters in Australia or New Zealand, or from Japan 
or one of the islands of the Malay Archipelago which it 
passes on migration. 

The Siberian Pectoral Sandpiper has never been properly 
flgured, and in 1848 it is probable that adult birds in summer 
plumage were unknown. The figure of Tr'inga australis 
(Jardine and Selby, ' Illustrations of Ornithology,' ii. pi. 91) 
represents an immature bird which has not lost the wing- 
coverts of its first plumage, and has acquired the narrow 



Sharp-tailed Sandpiper. 183 

pectoral streaks of its first winter dress, but has not yet got 
any streaks on the flanks. The figures of Schmniclus aus- 
tralis (Gould, ' Birds of Australia/ vi. pi. 30) represent a 
young bird in first plumage with buff and almost unspotted 
breast, and an example, probably adult, in winter dress, 
with very little rufous buff on the upper parts and no 
streaks on the flanks. The figure of Tr'inga acuminata 
(Nelson, Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, iii. pi. vii.) appears to be 
that of a young bird in first plumage with more streaks than 
usual on the breast. 

The egg of the Siberian Pectoral Sandpiper is unknown, 
but there can be no doubt that the bird breeds in Siberia. 
I have an example obtained by Dybowski on the river Argun 
in Dauria on the 1st of June, and several examples from 
the Chinese coast collected by Swinhoe in April and May. 
It must now be added to the list of accidental visitors to the 
British Islands, and it would be wise in all possessors of 
supposed examples of British-killed American Pectoral Sand- 
pipers to examine them carefully, since it is extremely pro- 
bable that some of them may belong to the Siberian species. 

Appendix. By The Editor. 

To Mr. Seebohm's notes on this interesting addition to 
the British Avifauna I subjoin the principal references in 
ornithological literature to this bird, for which the best 
English name appears to be the " Sharp-tailed Sandpiper,'^ 
adopted by Nelson. 

The figure (Plate V.) is taken from Mr. Ground's speci- 
men, which has been kindly lent to me for the purpose. 
Mr. Ground writes to me as follows respecting it : — 

" I shot the bird on the 29th August last on Breydon 
mudflats ; it was in company with a Ringed Plover and 
three or four Dunlins. The boatman picked it up and threw 
it into the punt, saying it was a Dunlin. On reaching home 
I examined the bird, and having never seen a Dunlin with so 
fine and short a bill, I took it to the stuff ers and was 
agreeably surprised to find a few days afterwards that it had 
been pronounced to be an example of Tringa acuminata." 

o2 



184 



On the Sharp-tailed Sandpiper. 




Tail of Tringa acmninata. 
(From Seebohm'8 Geogr. Distr. Cliaradr. p. 441.) 

Tringa acuminata. 

Totaniis acuminatus, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 192 
(1820) (Java). 

Tringa australis, Jarcl. & Selb. 111. Orn. ii. pi. 91 (1829). 

Schoeniclus australis, Gould, B. Austr. vi. pi, 30 (1847). 

Tringa acuminata, Swinh. P. Z. S. 1863, p. 316, et 1871, 
p. 409 (China) ; id. Ibis, 1863, p. 412 (Formosa), et 1875, 
p. 455 (N. Japan) ; Wliitely, Ibis, 1867, p. 205 (N. Japan) ; 
Hartl. & Finsch, P. Z. S. 1868, pp. 8, 118, et 1872, p. 106 
(Pelew) ; Tacz. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, i. p. 252 (1876) 
(Siberia) ; Blak. & Pryer, Ibis, 1878, p. 221 (Japan) ; Scl. 
P. Z. S. 1878, p. 290 (New Ireland) ; Meyer, Ibis, 1879, 
p. 143 (Celebes) ; Salv. Cat. Strickl. Coll. p. 610 (1882) ; 
Biddulph, Ibis, 1882, p. 287 (Gilgit) ; Guillemard, P. Z. S. 
1885, p. 664 (Batanta) ; Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. Charadr. 
p. 441 (1887) ; Nelson, Rep. N. H. Coll. Alaska, p. 106, 
pi. vii. (1887) ; Tacz. P. Z. S. 1888, p. 457 (Corea) ; Buller, 
Bds. N. Zeal. ed. 2, ii. p. 37 (1888) ; Schleg. Mus. P.-B. 
Scolopaces, p. 38; Styan, Ibis, 1891, pp. 330, 506 (Lower 



On Birds observed in the Canary Islands. 185 

Yangtse); Southwell, Zool. 1892, pp. 35G, 405; P. Z. S. 
1892, p. 581. 

Limnocinclus acuminatus, Gould, Haudb. Bds. Austr. ii. 
p. 254 (1865). 

Adodromas acuminatus, Steju. Bull. U.S. N. M. no. 29, 
p. 115 (1885) (Bering Island). 

From this list it will be evident that the Sharp-tailed Sand- 
piper is widely distributed over tlie eastern part of tlie 
Palseai'ctic region, and visits the North Pacific Islands and 
Alaska during the autumn migration. In winter it passes 
far south over the Sunda Islands and the Pelew Islands to 
New Guinea, New Ireland, Australia, the Friendly Islands, 
and New Zealand. 



XV. — List of Birds observed in the Canary Islands. 
By E. G. Meade-Waldo. 

The following list is not intended to be a complete catalogue 
of the birds of the Canaries, but merely of those observed 
and procured during a residence of nearly four years in the 
islands. Specimens of almost the whole of the birds 
mentioned have been actually obtained, but a few of them 
I have seen only in the collection of Don Anatael Cabrera 
at Laguna, and a few others in that of Don Ramon Gomez. 
The species not yet procured, but observed and recognized 
beyond a doubt, are : — the Honey-Buzzard {Pernis apivorus) ; 
the White-tailed Eagle [HaUaetus albicilla), seen on the 
beach close to Arecife, Lanzarote, by Canon Tristram ; 
the small Peregrine {Falco punicus), which I could easily 
have shot, but have contented myself with carefully looking at, 
occasionally within a distance of a few yards ; and an Eagle, 
seen several times above Esperanza, but not included in the 
list, which, almost beyond a doubt, was Bonelli's Eagle 
{Nisa'etus fasciatus) . 

The Spanish name, where given, is the provincial term by 
which the birds are known to the peasants. It is very hard 
to get hold of what is really their name for a bird, as many of 
them do not know any names except those of the birds always 



186 Mr. E. G. Meade- Waldo on Birds 

before them. " Pajaro de monte " usually covers all birds 
of the high forest or scrub^ and " Pajaro de Africa " all 
visitors. The Gold-crest, which is exceedingly abundant, 
appears to have no name except '^ Pajaro pequeTio " ! which 
it certainly is. Everybody distinguishes all the birds of 
prey, except the Peregrine, which, on my pointing one out 
one day to the man who was with me, sitting on a rock 
looking at us about twenty yards oif, he informed me was a 
kind of Coruja (Owl). The Sparrow-Hawk is always called 
" Halcdn," not " GavilanJ" 

Of the Ducks and Waders, doubtless many that have not 
been included occasionally wander to the Canary Islands, 
for in the spring of 1890 numbers of birds which no one 
seemed to recognize appeared. And the islands of Montana 
Clara, Alegranza, and other small islands and rocks would 
well repay a visit in the months of June and July, on account 
of the numerous Petrels that breed there. 

An Owl {GJaucidium siju), which has been included in 
the list of Canarian birds, as I happen to know, was not 
procured at Adeje, Tenerife, as stated. Don Ramon Gomez 
showed the specimen to Canon Tristram and myself, and on 
our expressing doubts as to its occurrence there, told us it 
had come from Cuba. It has been included in Dr. Konig's 
list, but Don Ramon tells me it is his intention to undeceive 
the author*. 

I have mentioned the number of eggs laid by some of the 
species, because they appear to be so very few compared with 
what are laid by the same birds in the British Isles. More- 
over, ivhite clutches are by no means uncommon, and several 
species lay most curious varieties, none of them, perhaps, more 
remarkable than those of the Blackcap {Sylvia atricapilla) , 
which not unfrequently lays clutches of white eggs, spotted 
at the larger end with purplish and pale violet. The 
Kestrel lays eggs of every possible variety of colouring, white 
being not rare ; while the Raven {Corvus tingitanus) is 
almost as erratic in the colouring of its eggs. 

All the islands of the Canary group have been visited, and, 

* [Cf. remarks, Ibis, 1891, p. 616.— Ed.] 



observed in the Canary Islands. 



187 



with the exception of Hierro, several times. Of the smaller 
outlying uninhabited rocks, I went only to Graciosa, and I 
was there too early for the Petrels, which come in great 
numbers in the middle of May. 




1. TuRDUs Musicus. Soug-Thrush. (I'ordo.) 

The Song-Thrush is an abundant winter visitor to the 
high ground. I do not remember to have seen it lower than 
about 1800 feet. A few remain until April. 

2. TuRDUs PILARIS. Fieldfare. 

The Fieldfare is, apparently, an accidental straggler, as we 
saw only one while we were in the Canaries. 

3. TuRDUs MERULA. Blackbird. {Mirlo.) 

The Blackbird is an abundant resident, breeding from the 
gardens at the sea-level to as high as any scrub grows. Like 
many Canarian species, it lays very few eggs, two or three 
being the usual clutch, and very frequently only one is laid . 
Occasionally there seems to be a large influx of migrants, 
consisting principally of males. 



188 Mr. E. G. Meade-Waldo on Birds 

4-, 4. Saxicola genanthe. Wheatear. 

This is a scarce and irregular visitor to the Laguna plains in 
Tenerife. 

5. Pratincola dacoti.e, Meade- Waldoj Ibis, 1889, p. 504, 
pi. XV. Canarian Chat. 

Whether or not this Chat deserves the name of Canarian 
remains yet to be proved, as it probably also inhabits the pro- 
vince o£ Sus, adjoining the island of Fuerteventura, where we 
first saw it, and in the Canarian Archipelago this seems to be 
its sole habitat. It does not occur, so far as we could see, in 
Lanzarote, separated by only a narrow strait ; in fact, we 
never saw it except in the southern part of Fuerteventura. 
It was not rare, and seemed generally distributed wherever 
there was a little cover, especially frequenting the small 
barrancos on the low hills. Two nests, placed under stones, 
contained two young apiece, and a pair of old birds were 
accompanied by two young ones. Two other nests contained 
three eggs each. It was a very tame little bird, and its 
alarm-note was much louder and sharper than that of our 
Stonechat, 

6. RuTiciLL4 PH(ENicuRUS. Redstart. 

A few Redstarts touch at the islands in spring and 
autumn. 

7. RuTiciLLA TiTYS. Black Redstart. 

The Black Redstart is rather more frequent than the last. 

8. Cyanecula wolfi. White-spotted Bluethroat. 

I have seen but two specimens of this species that were 
shot at Laguna. 

9. Erithacus superbus, Konig, J. f. O. 1889, p. 183. 
Tenerifian Redbreast. (San Antonio.) 

The Redbreast with brilliantV red throat and white under- 
parts is exceedingly abundant in the island of Tenerife, and 
also in suitable places in Grand Canary, frequenting always 
the high ground. The number of eggs laid is two or 
three, occasionally four, and the nest is not unfrequently 



observed in the Canary Islands. 189 

placed up in the branches of a tree. I have never seen a 
typical Erithacus rubecula in Tenerife, or a Tenerifian Red- 
breast in any other island except Tenerife and Grand Canary. 
At the same time plenty of Redbreasts from Europe are almost 
or quite as bright as the Tenerife bird, although E. superbus 
has a different look about it. 

10. Erithacus rubecula. Redbreast. 

The Common Redbreast is abundaot in the islands of 
Gomera, Palma, and Hierro. 

11. Sylvia conspicillata. Spectacled Warbler. [Ra- 
tonero.) 

Abundant everywhere from the coast up to 3500 feet, 
getting scarcer the higher it goes. In summer some are 
found up to 6000 feet. It frequents also the hottest plains 
by the sea on the south side of the island, where nothing 
but cactus and euphorbia grows. 

12. Sylvia melanocephala. Black-headed Warbler. 
[Capirote Colorado.) 

Another abundant resident, but scarce near the coast. It 
frequents all the thick scrub up to the highest tops. In 
Fuerteventura it is common in the tamarisk valleys. 

13. Sylvia atricapilla. Blackcap. {Capirote.) 

This is an abundant resident, except in Lanzarote and 
Fuerteventura. Large numbers of migrants also arrive in 
the autumn. It does not ascend very high up the mountain 
as a rule, but I have on two or three occasions seen large 
numbers of hens in the laurel-forests. Sj/lvia heinekeni, 
the black-throated variety, in the Canaries, appears to be con- 
fined to the island of Palma. 

14. Regulus teneriftE, Seebohm, Brit. Birds, i. p. 459. 
Canarian Gold-crest. 

The Canarian form of the Gold-crest is abundant in all 
the western islands, frequenting the high ground, tree-heath, 
and pine- and laurel-woods. It lays from three to five eggs, 
indistinsruishable from those of R. cristatus. 



190 Mr. E. G. Meade- Waldo on Birds 

15. Phylloscopus rufus. Chiffchaff. (Hotviero.) 

The Chiffchaff is common everywhere at all elevations, 
except in Fuerteventura and Lanzarote. Its voice and habits 
differ much from those of our bird. It lays from three to 
five eggs. 

16. Phylloscopus sibilatrix. Wood- Warbler. 

I have seen but one example of the Wood- Warbler in the 
Canaries. 

17. Parus ultramarinus. Ultramarine Tit. {Frailero.) 
In suitable places in Fuerteventura and Lanzarote ; in the 

latter island "we saw it only in the neighbourhood, of Haria. 
The Canarian form is rather paler in colour and smaller in 
size than Moroccan and Algerian examples. 

18. Parus tenerif^. Tenerife Blue Tit. {Frailero.) 

Is common throughout the islands of Tenerife, Gomera, 
and Gran Canaria. It lays from three to five eggs. 

19. Parus palmensis, Meade- Waldo, Ann. & Mag. N. H. 
ser. 6, iii. p. 490. Palman Blue Tit. {Fula.) 

Common in the pine-forests of La Palma, a very few 
coming into the laurel-woods. It appears never to approach 
houses or towns, and breeds fully a month earlier than 
P. tenerifee. It lays from three to five eggs, 

20. Parus ombriosus, Meade- Waldo, Ann. & Mag. N. H. 
ser. 6, V. p. 103. Hierran Blue Tit. 

The Green-backed Blue Tit of Hierro is common in th3 
pines of that island, a few passing into the tree-heath district. 

' 21. MoTACiLLA alba. White Wagtail. (Pispa.) 
A not uncommon winter visitor. In the winter of 1890-91 
it was exceedingly numerous. 

22. MoTACiLLA MELANOPE. Grey Wagtail. {Pispa, La- 
vandera.) 

This most familiar and charming bird is common every- 
where, frequenting the towns and coming freely into the 
houses. A pair bred every year on the top of our hall- door 
in Tenerife, rearing annually two or three broods. It lays 



observed in the Canary Islands. 191 

three to six eggs, not unfrequently a clutch of pure white ones, 
and occasionally some of a bright brick-red colour. It is 
rather larger and has a longer tail than our English bird. 

23. Anthus TRiviALis. Trec-Pipit. 

A very rare straggler. 1 have seen but two of them. 

24. Anthus campestris. Tawny Pipit. 

I have seen this Pipit only in Fuerteventura, where it was 
common in spring. 

25. Anthus behtheloti. Berthelot's Pipit. [Caminero 
or Corre-camino.) 

Abundant in all the islands from the coast to the highest 
cumbres. It is least abundant in the island of La Palma. 
I have never seen the least variation in the colour of its 
eggs. 

26. Oriolus galbula. Golden Oriole. [Oropendola.) 
The Golden Oriole is an irregular but occasionally nu- 
merous spring visitor. 

27. Lanius algeriensis. Algerian Grey Shrike. {Al- 
cairon.) 

This Shrike is found in all the Canary Islands, and is ex- 
ceedingly numerous in the eastern group. It is strange that 
s]3ecimens from the eastern islands should diflFer from the 
mainland form more than those of the western islands do. 
The Shrikes of Fuerteventura and Graciosa are far paler 
on the underparts than Moroccan specimens. In the western 
islands they are darker, but still not so dark as the majority 
of examples of L. alyeriensis from the mainland. In Tene- 
rife this Shrike is abundant on the south side of the island, 
and is fairly plentiful on the cumbres and in the canadas, at 
7000 feet, but very rarely comes down the northern slopes. 
The Shrikes from the high ground are darker in colour than 
those on the coast. In Fuerteventura an isabelline variety 
occurs, and I took a young sandy-coloured bird from a nest, 
with a pure white-breasted cock and a sandy hen for its 
parents. The young one brought to England moulted out 



192 Mr. E. G. Meade-Waldo on Birch 

into a dark grey. The eggs are from four to six, and vary 
very slightly in colour. 

28. Lanius pomeranus. Woodchat. 

I have seen but one specimen of this Shrike. 

29. MusciCAPA GRisoLA. Spotted Flycatcher. 
An occasional straggler. 

30. MusciCAPA ATRicAPiLLA. Piccl Flycatclicr. 
Like the last, occasionally met with. 

-^31. HiRUNDO RusTicA. Swallow. {Golondiina.) 

A spring and autumn visitor, occasionally in large numbers 
only remaining a day or so, as a rule. 

32. Chelidon urbica. Martin, 

As the Chimney Swallow, but more irregular. 

^^33. CoTiLE RiPARiA. Sand- Martin. 
I have only seen a few, in 1890-91. 

_ 34. Carduelis elegans. Goldfinch. {Pajaro pintado.) 

The Goldfinch is found in all the islands, but is most com- 
mon in Grand Canary, on the south side of Tenerife, and in 
the neighbourhood of Los Llanos, in La Palma. It is rarer 
and more local in the eastern islands. 

35. Serinus canarius. Canary. [Pajaro canario.) 

The Canary is very common in all the islands except in 
Fuerteventura and Lanzarote. In La Palma it is wonder- 
fully abundant, and may be seen in great flocks throughout 
the breeding-season, as if there was not room for all to pair 
and breed. In Tenerife it commences breeding near the 
coast in January ; while in the high mountains it breeds in 
June and July. It occasionally lays clutches of pure white 
eggs. 

36. Passer salicicola. Spanish Sparrow. [Palmero.) 
The Spanish Sparrow is common in Gran Canaria, Fuerte- 
ventura, and Lanzarote, but though it has been introduced 
into Tenerife, it fortunately has not established itself there. 



observed in the Canary Islands. 193 

37. Petronia stulta. Yellow-throated Rock-Sparrow. 
[Ti'iqueno.) 

Common and resident in all the islands except Fuerte- 
ventura and Lanzarote. 

38. Fringilla caxariensis. Tintillon Chaffinch. {Chin- 
chillon, Chuve.) 

This Chaffinch is fairly abundant in all suitable places in 
Tenerife, Gran Canaria, and Gomera. In winter it occa- 
sionally comes down to the gardens at sea-level, but does not 
breed lower than about 2000 feet. It lays two or three eggs, 
occasionally four. The earliest clutch I ever took was on 
May 16th. It not unfrequentiy lays white eggs. 

39. Fringilla palm^, Tristram, Ann. & Mag. N. H. ser. 6, 
iii. p. 489. Palman Chaffinch. {Pajaro de monte.) 

The Palman Chaffinch is very common in the island of 
Palma, and ranges right through the pine-forests. Its song 
and call-notes are quite different from those oiF. canariensis. 
In Hierro an intermediate form between this and F. cana- 
riensis occurs. 

40. Fringilla teydea. Teydean Chaffinch. [Pajaro 
azul.) 

This beautiful Chaffinch, I am glad to say, appears to hold 
its own in all the pine-forests of Tenerife, and in one district 
seems to increase, owing, I believe, to a war waged against 
all the Sparrow-Hawks that breed there and that evidently 
feed on the poor " Azules." They are the tamest birds 
imaginable ; when we were camped in the pine-forest they 
would freely come into our tent to feed, and would anxiously 
wait for us to liberate from our fingers a butterfly that had 
been captured. Though feeding on the pine-seed, they do 
equally well without it in confinement, but appear to want 
a great deal of insect food. They seem perfectly hardy, a 
fine old cock in our aviary having been out all through the 
winters of 1891 and 1892. The nest is built at the end of 
June, and two eggs only are laid. 

41. Linota cannabina. Linnet. [Millero.) 

The Linnet is abundant in all the islands, and except in 



1!)|. Mr. 1-:. (i. Mradr-Waldo on IVirds 

\\\v island of l"''ii(M'ti>\('V.lura, wIum'c it is i-are to get Jiii example 
widi any rtnl at all on tlu> hi'cast, is usually very rich in 
eolour. 

42. Erytuuosviza orriiAoiNic.v. Trumpeter liulHineli. 
{Albiir'ion, Pispo.) 

This familiar little bird is very abundant in Fuerteventura 
and Lanzarote, and in suitable parts of (irau Canaria. 

43. Embeuiza MiMAKiA. Coru- Huutiug. Pujaru Polio, 
Triqwro.) 

Al)undaut in all the islands. 

41'. Alauda akvensis. Sky-Lark. [Aloiith-u.) 
A regular winter visitor in small numbers to the Laguna 
plains and other suitable places. 

45. Calandrella minor. Lesser Short-toed Tjark. (C«- 
Ia)i(h''ia.) 

A uu)st abundant si)eeies in all the eastei'u islands. A 
summer visitor to the Laguna plains. 

4(). INIlOLANOeORVrilA calandra. 

I have only seen one specimen, that had been shot at 
Laguna. 

47. Stuunus a'uloauis. Starling. {Estornino.) 

A regular winter visitor, but in no great numbers, to all 
the islands. 

48. Pyrrhocorax graculus. Ked-billed (Miough. 
{Grajo.) 

Confined to the island of Palma, where it abounds. 

49. CoRvus TiNGiTANVs, JMorocco Eaven. {Ciwrvo.) 
This Raven is abundant in all the islands, especially in 

the island ol" llierro. Their eggs vary most remarkably iu 
colour. 

50. CvrsELUS uNicoLOR. Madeirau lUack Swift. {Au- 
dor/na.) 

This little Swift is extremely abundant all the year, except 
from about October 10th to the beginning of January, but 
occasional biids turn up when the main hody is absent. 



observed in the Canary Islands. 195 

51. Cypselus pallidus. Pallid Swift. [Andorina.) 
Arrives in early sjjring^ and is found in all the islands, but 

is most eommon in the eastern group and near the coast. 

52. Cypselus melba. White-bellied Swift. 

I have only known of one example of this Swift, which 
was killed near Santa Cruz, Tenerife. 

53. Picus MAJOR. Great Spotted Woodpecker. {Peto, 
Carpintero.) 

This Woodpecker appears to be confined to the pine-forests 
of Tenerife and Gran Canaria. In La Palma, where there 
are splendid pine-woods, Ave could hear nothing of it, arid we 
saw no work in the old trees. Still it seems hanlly possible 
for it not to have found its way there. The majority of 
examples of this species from the Canaries have the breast- 
feathers very brown in colour. Tiiis colouring is not taken 
from the trees, as the young feathers sprout up of tlie same 
colour. An occasional specimen only has the breast nearly 
white. 

54. COKACIAS GARRULA. llollcr. 

An occasional visitor. 

55. Merops apiaster. Bee-eater. {Abejaruco.) 

An irregular but occasitjnally numerous spring-migrant, 
especially to the eastern islands, 

56. Upupa epops. Hoopoe. {Tabobo.) 

Common in all the islands, but especially numerous in the 
eastern group. In Lanzarote and Fuerteventura every vil- 
lage is full of them, and they extend right into the desert if 
there are convenient nesting-holes among the rocks. They 
are to a great extent migratory, though many spend the 
winter in these islands, in some years more numerously than 
in others. 

57. CucuLUs CANORUs. Cuckoo. (Cucu.) 

The Cuckoo is an irregular spring visitor; in the spring of 
1890 many came for a few days. All the birds were very 
small and dark in colour. 



196 Mr. E. G. Meade- Waldo on Birds 

58. Strix flammea. Barn-Owl. {Lechuza.) 

The Barn-Owl is resident^ but not abundant ; it is com- 
monest in the neighbourhood of Laguna, Tenerife. I have 
never seen more than two eggs in a nest. 

59. Asio oTus. Long-eared Owl. [Coruja.) 

This is the common Owl of the islands, and is generally 
distributed, living in caves, in the thickly-wooded sides of the 
barrancos, in the evergreens and palm-trees, in the towns, 
and in the Euphorbia canariensis on the most arid lava- 
flows. 

60. Asio BRACHYOTus. Short-cared Owl. 

An occasional winter visitor. I have seen only two 
examples. 

61. Neophron percnopterus. Egyptian Vulture. 
{Guii're.^ 

This is the only Vulture we saw in the Canaries ; it is 
common in all the islands except La Palma and Hierro, 
where we could not see or hear of it. It appears to be most 
abundant in the eastern islands, and is especially numerous 
in the neighbourhood of Las Palmas, Gran Canaria. In 
Fuerteventura it sometimes places its nest in very accessible 
places. 

62. BuTEO vulgaris. Buzzard. [Aguililla). 
Common and resident in all the islands. Many migrants 

occasionally arrive. In the autumn of 1890 I saw fifteen 
together, sitting on a wall, and so tame that they let me walk 
along and examine them at a distance of not more than fif- 
teen yards. I shot one that had an almost pure white breast ; 
it was a young bird, and had nothing either in the crop or 
stomach. Although it almost invariably builds in a cliff or 
on the steep side of a barranco, "we once found a nest in a 
laurel tree close to the town of Icod. Strange to say, we 
never saw Buteo desei'tarum. 

63. Pernis APivoRUs. Honey-Buzzard. 
An accidental visitor; I have seen only two. 



observed in the Canary Islands. 197 

"~^64<. Haliaetus ALBiciLLA. White-tailed Eagle. 

I have never met with this bird, but Canon Tristram 
saw one in Lanzarote. 

65. AcciPiTER Nisus. Sparrow-Hawk. [Halcon.) 
Common and resident; many also arrive in the autumn. 
It is most numerous in the mountains. We once found its 
nest in a low bush of tree-heath, not more than a yard from 
the ground. It sometimes breeds in laurels, but much more 
frequently in pines. It is probably only a visitor in Fuerte- 
ventura and Lanzarote. 

QQ. MiLvus iCTiNUS. Kite. [Milano.) 

The Red Kite is common and resident in all the western 
islands, except La Palraa, where we could neither see it nor 
hear of it. It is extremely bold about the towns, but wary 
enough in the country. The poor peasants who live in the 
mountains have a great dread of the Kites, which take the 
chickens almost out of the houses, but they care little for 
the Buzzards. 

Q7. Falco punicus. Small Peregrine Falcon. [Halcon 
real.) 

1 have no doubt now that the Falcon which occurs in the 
Canaries is referable to this species. I do not think they 
breed in Tenerife, as we could never see or hear of a nest, 
but they are occasionally seen at all seasons of the year. 
Canon Tristram, however, saw a pair that appeared to con- 
template nesting in Gran Canaria. 

68. Falco vespertinus. Red-footed Falcon. 

During the spring migration of 1890 a good many examples 
of F. vespertinus visited the valley of Orotava. 

69. TiNNUNCULus ALAUDARius. Kestrcl. {Cernicalo.) 
The Kestrel abounds in all the islands, and, except in 

Fuerteventura, the female is always very dark in colour and 
very strongly marked, having the tail blue, with narrow black 
bars after the first moult ; the males are rather light and 
pure in colour. The Fuerteventura Kestrel is much smaller 
and lighter in colour, the females being vert/ pale. In Lan- 

SER. VI.^VOL. V. P 



198 Mr. E. G. Meade-Waldo on Birds 

zarote, close by, the dark form again occurs, although the 
islands have almost similar features. 

70. Pandion HALiAiixus. Osprey. {Gincho.) 

The Osprey inhabits all the islands, especially those of the 
eastern group and the rocks and islets surrounding them. 
They appear to be most abundant in the summer. I have 
seen them take gold-fish out of a tank. When on the point 
of Fuerteventura known as landia, we were surprised to see 
the Ospreys waiting about with the Gulls for small fishes 
and scraps thrown away by a party of fishermen who were 
camped on the beach salting fish. 

71. SuLA BAssANA. Gaunct. 

The Gannet is occasionally abundant round the islands, 
especially between Fuerteventura and Cape Juby. 

72. AiiDEA ciNEREA. Hcron. (Garza.) 

The Heron frequents all the coasts and tanks, especially 
in winter. I do not think that they breed in the Canaries, but 
am not sure. Although many spend the summer there, I 
never saw one in breeding-plumage. 

73. Ardea purpurea. Purple Heron. {Garza real.) 

I have seen only one specimen of the Purple Heron, which 
had been shot at Laguna. 

74. Ardea bubulcus. Bufi'-backed Heron. 
An occasional straggler. 

75. Ardea ralloides. Squacco Heron. 
Somewhat more frequent than the last. 

76. Nycticorax griseus. Night-Heron. 

I have only seen one ; it had been shot at Laguna. 

77. Ardetta sturmi (Wagl.). Sturm's Bittern. 

I have seen au example of this bird, which had been shot 
at Laguna. 

78. Ardetta minuta. Little Bittern. 

A Little Bittern was caught alive in Puerto Orotava in 
1890. I have kept it in confinement ever since. 



observed in the Canary Islands. 199 

79. BoTAURus sTELLARis. Bittern. 

The Bittern occasionally occurs at Laguna. I have seen 
one and heard of another. 

80. CicoNiA ALBA. White Stork. {Cigilena.) 

Sixteen White Storks frequented the plains of Laguna in 
the winter of 1890-91. Four of them were shot by a 
wretched boy at one discharge of his gun ; no others were 
killed. 

81. Platalea leucorodia. Spoonbill. {Cuchareta.) 
The Spoonbill has been killed in Tenerife and visits the 

shores of Fuerteventura in small flocks, especially the coast 
by Toston. 

82. Phcenicopterus roseus. Flamingo. (Flamenco.) 
The remains of a dead Flamingo were all I saw, but it 

seems well known to the fishermen on the eastern islands. 
They also described to me a larger grey bird as occasionally 
appearing, which was doubtless the Common Crane [Grus 
cinerea) . 

83. Anas boschas. Wild Duck. [Pato real.) 

In wet seasons a good many Wild Ducks visit the Laguna 
plains, and a few also come to the tanks in the valleys. In 
the winter of 1890-91 many were killed. 

84. Spatula clypeata. Shoveller. [Pato.) 

I have seen only one, which I shot in a tank by our 
house. 

85. Querquedula crecca. Common Teal. {Pato.) 
The Teal is not very uncommon in wet winters, but does 

not come in large flocks, like the Ducks. 

86. FuLiGULA FERiNA. Pochard. [Pato.) 

A small flock of Pochards frequented the tanks by the 
Botanical Gardens in 1889. 

87. Mareca PENELOPE. Wigcon. {Pato.) 
I have seen but one Wigeon. 

88. CoLUMBA LiviA. Rock-Dovc. {Paloma salvaje.) 
The Rock-Dove is abundant throughout the islands, and is 

v2 



200 Mr. E. G. Meade- Waldo on Birds 

not confined to tlie coast, but inhabits suitable clifi's inland. 
In Fuerteventura tliei'e is a deep cave, running almost straight 
down in a level plain, which is the home of many hundreds. 
The natives occasionally draw a net over the opening at night 
and catch large quantities. 

89. CoLUMBA BOLLEi. Bolle's Pigeon. [Paloma Tur- 
queza, or Turcon, La Palma.) 

This laurel-loving Pigeon inhabits all the suitable grounds 
in the islands of Tenerife, Gomera, La Palma, and Gran 
Canaria,in which island, however. Canon Tristram reports it to 
be very scarce, owing to the almost complete destruction of 
the old laurel-forests. In Tenerife, ever since we went there in 
1887, it has become very rare in the neighbourhood of Orotava 
and Santa Ursula. In La Palma and Gomera it appeared to 
be fairly abundant. It lays but one egg, and breeds all the 
year round, but principally in winter and early spring. 

90. CoLUMBA LAURivoRA. Cauariau Pigcou. {Rabi bianco, 
Rovalvo, Rabichi, or Ravil.) 

This Pigeon inhabits the steep slopes and deep barrancos, 
with sides and ledges covered with laurel-scrub, in the islands 
of Gomera and La Palma. In La Palma it feeds largely on 
the fruit of the til-tree [Or e.odwphne fastens). In Gomera a 
few used occasionally to drop out of the almost inaccessible 
slopes they lived in into the barley- and flax-fields at the 
foot of the mountain to feed. I noticed that in 1888 a 
great deal of the fruit of the vinatigo and laurel was blighted, 
so probably that was the reason. The peasants said they had 
never seen them do it before. In La Palma they come into 
the cherry-trees to eat the fruit. The Canarian Pigeon does 
not appear to breed before May, and nests throughout the 
summer ; it lays but one e.g'^ on a stump or a ledge, in the 
most impossible places to get at. 

91. TuRTUR COMMUNIS. Turtle Dove. (Toi'tola.) 

A common summer visitor to many parts of all the islands, 
but somewhat local; a few spend the winter in the eastern 
islands. 



observed in the Canary Islands. 201 

92. Caccabis rufa. Red-legged Partridge. [Perdiz.) 
This Partridge is found only in the island of Gran Canaria, 

where it is fairly abundant from the highest cumbres to the 
coast. 

93. Caccabis petrosa. Barbary Partridge. {Perdiz.) 
This species is found in Tenerife, Gomera, and Lanzarote. 

In Lanzarote it is confined to one particular lava-flow, 
which seems strange, as many other parts seem suitable to 
its habits. In Gomera it abounds everywhere, and, con- 
sidering the treatment it receives in Tenerife at all seasons, 
holds its own wonderfully. It is found in all localities except 
on the plains at Laguna, a large corn-growing tract, but 
favours the barrancos and rough volcanic ground known as 
'' Mai pais.'-" In La Palma, although it has repeatedly been 
introduced, for some unknown reason it will not establish 
itself. 

94. CoTURNix COMMUNIS. Quail. {Codorniz.) 

A most abundant resident in all the islands, and numbers 
of migrants arrive in the very early spring. There does not 
appear to be any migration away from the islands, at any 
'rate those of the western group. They rear two or three 
bevies in the year. When caught, this Quail becomes per- 
fectly tame at once, thus diflfering widely from those which 
are obtained in England. 

95. Pterocles arenarius. Black-breasted Sand-Grouse. 
{Gang a.) 

This is a very common resident in Fuerteventura, but 
much less so in Lanzarote. It occasionally comes to Gran 
Canaria. 

96. Porzana maruetta. Spotted Crake. 
A not very unfrequent winter visitor. 

97. PoRZANA bailloni. BaiUou's Crake. 

This Crake occurs during most winters at Laguna. 

98. PoRZANA PARVA. Little Crake. 

Of this species I have seen two examples at Laguna. 



202 Mr. E. G. Meade- Waldo on Birds 

99. Crex pratensis. Land-Rail. {Guion de Codorniz.) 
A few Land-Rails appear in the autumn and spring. 

They are most frequent at Laguna. 

100. Gallinula cHLOROPus. Waterhen. {Polladeagua.) 
An occasional straggler. 

101. FuLiCA ATRA. Commou Coot. 

A regular winter visitor in small numbers to all the islands. 
I have seen several walking about on the roofs of the houses 
in Puerto Orotava. 

102. Otis undulata. Houbara Bustard. (Abutarda.) 
Resident and fairly numerous on the island of Fuerte- 

ventura ; less numerous in Lanzarote, and very occasional 
in Gran Canaria. This Bustard does not frequent the most 
barren plains, but likes a certain amount of low scrub, espe- 
cially the "ajulaga.^^ This is generally crowded with 
small snails, which the Bustards eat largely. They are 
generally rather shy, but at times ridiculously tame and stupid, 
for on one occasion a Bustard that had for some time been 
trotting along about 150 yards ahead of us suddenly sidled 
round, and, putting a little '^ajulaga^^bush between us and 
itself, squatted. When we came up it moved very slowly 
round, keeping its head towards us and the bush between us. 
After looking the bird over at the distance of five yards, we 
drove it up, but did not shoot it. The female is very tame 
at the nest, and runs away stooping and dodging. If put on 
the wing the cock generally follows her, and when they settle 
again will " show off '^ to her. 

103. ffimcNEMUs CREPITANS. Thick-kuec. {Alcaravan, 
Pedro Luis.) 

Common in suitable situations in ail the islands, and very 
abundant in the eastern islands. This bird is extremely 
tame, frequenting and breeding in the little cultivated patches 
and gardens in the villages as well as on the plains. 

104. Glareola pratincola. Common Pratincole. 
I have seen only three of these birds. 



observed in the Canary Islands. 203 

105. CuRsoRius GALLicus. Cream-coloured Courser. 
{Engano muchachos.) 

The Courser is common and resident in Fuerteventura 
and LanzarotBj and occasionally met with in Gran Canaria. 
About 1000 eggs of this poor bird were taken in the spring 
of 1891 in the island of Fuerteventura and sent to Europe, 
by far the greater number to England. Of course nearly 
double the number were destroyed, as the eggs that were 
incubated would all be thrown away. It is sincerely to be 
hoped that the market has now been glutted, and that the 
eggs will have so fallen in value as not to be worth taking 
again. At the price of two and even three pesetas apiece, 
that was offered for them out there, nearly the whole popu- 
lation (including, I have been assured, some of the priests) 
turned out egging, and probably pretty well cleared the 
whole of the nests for that season. It is possible there may 
have been an extra number of birds in 1891, but in the three 
breeding-seasons that I spent in the island, though there 
were numbers of birds, not nearly all were breeding. Pos- 
sibly after the very wet winter of 1890-91 there was a greater 
abundance of food, and so a larger number of pairs nested . 
It is not always the birds of the previous year that do not 
breed, as a cock of a breeding-pair that was shot was in half- 
immature plumage. 

106. Squatarola helvetica. Grey Plover. [Zarapito.) 
A regular winter visitor. Many winter in the eastern 

islands. 

107. ^GiALiTis CANTiANA. Kentish Plover. [Patito.) 
Abundant and resident in the eastern islands, and breeding 

in suitable places in all the islands. 

108. JjIgialitis hiaticula. Ringed Plover. [Patito.) 
A regular visitor in spring and autumn to all the islands. 

109. EUDROMIAS MORINELLUS. Dottcrcl. 

An occasional visitor in flocks to the Laguna plaius. 

110. Vanellus cristatus. Lapwing. [Ave fria.) 

A regular winter visitor, occasionally in large flocks. 1 
have seen it nivsclf onlv in Tenerifc and Fuerteventura. 



204 Mr. E. G. Meade- Waldo on Birds 

111. Strepsilas interpres. Turnstone. {Zarapito.) 

A regular visitor to all the islands, and very common in 
the eastern group. Many spend the summer there, and 
though I have seen them in pairs in June, I could not see 
that they were nesting. The peasants assured me that they 
did nest. 

112. HiEMATOPUs CAPENsis, Licht. Black Oyster-catcher. 
{Corvino, Grajo de mar, Cuervo marino.) 

Not numerous, but resident in the eastern islands and 
rocks. It breeds very late. It appears to be always in pairs 
and is very tame. Its voice is much louder and stronger 
than that of the Common Oyster-catcher. 

113. HiMANTOPUs CANDiDUS. Black-wiugcd Stilt. 

I have only heard of one from Fuerteventura, but I had a 
picture of it sent to me. 

114. ScoLOPAX RUSTicuLA. Woodcock. {Gallinuela or 
Chocha Perdiz.) 

Resident in all the laurel and evergreen forests. Owing to 
the density of the woods. Woodcocks are very hard to see when 
flushed, but in the evenings many may be observed on wing. 
In the island of Gomera they are particularly numerous. 
In La Palma, where, however, they are well known by the 
name of " Chocha Perdiz " I saw very few, but I was not 
out in the forests in the dusk. They have a habit here in 
the spring of collecting on certain grassy plots in the moun- 
tains to strut about and show off. Many are shot at this 
time. They seem to be breeding from February to July, as 
I have had fresh eggs in both months. It is hard to say to 
what extent they are migratory, but we never saw the slightest 
evidence of an arrival of Woodcocks. 

115. Gallinago ccelestis. Common Snipe. (Gachona.) 
A regular winter visitor, but in irregular numbers. It is 

sometimes very numerous about Laguna. 

116. Tringa ALPiNA. Dunlin. 

Occasionally numerous on migration, but rarer in the 
eastern islands. 



observed in the Canary Islands. 205 

117. Tringa minuta. Little Stint. 
Occasionally met with on migration. 

118. Tringa subarquata. Curlew Sandpiper. 
Occasional. In May 1891 many of these birds arrived in 

beautiful full breeding-plumage. 

119. Machetes pugnax. RuflF. 

Not numerous^ but pretty regular. When there has been 
a heavy fall of rain the Ruff is occasionally seen in some 
numbers on the Laguua plains. 

120. Calidris arenaria. Sanderling. 

We saw Sanderlings in large flocks in the eastern islands_, 
and on migration everywhere. 

121. Tringoides hypoleucus. Common Sandpiper. 
There are some of these Sandpipers about all the year 

round ; a few probably breed. 

122. ToTANUs ocHROPus. Grccu Sandpiper. 
I have seen very few. 

123. ToTANUS GLAREOLA. Wood-Saudpipcr. 

This species appears to be more frequent than the last. 

124. ToTANus CALIDRIS. Redshank. 
Occasionally met with. 

125. ToTANUs CANEscENs. Grecnshauk. 
A more regular visitor than the last three. 

126. LiMosA LAPPONiCA. Bar-tailed Godwit. 
I have seen but one of this species. 

127. LiMosA yEGOCEPHALA. Black-tailcd Godwit. 
Occasionally seen in flocks at Laguna. 

128. NuAiENius ARQUATA. Curlcw. (Zorapito.) 

The Curlew is occasional in the western, but pretty com- 
mon in the eastern islands. 

129. NuMENius PH^opus. Whirabrel. {Zarapito.) 

A regular and numerous visitor, especially so in the eastern 
islands. A few may be seen all the year round. Many 



206 On Birds observed in the Canary Islands. 

arrive in August, and they may be seen in pairs at the begin- 
ning of June. 

130. Sterna HiRUNDo. Common Tern. [Garajdoy 

A summer visitor to all the islands. In Tenerife they lay 
their eggs on the tops of high isolated rocks. They winter 
in the eastern islands. 

131. Sterna cantiaca. Sandwich Tern. 
Seen in flocks off Fuerteventura. 

132. Larus cachinnans. Mediterranean Herring-Gull. 
{Gaviota.) 

This is the common resident Gull. It breeds in all the 
islands. We never saw the true Larus argentatus. 

133. Larus fuscus. Lesser Black-backed Gull. 
There are generally a few of these Gulls about in winter. 

134. Larus marinus. Great Black-backed Gull. 
Much scarcer than the last. 

135. Larus canus. Common Gull. 

Uncommon here. I have seen but two of this species. 

136. RissA tridactyla. Kittiwake Gull. 
I have seen very few of these Gulls. 

137. Procellaria pelagica. Storm-Petrel. {Perrito.) 
This Petrel is always to be seen about the islands, but I 

have not found it breeding. 

138. Procellaria leucorrhoa. Leach's Petrel. 
Occasional in winter ; at least I have not seen them at any 

other season. 

139. Oceanites oceanicus. Wilson's Petrel. 

I have seen this Petrel occasionally at all seasons, but do 
not think they nest here. 

140. Puffinus anglorum. Manx Shearwater. {Pardela.) 
This species is sometimes common on the water in winter. 

It does not seem to come to laud. 



On a new Finch from Bolivia. 207 

141. PuFFiNus KUHLi. Mediterranean Shearwater, {Par- 
del a.) 

Extremely numerous and resident on all the Canary Islands. 
I have seen flocks of many thousands on the water between 
Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura. 

142. PuFFiNUs OBSCURUS. Dusky Shearwater. (Tahoce.) 
Resident, but not in great numbers. It breeds very early 

in the year. 

143. BuLWERiA coLUMBiNA. Bulwer's Petrel. [Tahoce 
negro.) 

Fairly common. It breeds on all the islands, usually under 
big loose stones at the foot of the clifl's. 

144. Pelagodroma marina. White-breasted Storm Petrel. 
Not common. Some of these Petrels are caught by the 

fishermen every spring. They come to the torch which is 
used for night-fishing. 

145. Alca torda. Razorbill. 

A quite accidental visitor. I have known o£ but two. 

146. Fratercula arctica. Puffin. 

I have seen but one young Puffin. It was obtained at 
Orotava. 



XVI. — On a remarkable new Finch from the Highlands of 

Bolivia. By Hans, Graf von Berlepsch. 

(Plate VI.) 

I PROPOSE to characterize a new form of the family Fringil- 

lidse, from Bolivia, as 

-(- CoMPsospizA, gen. nov. 
Rostro pro mole parvo (poospizino), fere recto, maxilla 
leviter incurva, apice obtusa, tomiis convexis ; narium 
aperturis oblongis, expositis, harum parte superiore 
membrana partim obtectis : pedibus fortibus, tarsis 
antice scutellis 7 prominentibus obtectis, postice Ise- 
vibus ; unguibus fortibus : remigibus rectricibusque latis 
et longis, illorum 3'', 4", et 5" iongissimis et fere 
sequalibus; cauda modice graduata : coloribus insolitis. , 



208 HanSj Graf von Berlepscli^ on a 

Obs. Generi Poospizopsis nuncupando(typ, P. casar) affinis, 
sed rostri exigui forma^ necnon coloribus^ differt. 

fCoMPsosPiZA GARLEPPi, sp, nov. (Plate VI.) 
Pileo anteriore et taenia utrinque superciliari brevi et lata ad 
occipitis latera ducta, striaque altera lata suboculari ab 
angulo oris incipiente^ necoon corpore inferiore toto 
pulchre et saturate aurantio-rufis^ abdomine medio 
pallidiore, rufescenti-fulvo : corpore superiore reliquo, 
capitis collique lateribus, loris, necnon alls caudaque 
extus griseo-plumbeis : remigibus rectricibusque intus 
nigrescentibus, rectricibus tribus utrinque externis ad 
apices angust6 albo marginatis : tectricibus subcaud- 
alibus pectori concoloribus ; subalaribus et margine 
alarum plumbeis rufo maculatis : rostro corneo-nigro ; 
mandibula subtus medialiter albesceute; pedibus pallide 
cornels. 
Long. tot. 173, al. 92, caud. 89, culm. 12|, tars. 26 mm. 
Habitat. Vacas, Bolivia alta (ad alt. 12,000 ped.) . 
Of this species I have only one specimen, in fine plumage, 
but without indication of sex, obtained by Mr. Gustav Garlepp 
in the vicinity of Vacas on the 1st September, 1890. The 
iris is noted as " brown.'^ 

When I first received this bird I was much perplexed 
regarding its systematic position. I am now of opinion 
that it belongs to a new genus which ought to be placed next 
to Foospiza. Its nearest ally is apparently Poospiza coesar, 
Scl. & Salv., from Southern Peru, which in my opinion ought 
also to be separated generically from Poospiza *. 

In coloration it differs greatly from P. casar and the 
other species of the genus Poospiza. All the underparts 
are of a fine orange-rufous^ this colour being more intense 
on the throat and breast, and paler or more fulvous on the 
middle of the abdomen. The forehead and fore part of the 
crown are of the same orange-rufous as the underparts, and 
this colour is prolonged over the eye to the sides of the 
occiput, to form a broad but short superciliary band. 
I Beneath the eye there is a band of the same tint, which 

^Ar * Poospizopsis, mihi, geu. uov., generi Poospizce afBnis, sed differt 
rostro pedibusque multo fortioribus et alls caudaque longioribus. 
Typ. Poospiza assar, Scl. & Salv. 



new Finch from Bolivia. 209 

begins at the mouth and ends some distance behind the eye. | 
The lores and the remaining part of the sides of the head, 
the sides of the neck and all the remaining upper parts, the 1 
sides of the body and the exposed portion of tiie wings and 
the tail are of a fine dark plumbeous grey. The concealed 
parts of the wing and the tail are blackish. The three 
outer pairs of tail-feathers show a narrow rufous- white 
margin at their tips. The under tail-eoverts are coloured 
like the breast. The under wing-coverts and the metacarpus 
are plumbeous grey varied with rufous. The upper mandible 
is blackish ; the under mandible is plumbeous, whitish in 
the middle portion. The feet are fleshy brown. 

This fine new Finch I have named after its discoverer, 
Mr. Gustav Garlepp, of Cothen, Anhalt, who has s})cnt 
several years in Bolivia collecting butterflies, birds, and 
other objects of natural history. His collection of Bolivian 
birds embraces about 2000 specimens, and among them arc 
many novelties. Mr. Garlepp, who has recently returned to 
Germany, intends to recommence his researches in Bolivia 
this year, and Avill doubtless make some more interesting 
discoveries in that little-known country. 

I am glad to be able to add some notes respecting the 
habits of Compsospiza garlcppi, which Mr. Garlepp has 
kindly forwarded to me. lie writes as follows : — 

" On the road from Sta. Cruz de la Sierra to Cochabamba 
one crosses the Puna — that is, the cold region of pastures, — 
which is more than 3000 metres above the sea-level. The 
passage through this region takes about a day^s journey. 
Nearly in the middle of this hilly district, which is bounded 
on both sides by two parallel ranges of the Cordillera, at the 
foot of the eastern and higher range, where a small stream 
springs from a deep ravine, but still in the plain, the village 
of ' Vacas ' is situated. Here I stayed from the end of 
August to the middle of September 1890, and, besides other 
acquisitions, succeeded in procuring a specimen of this 
consj)icuous Finch. 

*' Vacas is about 12,000 feet above the sea-level. On the 
plain around potatoes and barh^y flourish, but the clinuite 



210 Mr. L. W. Wigleswortli on the 

does not allow the cultivation of wheat. In general the 
vegetation here is very poor, and consists only of gramineous 
plants and small herbs. The banks of the small stream form 
an exception, and here are to be found a few shrubs and a 
few plain-looking flowers. 

'' Here, on one of my first excursions, in walking upwards 
along the small stream I fell in with this Finch, which 
strikes the eye at some distance by its beautiful orange- 
rufous plumage. It is commonly met with in pairs, and 
often rests a long while on the dead twigs of the shrubs, 
flying away as soon as anyone approaches. Consequently 
I have often tried in vain to get a shot at it. Sometimes 
I followed these birds far upwards along the stream, where 
the shrubs are found more sparingly ; then the birds rose in 
the air, and, flying high over my head, returned to the place 
where I first met with them, and I had to recommence the 
laborious pursuit on a difiicult and rocky ground. Therefore 
I did not succeed in obtaining more than this single specimen. 

" Although I have often observed the bird, I never heard 
its song. I have always met with it in pairs. It seems to 
be a very local species, as I never met with it in other 
similar places. The stupid inhabitants of the village did not 
know the bird, nor could they give me a name for it.^' 

XVII. — Remarks on the Birds of the Gilbert Islands. 

By L. W. WiGLESWORTH. 

The Gilbert Islands, recently taken under British protection*, 
consist of twelve atolls, or rings of coral islets encircling a 
lagoon, and of four other small coral islands. All are of the 
" low " description, as distinguished from " high " islands of 
volcanic origin, like Tahiti and Ponape, or of upheaved coral, 
like Savage Island ; and the dry ground, formed of coral 
sand and fragments of shells thrown up by the waves, nowhere 
rises to a height of more than fifteen or twenty feet above 
the level of the Pacific. According to a computation made 

* [The British flag was hoisted on Apamana Island by Capt. Davis, of 
H.M.S. ' Eoyalist; on May 27th, 1892. See 111. Lond. News, vol. 101, 
p. 325 (Sept. 10th, 1892).— Ed.] 



Birds of the Gilbert Islands. 211 

by Dana"^, the total area of four of the larger atolls amounts 
to only 25 square miles, so that all the islands taken to- 
gether cannot possess a habitable surface of 100 square miles, 
and may be regarded as about equal in area to Guernsey, or 
Jersey, or the half of Rutlandshire. The extent of reef, 
however, was ascertained by Dana to be seventeen times as 
great ; and this figure, though large, is again far exceeded 
in the neighbouring Marshall Islands, where the proportion 
of dry ground to reef is 1 : 100 to 200. In such a soil, as 
might be expected, very few species of trees and plants have 
ever contrived to gain a footing and to subsist, notwith- 
standing the fact that such quantities of drift-wood are 
brought to the shores of these islands and the Marshalls by 
ocean currents and the trade winds that the natives of the 
last-named make use of it for the side-planks of their boats. 
Nevertheless, such forms of plant-life as are found here — 
cocoanut-palms and screw-pines being most conspicuous — 
often flourish in abundance. Many of the Gilbert Islands 
are spoken of as being well- wooded, and the more fertile 
southern islands of the Marshall group have so luxuriant an 
appearance that one of them, Ebon, is described by Mr. 
Gulick, who resided there, as " almost a small Paradise '^f. 

Where little diversity of vegetable food exists, only a 
small number of animal species can be expected. As to the 
Gilbert Islands themselves, I have been able to find no 
general notes on the fauna ; but it is not impossible that some 
may have escaped my notice, inasmuch as the group has, I 
believe, been visited for missionary purposes by two able 
naturalists, Mr. Gulick and Mr. Whitmee. Chamisso, how- 
ever, who still remains one of the chief authorities for what 
is known of the very similar Marshall Islands, was able to 
record there only rats, fowls (tame and feral). Herons (doubt- 
less Ardea sacra), Columba australis (this must be Carpophaga 

* In his ' Coral Islands ' ; quoted by Meinicke, Zeitschr. f. allgem. 
Erdkunde, 1863, p. 376. 

+ Cf. Meinicke's valuable articles, op. cit, pp. 369-417, and in ' Die 
Inseln des stillen Oceans,' 1876, ii. 316-331. Mr. Gulick's papers, which 
I have not been able to refer to directly, were published in the ' Nautical 
Magazine,' 1861, 1802. 



212 jNIr. L. W. Wigleswortli on the 

oceanica, tlie only Pigeon found there by Dr. Finsch), 
"Wald- und Wasservogel/^ Sterna stolida, four species of 
small lizards, a Scolopendra, and a Scorpio (Kotzebue's 
' Reise/ iii. pp. 112-114). To these may be added two genera 
of Lepidoptera ("Schmetterlinge '') mentioned by Herr Franz 
Hernsheim, the German Consul at Taluit, in a little work on 
'Die Sprache der Marschall Inseln/ 1880, p. 34, which 
contains also a few botanical notes and figures. 

Almost all that is known concerning the birds of the Gilbert 
Islands, as also of the Marshall Islands, rests upon the obser- 
vations of Dr. Finsch, who found an opportunity of visiting 
the group in November and December, 1879, in a small ship 
engaged in the labour traffic. The ship sailed to five of the 
larger atolls, and an interesting account of the birds obtained 
or seen upon or near them will be found in Dr. Finsch's 
" Ornithological Letters from the Pacific : No. IV." (Ibis, 
1880, p. 429). Some additional remarks are made in one of a 
series of articles in the Mitth. des ornith. Vereins zu Wien, 
1884, viii. pp. 125-127, published separately as ' Die Vogel 
der Siidsee Inseln.' According to Dr. Finsch, not a single 
species of land-bird is to be found in the Gilbert Islands, 
except the remarkable migrant Cuckoo, Urodynamis taitiensis 
(Sparrra.)*. The natives of the Marshall Islands assert that 
this species occurs there in single individuals all the year 
round, and it was twice observed at Butaritari in the Gilberts 
on December 7th by Dr. Finsch. This is the breeding-time 
of the species in New Zealand, and Dr. Finsch, in pointing 
to the probability that its migrations are irregular, and that 
it may breed in other islands of the Pacific, calls attention to 
Sir Walter Buller's notice of a female from New Zealand 
with a large bare breeding patch. This observation was 
repeated by Dr. Finsch in a female from Taluit in the JVfar- 
shalls, which had a similar bare spot extending from the 
sternum to the anus. Several cases in proof of the parasitic 
habits of this Cuckoo are given in the second edition of the 

* In my * Aves Polynesise,' I have noted Ccnyojihaga oceanica for Tarowa 
and Maraki, but this is an erroi-. The localities mentioned should come 
under the head of Ardea sacra. 



Birds of the Gilbert Islands. 213 

' Birds of New Zealand ' (1888) ; but, sliould the species 
breed in the Marshall Islands, it must of necessity care for 
its own eggs and young, " since land-birds, which could serve 
as foster-parents, are known to be absent" (Mitth. orn. Ver. 
viii. p. 126). 

Other interesting species of the Gilbert Islands are the 
northern winter migrants, Charadrius fulvus, Strepsilas in- 
terpres, and Actitis inccma ; single individuals of these, ac- 
cording to Dr. Finsch, are to be met with everywhere amongst 
the atolls throughout the year. One is led to think that 
such specimens, as, perhaps, also the Cuckoo, are stragglers 
which have lost their way and all sense of their whereabouts, 
and remain prisoners through not knowing whither to fly. 

The sea-birds noted by Dr. Finsch belong to wide-spread 
species. The Skua seen, but not determined, may, perhaps, 
have been Lestris hardyi, Bp., the type of which came from 
the Pacific between the Philippine and Sandwich Islands, and 
which remains, so far, the only Skua recorded from Polynesia*. 

Prior to Dr. FinscVs expedition, the islands were surveyed 
between 1822-25 by the 'Coquille,'' but no ornithological 
notes seem to have been made. Again, they were visited by 
Hudson, the companion of Wilkes, of the United States' 
Exploring Expedition, 1838-42, and the names of four 
common sea-birds were recorded, A note of Pickering, in the 
volume relating to the anthropology of the expedition (ix. 
p. 313), mentions that fowls also were seen : these '' were not 
eaten, but kept in cages for fighting purposes.^' At Nawodo, 
a high island to the west of the group, inhabited, according 
to Meinicke, by Gilbert-Islanders, Dr. Finsch saw Strepsilas 
interpres kept in neatly-made cages for the same purpose. 

In view of the fact that the Gilbert Islands are said to have 
no small land-birds, it is interesting to find an early observa- 
tion suggestive of the contrary made by Kotzebue on the sea 
between this group and the Ellice Islands to the south. It 
seems probable that some land intervenes in this space, for 
Kotzebue passed over it in his second voyage. " From lat. 5°S. 

* Mr. Saunders (P. Z. S. 1876, p, 331) refers LestrU hardyi to Sterco- 
rarius parasiticus, Eb. 

SER. VI. VOL. V. Q 



214 On the Birds of the Gilbert Islands. 

to the Equator^ we daily perceived signs of land. When in 
lat. 4° 15' and long. 178"^, heavy gales brought swarms of 
butterflies and small land-birds to the ship. We looked in 
vain for land; therefore this discovery remains for some 
future navigator.'' {' South Pacific Directory/ 4th ed. 1877, 
p. 756.) The Gilbert Islands have nothing on three sides of 
them but groups of low coral islands like themselves, — the 
Marshall, Ellice, and Phoenix Islands, which are said to be 
equally destitute of small land-birds ; and the nearest place 
where such are known to occur is the small, high, Nawodoor 
Pleasant Island, about 300 miles to the west, where Dr. Finsch 
discovered his Tatare rehsei, a species as plentiful there as 
Sparrows in England. Another island, lying between this 
and the Gilbert Islands, and which may be expected to 
harbour small land-birds, is Ocean Island (Banaba or 
Paanapa), but this spot has never been visited by an orni- 
thologist. It is said to be from 10 to 15 miles in circumference, 
having a hill in the middle which can be seen at a distance 
of 25 miles. Now that the Gilbert Islands have been taken 
under British protection, it is to be hoped that some one will 
find an opportunity of enlarging our scanty knowledge of the 
ornithology of these atolls. Outlying high islands like 
Ocean and Nawodo, where Dr. Finsch was only able to spend 
six hours, should also be visited. 

Glancing farther afield, other attractive-looking spots in 
Polynesia: are Kushai or Ualan, known from graphic descrip- 
tions in Kittlitz's ^ Reise,' and which, among other things, 
furnished the only two specimens known of Rallus monasa, 
Kittlitz, now found by Dr. Hartlaub to belong to a distinct 
genus [Aphanolimnas) *; Rapa in the Austral group, only 
known as the habitat of Ptilopus huttoni, Finsch ; and, more 
especially, the Society and Marquesas Islands, where some- 
thing more may remain to be discovered, and where there is 
some reason to fear that some of the birds — the Parrots for 
instance — found there more than a century ago by the natu- 
ralists accompanying Cook are becoming rare, or in one or two 

* Cy. Hartlaub, "Vier seltene Rallen," in the ' Verli. Ver. Bremen,' 
1892 ; also Sharpe, Bull. B. O. C. no. iv. p. xix. 



On the Bird indicated by the Greek ' AXkvmv. 215 

cases are even extinct. Thus, Cyanorhamphus ulietanus (Gm.) 
appears to be known by only one specimen in the British and 
one (the type) in the Vienna Museum^ and has never been heard 
of since the time of Latham ; C. erythronotus (Gm.) was seen 
again and last in four or five specimens only by Lieutenant 
Marolles during a stay at Tahiti of twenty months ending in 
1844!(Finsch/Papageien/ ii. 268); Coriphilus taitianus (Gm.) 
is said by Mr. Garrett, a former collector of the Godeffroy 
Museum, to have become extinct in the islands of Hualieine, 
Raiatea, and Tahea (Cat. Mus. Godeffr. 1874, v. p. xvii), but 
it still occurs on many other islands ; neither has anything 
been heard of Turdiis ulietensis, Gm., since Forster^s time, 
nor of Rallus tahitiensis, Gm. But an excellent law of the 
French, forbidding the destruction of birds in the islands over 
which they have authority, may perhaps have enabled these 
species to survive up to the present. 

For a list of the birds of the Gilbert Islands, see 
Dr. Finsch's letter in 'The Ibis,' 1880, pp. 433, 434, to 
which only Gallus bankiva, var. ?, can be added. 

Since this paper was commenced, we have annexed the 
neighbouring Ellice atolls. The only notes on the birds of 
these islands with which I am acquainted are to be found in 
a short paper by Dr. R. B. Sharpe in P. Z. S. 1878, pp. 271- 
273, with a communication adjoined from Mr. Whitmee. 
The following eight species are enumerated : — Ardea sacra, 
Gm. ; Anous C(Bruleus (F. D. Bennett); Anous stolidus 
(Linn.) ; Anous leucocapillus,G\d. ; Sterna anasthefa (Scop.); 
Gygis Candida (Gm.) ; Fregata aquila (Linn.) ; and a Car- 
pophaga, which was believed by the collector, Herr Fritz 
Hansen, to be C. pacifica. It is, perhaj^s, more likely to be 
C. oceanica. Lesson. 



XVIII. — On the Bird indicated by the Greek 'AXkvcov. 
By H. B. Tristram, D.D., F.R.S. 

A SHORT time ago my friend Dr. W. Greenwell, F.R.S. , 
showed me an archaic Greek coin which bore on its obverse 
the figure of a cow with a bird on its back. He asked me 

q2 



216 On the Bird indicated by the Greek 'AXkvcov. 

what bird I thought was represented there. I replied without 
hesitation/^ A Tern." He then said he was equally certain that 
it was a Tern. The coin is one of the only two similar coins 
known, of Dicaea, on the Thracian coast, a colony of Eretria 
in Euboea. But coins with the same symbols from Eretria are 
well known. The cow is probably lo ; who is connected with 
Euboea, where she is said to have brought forth Epaphus ; and 
who was worshipped as a moon-goddess at Eretria. The Tern 
would fitly accompany lo, as her wanderings were chiefly by 
sea. But the sacred bird of Eretria was 97 oXkuohv, and no 
other bird than the Tern has ever been found on any Eubcean 
coin. Now all modern naturalists, from the earliest writers 
previous to Linuseus downwards, have identified oXkvodv with 
the Kingfisher. But the identification is open to doubt. 
The fullest account of r) dX/cvcbv is that given by Aristotle, 
who (Hist. Anim. v. 8) relates the tale of the ' Halcyon days,' 
referring to the poet Simonides; and states that this bird 
breeds in midwinter, during 14 days given it by Jupiter at 
the time of the setting of the Pleiades. He adds that in the 
Sicilian seas the uXkvodv is almost always to be seen, but not 
so in Greece ; and he implies that it makes a floating nest on 
the sea. Again {op. cit. viii. 5), he says the Halcyon family 
{oXkvovcov 7evo?) are water-birds ; that there are two species, 
one which has a note and breeds among the reeds, the other 
larger and without a song, and that both have the hack Kvavovv ; 
and he puts the Divers and Gulls next the Halcyon. But again 
Aristotle {op. cit. ix. 15) describes the Halcyon as not much 
larger than a Sparrow {arpovOo^;), and its colour Kvavov'i, 
')(\(opo<i, and reddish; all being mingled. Afterwards he 
describes the nest as a hollow tube, and probably made of the 
bones of fishes. 

^lian, in his ' Natura Animalium,' casts no further light on 
the question, merely expanding the myth of the Halcyon days 
in midwinter, and also minutely describing the manner in 
which the bird constructs its nest of spines on shore, and 
then carries it down to the sea and launches it. Pliny does 
but repeat Aristotle's story. I cannot find any other passages 
in classical authors which will aid in the identification. 



On the Javan Species o/Zosterops. 217 

It seems probable that Aristotle, oj). cit. ch. ix. 15, intended 
to describe our Alcedo is^nda, but that lie erroneously trans- 
ferred to it the myth of the Halcyon days, which really be- 
longed in popular belief to the Tern (^Sterna fluviatilis) . In all 
the other passages referred to, he seems to be speaking of the 
Tern, placing it next the Divers and Gulls (aWvia and \dpo^) , 
The specification which he gives of the colour is that the back 
is Kvdveo^, i. e. sea-coloured, a terra which is best rendered by 
" slaty grey,^^ being applied elsewhere to clouds, human hair, 
and dark masses, never to blue. This exactly agrees with 
the colour of the back of Sterna hirundo. Aristotle adds that 
there are two species, a larger and a smaller, both of the same 
colour, and the smaller one breeding in rushes. This well 
corresponds with the two species most common in Greece, 
S. fluviatilis and S. hybrida, of which the latter and smaller 
species breeds in marshes, the former on the sea-shore. It 
is true that there are two Kingfishers common in Greece, but 
evidently the second species, Ceryle rudis, was not considered 
by Aristotle, its coloration being entirely different from_:the 
other. My concluding inference is that the poetic tales of 
the Halycon must be attached to the graceful Sea-Swallow, 
and not to the Kingfisher of our river-banks. 



XIX. — On the Species of ZosteYO]}s found in the Island of 
Java. By Henry Seebohm, F.Z.S. 

Ir the legends respecting the invasion of New Zealand and the 
Chatham Islands by the Australian White-eye, Zosterops 
carulescens, be true, it must be admitted that the White-eyes 
have a genius for emigration. Wherever they are found 
they are extremely common, and there is abundant evidence 
in their geographical distribution to prove that many emigra- 
tions have taken place since the original differentiation of 
the ancestors of the genus. There are two species of this 
genus in Norfolk Island and tAvo on Lord Howe Island ; 
New Caledonia possesses two species, and Lifu (one of 
the Loyalty group) is inhabited by three. The island of 
Java is inhabited by no fewer than six species of Zosterops. 



218 On the Javan Species of Zosterops. 

Of these six species four have been recorded from West Java 
and two from East Java. Two of the West-Javan species are 
known with certainty only from that island, and diflFer from all 
other species of the genus in having the crown and nape ash- 
grey, in strong contrast to the olive of the rest of the upper 
parts. They have been regarded as so aberrant that they have 
been separated under the generic name of Oreosterops (Bona- 
parte, Compt. Rend, xxxviii. p. 264). Zosterops fallax is de- 
scribed as very common in West Java, and Zostei'ops j avanica, 
which differs from it principally in having a broad white eye- 
stripe, was brought from West Java by Dr. Horsfield. In 
both these species the belly and flanks are yellow. The third 
West-Javan species has a wide range_, from South Tenasserira 
and the Malay Peninsula to Borneo, Sumatra, and Timor. 
Zosterops auriventer belongs to the typical group in which 
the crown and nape are olive like the rest of the upper parts. 
It may at once be distinguished from the other Javan species 
by its bright yellow belly, which is very conspicuous between 
the ash-grey flanks. It would be very interesting to be 
sure that the locality of Timor is correctly assigned to this 
species, and, if so, to know whether it occurs in East Java. 

The fourth West-Javan species has also been recorded 
from Sumatra and Borneo, and appears to be closely allied 
to the species described from East Java. Both are olive 
above and yellow beneath, but in the latter, Zosterops gallio, 
there is a black spot in front of the eye, which is absent in 
the former, Zosterops flava. 

The sixth Javan species was discovered in 1886 by Mr. 
Whitehead, at an elevation of 5000 feet above sea-level, near 
Tosari in East Java. It appears to have been identified with 
Zosterops mmventer (Sharpe, Ibis, 1889, p. 427) — a perfectly 
distinct species with ash-grey flanks and bright yellow belly. 
Mr. Whitehead's bird is most nearly related to the Indian 
White-eye {Zosterops palpcbrosa) , and is probably not more 
than subspecifically distinct from that widely-spread species. 
In the colour of the upper; parts it is intermediate between 
Zosterops palpebrosa and Zosterops simplex, being greener 
than the Indian species, but yellower than the Chinese bird. 



On the Javan Species of Merula. 



219 



The colour of the underparts beneath the breast is slightly 
paler than in either of these races, the dusky spot in front 
and underneath the eye is much less distinct, and the tail 
appears to be slightly longer (1-6). I have proposed to call 
this species Zosterops neglecta {cf. Bull. B. O. C. no. v. 
p. xxvi). 

The six species of Javan Zoster opes will therefore stand 
as follows : — 



(1) Zosterops fallax. W. Java. 

(2) Z.javanica. W. Java. 

(3) Z. aiiriventer. W. Java. 
{A) Z.gaUio. E.Java. 

(5) Z.Jlara. W. Java, 

(6) Z. neglecta. E. Java. 



Other localities. 



Sumatra. 



Malay Peuins., Sumatra, Borneo, and 
Timor. 

Sumatra, Borneo. 



XX. — On the Species of Merula /oww^ in the Island of Java. 
By Henry Seebohm, F.Z.S. 

HoRsriELD^s Ouzel was discovered in some part of West 
Java by Dr. Horsfield between the years 1811 and 1817, and 
was described by him in a paper entitled " Systematic 
Arrangement and Description of Birds from the Island of 
Java,^^ which was read at a meeting of the Linnean Society of 
London on the 18th of April, 1820, under the name of Turdus 
javanicus (Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 148). The 
types were presented to the Museum of the East India 
Company in 1819 (Horsf. & Moore, Cat. Birds Mus. E. I. C. 
i. p. 196), and are now in the British Museum*. 

This species was rediscovered in West Java on the crater 
of Mount Gedee, about 8000 feet above the level of the sea, 

* There are three types of Horsfield's M. javanica in the British 
Museum, which are apparently male, female, and young. The adults 
differ from all other Javan examples known in having the chestnut 
restricted to the belly, and not extending to the flanks. The white on 
the under tail-coverts is also reduced to a shaft-line in the male. It is 
possible that they may have been procured on some other mountain, and 
that M. fnmida may be specifically distinct from M. javanica. 



220 Mr. H. Seebohm on the 

by Salomon Miiller some time between the years 1828 and 
1836, and received the name of Turdus {Merula) fumidus 
(Miiller, Verb. Nat. Gesch., Land- en Volkenk. p. 201), the 
types o£ which are in the Leyden Museum. 

In 1844 a third name was bestowed upon Horsfield's Ouzel, 
viz. Tardus hypopyrrhus (Hartlaub, Syst. Verz. der Mus. 
Bremen, p. 43), the previous descriptions of the bird having 
been either unknown to Dr. Hartlaub, or having appeared 
to him so vague as to be unrecognizable. The type of this 
description is in the Bremen Museum, and from the excellent 
figure of it (Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 346, pi. viii.) it appears to 
be a not very old male from West Java. 

In 1861 Mr. Wallace obtained examples of this Ouzel 
(one of which is in the British Museum) in almost the same 
locality. In his ' Malay Archipelago ' he describes his visit 
to the extinct volcano of Pangerango, and mentions that on 
its summit, about 10,000 feet above the level of the sea, he 
found this bird feeding on the ground among the strawberries 
tiiat have been planted there. 

There does not seem to be any foundation for the state- 
ment made in 1847 (Blyth, J. A. S. B.xvi. p. 143) that the 
name of Tardus concolor was given to this species by Tem- 
rainck ( Biittikofer, Notes Leyd. Mus. xv. p. 108). The 
statement made in 1854 (Bp. C. R. xxxviii. p. 6) that Dr. 
Schitf had named the example in the Senckenberg Museum in 
Frankfort Turdus nigricrissus is also_, as I am informed by 
Mr. Hartert, equally unsupported by evidence. 

This species has also been stated to occur in Sumatra and 
Borneo under the name of Turdus famidus (Bp. Consp. i. 
p. 274), but I can find no evidence in favour of the correct- 
ness of either of these localities, except that there is a skin 
in the British Museum labelled " Borneo,^^ purchased from 
Verreaux, which, however, can scarcely be regarded as proof 
that it was shot there. 

That there should exist a second, and possibly a third^ species 
of Merula in the island of Java seems at first sight somewhat 
improbable, but when it is remembered that Merulajavanica 
has been found only in West Java^ and then at elevations of 



Javan Species of Merula. 221 

from 8000 to 10^000 feet^ the occurrence of a closely allied 
species in East Java, two hundred and fifty miles away, at an 
elevation of 7000 feet above sea-level, must be considered by 
no means improbable. The genus Merula is an arctic and 
subarctic one, and the species found in the tropics seek the 
greatest elevations they can find, so that the Merula of West 
Java are practically isolated from those of East Java by the 
tropical plains which intervene. I have proposed to call the 
East Javan species Merula whiteheadi'^ : in the first place 
because it was discovered by Mr. Whitehead, who met with it 
near Tosari at an elevation of 7000 feet, in August and 
September 1886. This was during the memorable expe- 
dition to the islands of the Malay Archipelago which 
culminated in the exploration of Mount Kina-Balu in 
North Borneo, where Mr. Whitehead discovered more than 
forty new species of birds. In the second place, the name 
ivhiteheadi is singularly appropriate, as it serves to fix on the 
memory the peculiar character of the species, which is dis- 
tinguished from its West-Javan ally by the much greater 
whiteness of its head. In the adult male the head is pale 
grey, in the female it is darker grey, and in the young in 
first plumage brownish black. In other respects M. white- 
headi agrees closely with Merula javanica. The under tail- 
coverts of the female and young have broad white shaft- 
streaks, which are reduced to pale shafts in the adult male. 
The feathers round the vent seem to be always white. 

If the East-Javan Ouzel be distinct from the West-Javan 
Ouzel, the next question which arises is its distinctness or 
otherwise from the Timor Ouzel. 

Merula schlegeli was discovered near Penpaan in a moun- 
tain valley in the interior of the island of Timor by Salomon 
Miillersome time between the years 1828 and 1836, but was 
regarded by its discoverer as merely a variety of Horsfiekrs 
Ouzel (Miiller, op. cit. p. 201). The single example from 
Timor remained in the Leyden Museum for twenty years 
before it was observed to be different from its Javan ally, 
when it was named Tardus schlegeli (Sclater, Ibis, 1861, 
* Cf. Bull. B. 0. C. no. T. p. XXV. 



222 On the Javan Species of Merula. 

p. 280). Fourteen years afterwards, a further attempt 
to vindicate the character of the supposed new species was 
made (Sclater, Ibis, 1875, p. 344), but, in consequence of 
an error in the diagnosis, the distinctness of the two 
species has not been generally recognized. Both species are 
described as ''' supra f uscus unicolor,^^ the characters relied 
upon being the absence of the white shaft-streaks on the 
under tail-coverts and the white feathers round the vent in 
the Timor species. Inasmuch as the former character varies 
so much with age and sex, and the latter is so easily lost in 
the preparation of the skin, ornithologists naturally did not 
recognize the distinctness of the Timor sj)ecies from the 
Javan one, which was supposed to range west to Sumatra 
and north to Borneo. We now learn, however (Biittikofer, 
Notes Leyd. Mus. xv. p. 109), that the Timor bird resembles 
the East- Javan species in the pale colour of the head, neck, 
and throat, but differs from it in having no white on the 
vent or under tail-coverts. It thus appears that the attempt 
to maintain the distinctness of the Timor species was based 
upon a true geographical instinct, though one of the main 
arguments for the defence was overlooked. 

Two other very closely allied Merula are found in the 
Malay Archipelago. Merula seebohmi (Sharpe, Ibis, 1888, 
p. 386) was discovered in 1888 on Kina-Balu in North 
Borneo, and Merula celebensis was obtained by Mr, Teys- 
raaan in 1877 at Macassar in Celebes, though it has only 
recently been described (Biittikofer, Notes Leyd. Mus. 
XV. p. 109) . The new species appears to be closely allied 
to Merula seebohmi and Merula celoenops, having the chest- 
nut of the underparts very rich in colour and covering the 
whole breast. It further resembles the latter species in 
having the upper parts below the neck suffused with olive, 
but probably dift'ers from it in having the white on the belly 
confined to the vent. 



On Birds observed in Eastern Africa. 223 

XXI. — Notes on Birds observed during a Collecting Expeditio7i 
to Eastern Africa. By Frank Finn, B.A., F.Z.S. 

The main object of my journey to East Africa having been 
to collect Oligocliaete Worms, and my stay but a short one, 
I did not form a collection of bird-skins, though the kindness 
of the British residents enabled me to bring home a number 
of living specimens. With these, and with other species 
which I have been able to identify from my notes, with the 
kind assistance of Dr. Sclater, Dr. Bowdler Sharpe, and 
Count Salvadori, the present paper is concerned. 

I left England by the British India steamer 'Java^ on 
June 6th, arriving on July 11th at Zanzibar, where I stayed 
till August 8th. On that day I started for Mombasa by the 
coasting-steamer ' Juba,^ which touched at Wasin, on the 
way, long enough to allow some of us to go ashore. I stayed 
at Mombasa till September 14th, when I left for England 
by the British India steamer ' Malda,^ and arriA^ed early in 
October. It being the fine season when I was in East Africa, 
I found the climate very pleasant, the temperature about 
that of an English summer, with occasional heavy rain- 
showers. In Zanzibar I stayed at the Hotel Perrot, on the 
outskirts of the town and close to the shore. At Mombasa I 
enjoyed the hospitality first of Mr. F. Pordage, of English 
Point, on the mainland, and afterwards of Mr. T. Remington 
and Mr. Maclellan, at the Fort Bungalow, Mombasa Island, 
near the ancient Portuguese fort — a locality that abounded 
with birds of several species, most of which were very tame. 
General Mathews, of Zanzibar, was extremely kind, and gave 
me much valuable assistance in my work and many rare speci- 
mens. I am also greatly indebted to Mr. R. Macalister, of 
Kilindini, Mombasa, and I gladly take this opportunity of 
expressing my obligations, not only to the gentlemen men- 
tioned, but generally to the Europeans with whom I came 
in contact in East Africa and on my journey to and fro, for 
the unvarying kindness and consideration with which they 
treated me. The species of which I brought home living 
specimens arc marked with an asterisk. References arc 



224 Mr. F. Finn on Birds 

given to the published volumes of the Catalogue of Birds in 
the British Museum. 

CoRvus scAPULATUs. (Cat. B. iii. p. 22.) 

This seems to be the Crow of the country, but is not very 
abundant, at least on the coast, to which I was almost entirely 
confined during my stay. 

CoRVus SPLENDENS. (Cat. B. iii. p. 33.) 

The " Bombay Crow," which is now fairly plentiful in the 
town of Zanzibar, has been recently introduced. Sir Gerald 
Portal told me he had seen it capture a " Chiriko " {Crith- 
agra) on the wing. This Crow was imported as a scavenger; 
it does not yet appear to display the impudence characteristic 
of it in its native country. The " Chiriko " referred to is a 
not uncommon cage-bird in Zanzibar, and is usually kept in 
a cage with two side compartments fitted up as traps, so that 
it is both a pet and a decoy. I saw one wild at Mombasa. 

BucHANGA ATRA, var. AssiMiLis. (Cat. B. iii. p. 247.) 
1 sometimes saw examples of this species at Mombasa. 

Lanius, sp. inc. 

A large grey Shrike came on board the ' Java ' in the Red 
Sea in a very exhausted state; the next day, however, it 
revived and ate cockroaches from the hand, though still 
almost unable to fly. On the following day it was so tame 
that it ate a cockroach while sitting on my finger, grasping 
the insect with one foot, as it usually did when feeding. 

At Aden I offered it a small shore-crab, which it readily 
ate, having probably been used to such diet on the barren 
land whence it had come. Unfortunately it escaped on the 
day after leaving Aden, making for land (about 60 miles off) 
with a Magpie-like flight, against a head wind. I am there- 
fore unable to identify the species. In plumage it was more 
like L. excubitor than L. lahtora, but had strong legs and 
feet. 

Telephonus senegalus. (Cat. B. viii. p. 1.24.) 
Common in the low bush on Mombasa Island ; has a 
whirring flight. 



observed in Eastern Jfrica. 225 

CiSTICOLA SUBRUFICAPILLA. (Cat. B. vii. p. 283.) 
Very common on Mombasa Island near the fort. It 
usually has the soft plumage puffed out like a Tit's, but 
occasionally compresses it to the body, and then has a very 
graceful appearance, in spite of the rather coarse legs and feet, 
which are conspicuously flesh-coloured. It often utters a 
note like " chizzick/' frequently repeating it from a tele- 
graph wire. These wires must be regarded by the birds 
here as a most useful innovation, affording, as they do, a 
very convenient perch. 

EiiiTHACus LusciNiA. (Cat. B. V. p. 294.) 
A Nightingale came aboard in the Mediterranean on Sep- 
tember 28 th. 

Saxicola (enanthe. (Cat. B. v. p. 391.) 

On the evening of September 30th a Wheatear came to 
the ship, apparently weary, but flew low over it without 
settling. 

BUTICILLA PHCENICURUS. (Cat. B. V. p. 336.) 
A female Redstart was on the rigging on October 4th, two 
days after we left Naples. 

MOTACILLA FLAVA. (Cat. B. X. p. 510.) 

Wagtails, apparently of this species, frequently flew about 
and came aboard on the journey home, some in the Red Sea 
and some in the Mediterranean. Indeed scarcely a day 
passed without some bird or other coming aboard, but it was 
not always possible to identify the small Passerines. A Sylvia 
in the Red Sea and a P/iylloscojJus in the Mediterranean came 
aboard and I caged them, but they soon died, though the 
former fed. The Wagtails were often very tame, but I could 
not catch them. 

Sturnus vulgaris. (Cat. B. xiii. p. 27.) 
A pair alighted on the ship on October 4th, but left imme- 
diately, and I saw another on the following day. 

Hyphantornis bojeri. (Cat. B. xiii. p. 448.) 
This bird was extremely abundant at Mombasa, especially 
on the island, if the dull streaky greenish-yellow specimens, 



226 Mr. F. Finn on Birds 

much like the female H. galbula, are the female and young 
of H. bojeri, of which the brightly coloured male only ap- 
pears to be known. These bright specimens are a small 
minority. The species is social both in feeding and nesting ; 
the nests are hung from the fronds of the cocoanut-palms, 
even in the town of Mombasa. The birds feed on the low 
plants, where, I presume, they find insects. Nestlings were 
brought to me at the Fort Bungalow by native boys, and a 
fledgling even flew into the bungalow on one occasion. 

EsTRELDA PHCENicoTis. (Cat. B. xiii, p. 400.) 
Very common at Mombasa, but less abundant than the 
preceding, from which it difl'ers in being a ground-feeder. 1 
believe it eats small grass-seeds and minute insects. It is 
usually seen in pairs, not in flocks. 

MuNiA oRYzivoRA. (Cat. B. xiii. p. 328.) 

The " Zawaridi" was introduced into Zanzibar, I was 
told, about 30 years since, and is now so common as to be 
used as food with other small seed-eating birds. It does not 
seem to descend into the streets, like the Sparrow at home, 
and I am at a loss to understand on what it feeds in the 
town, where it is constantly to be seen about the house- 
roofs. It is said to be driving the other small birds out of 
the town, but one can pardon much to so ornamental a 
species. 

Passer diffusus (sive swainsoni). (Cat. B. xii. pp. 334, 
336.) 

I do not know to which of these species to refer a plain- 
coloured Sparrow found both at Zanzibar and Mombasa, at 
which latter place I had good opportunities for observing it at 
the Fort Bungalow. It feeds on the ground, with the gait 
of a Chaffinch, and when perched on a telegraph wire its 
contour suggests a Shrike. 

Pycnonotus layardi. (Cat. B. vi. p. 132.) 
This Bulbul is common all along the part of the coast I 
visited, and I observed it especially on the Mnazi-moja grounds 
at Zanzibar and near the fort at Mombasa, where it was very 



observed in Eastern Africa. 227 

tame^ a pair coming constantly to feed from a box of kitchen- 
scraps on the verandah of the bungalow. It sometimes, 
when perched, expands and depresses the wings and tail, and 
its pleasant, careless song is the most characteristic bird-music 
of this coast. 

Irrisor viridis. (Cat. B. xvi. p. 17.) 

I saw this bird on two occasions, at Zanzibar and at Kilin- 
dini, on Mombasa Island. Its flight is much like that of a 
Magpie, but it certainly reminds one of a rather small Horn- 
bill when on the wing. 

LoPHocERos MELANOLEucus. (Cat. B. xvii, p. 399.) 
I saw some small dark red-billed Hornbills on the edge of 
the jungle at Wasin, which I think belonged to this species. 
They flew in a peculiar manner, alternating a heavy flap or 
two with a short sailing interval, and held themselves upright 
when perched. While speaking of Hornbills, I may mention 
that Dr. Baxter, of the Church Mission Society at Frere- 
town, Mombasa, suggested to me, as an explanation of the 
great hollow casques and bills of the large forms of this 
family, that they act as resonators to increase the power 
of the cry, which is so remarkable in these birds. 

Ceryle rudis. (Cat. B. xvii. p. 109.) 
I saw this bird in Mombasa harbour. Its flight is much 
slower than that of the next species. 

Alcedo ispida. (Cat. B. xvii. p. 141.) 

I saw two specimens of the Common Kingfisher on my home- 
ward journey, one in Port Said harbour and one in the Suez 
Canal. I also saw Kingfishers of the genus Halcyon at Mom- 
basa, and noticed in one case a distinctly undulating flight. 

Merops nubicus. (Cat. B. xvii. p. 85.) 

This splendid bird, the plumage of which in some lights 
looks like burnished copper, was common on Mombasa 
Island, where I also saw a green Bee-eater. M. nubicus is 
known as the '' Fire-bird.'^ 

CoRAciAs CAUDATUs. (Cat. B. xvii. p. 21.) 

Not uncommon at Mombasa. The affinitv of the bird 



228 Mr. F. Finn on Birds 

both to the Kingfishers and the Bee-eaters is obvious when it 
is watched alive. Local name " Blue- Jay. ^' 

CoRACiAS GARRULUS. (Cat. B. xvii. p. 15.) 

A Boiler of this species alighted on the ship^s yard on 
September 20th, on the day after we had passed Cape 
Guardafui on our way to England. I got a fairly good 
view of it. 

Chrysococcyx cupreus. (Cat. B. xix. p. 285.) 
One, and sometimes two, of these birds used to frequent 
the little backyard of the hotel in Zanzibar to feed on the 
larvse of a moth much resembling the English gold-tail 
(Porthesia auriflua). The larvse were black and yellow, and 
sparsely haired. The birds ate large numbers of them, 
hopping and flying leisurely from branch to branch. Their 
flight, when protracted for any distance, resembled that of 
a Missel-Thrush, but was lighter. When together they 
frequently spread the tail, usually erecting it, and their note 
was sometimes whistling and sometimes resembled that of a 
young Duck. 

■^ Centropus superciliosus. (Cat. B. xix. p. 363.) 
I heard the note of this Cuckoo, somewhat like the sound 
of water poured out of a bottle, in Zanzibar and Mombasa, 
and in the latter place frequently saw the bird, which was 
very common, especially on the island. It has other notes, 
short and harsh, and the specimen brought home often 
uttered a low growling note when alarmed ; on one occasion, 
when held in the hand, it deliberately scratched me, drawing 
blood. Possibly the long claw of the hallux is a weapon of 
offence. The flight of this bird is heavy and weak, but its 
powers of running, and especially leaping, are very great. It 
is known in Mombasa as '^ Wood Pheasant.'^ 

■^ Gallirex ciilorochlamys. (Cat. B. xix. p. 447.) 

A very fine and tame specimen of this bird was the gift of 

General Mathews, who very kindly put a good collection of 

living animals on board the ' Malda ' when it left Zanzibar. 

The present individual had been kept in confinement and was 



observed in Eastern Africa. 2.29 

quite a pet. When played with it frequently displayed its 
crimson primaries. It is now in the Zoologieal Society's 
Gardens, and is in excellent plumage. 

CoLius AFFiNis. (Cat. B. xvii. p. 342.) 
Common on Mombasa Island. Its flight is much like that 
of a Partridge, but less violent. 

Tachoiixis pahva. (Cat. B. xvi. p. 463.) 
Common at Zanzibar. I also noticed these singular 
Swifts elsewhere. 

Caprimulgus europ.'eus. (Cat. B. xvi. p. 526.) 
Seen on the voyages out and home in broad daylight on 
several occasions. A smaller, redder, and shorter-winged 
Nightjar alighted on the ship the day after we left Aden ; 
and a species similar in size and proportions to this might 
be nightly seen at Mombasa on the trolly-track running to 
Kilindini. 

PCEOCEPHALUS FUSCICAPILLUS. (Cat. B. XX. p. 368.) 

I met with this bird on a few occasions in captivity at 
Zanzibar and Mombasa, and wild some miles away from the 
latter town on the mainland. It flies with a quicker stroke 
of the wings than one would expect from their length. 

PsiTTACUS ERITHACUS. (Cat. B. XX. p. 377.) 
A common pet with Hindoos, Goanese, and Europeans, 
being brouglit down from the interior. 

MiLvus, sp. inc. 

Kites are common at Aden and down the East-African 
coast, and often very tame, but I should not like to decide 
as to the species, especially as I have heard of the introduction 
of Kites from India. Kites have been tried as scavengers 
at Zanzibar, but will not stay. They are most dexterous in 
snatching their food off the water, which I have seen one do 
without leaving a perceptible ri])ple. Mr. Pigott, chief 
officer of the ' Malda,^ informs me that he has seen Kites 
help a fallen companion out of the water, a kindly trait one 
would hardly expect in such a bird. 

SER. VI. VOL. V. K 



230 Mr. F. Finn on Birds 

*Tkeron delalandii. 

General Matliews gave me ten specimens of tliis lovely 
Pigeon, of wliich, owing chiefly to accidents, only one sur- 
vived to reach the Gardens. The cere and feet are of a 
beautiful coral-red, contrasting finely with the plumage, and 
the bill and claws white. These birds Avalk awkwardly, not 
nnlike a Parrot, on the ground, to which they must very 
seldom descend, as there appears to be a native superstition 
that the " Nenge " dies if it touches the ground. They 
jump, however, with considerable ease, covering about a foot 
without flapping the wings. Their note is very peculiar : 
first a series of clicking sounds, then a modulated whistle, 
ending with a croak or two. I fed them at first chiefly on 
bananas, but afterwards on boiled potatoes, and the survivor 
also had a good deal of soaked biscuit and boiled rice, together 
with various fruits, on the voyage. It seemed very sensitive 
to cold. 

■'^TURTUR SEMITORQUATUS. 

I did not see this bird wmRI in Zanzibar, but it is common 
on the mainland opposite Mombasa, together with the next 
species, and both are used for food. General Mathews gave 
me a large number of these fine Doves, some of which I hope 
to be able to acclimatize in St. James's Park. Two eggs 
were laid by my specimens in Zanzibar. The native name 
is ''Hua." 

■^ TuRTUR DAMARENSIS. 

I saw this bird in captivity in Zanzibar, where it is a 
most popular pet with the native Svvahilis. Near Mombasa 
I also saw it wild. Mombasa specimens usually want 
altogether or barely show the conspicuous black line from 
the bill to the eye found in Zanzibar specimens. Owing 
to the kindness of General Mathews, Mr. F. Pordage, and 
other donors. I have been able to bring a series containing: 
both forms tu the Gardens. This bird seems much more 
active than its near ally, T. risorius, and has a peculiarly harsh 
grating croak, rather than a coo. The legs of some Zanzibar 
birds are black or extremely dark red. The natives call it 
" TaUrar 



41 



observed in. Eastern Africa. 231 

TURTUR AURITUS. 

On the voyage out a Turtlc-Dove came up in the Bay of 
Biscay and appeared to alight, and on the way home two or 
three immature birds appeared in the Red Sea, one at least 
alighting on the rigging. At Port Said I bought an adult, 
and a young one was with it. 

■^ Chalcopelia afra. 

This beautiful little Dove was common at Mombasa, and 
has a very swift flight. The natives sometimes keep it in 
captivity, and know it and the following species by the 
common name of '' Puge." 

■^ Tympaxistria bicolor. 

There are at the time of writing three specimens of this 
Dove in the Zoological Society's Gardens, presented by 
General Mathews, two grey-breasted and one pure Avhite 
beneath, presumably of different sexes. More than one person 
has remarked on the resemblance of the male to a Sandpiper, 
and it certainly suggests in appearance a shore-bird. Its 
note seems to be a very weak ''coo." 

COLUMBA LIVIA. 

Kept in a domestic state by the natives, and little modified, 
except in colour, from the wild form. There are a few 
'^ homers " in the possession of Europeans at Mombasa, where 
European fowls are also to be seen. 

* COTURNIX COMMUNIS. 

On the voyage home, in the Red Sea, a Quail, much ex- 
hausted, attempted to alight on the side of the vessel, but 
fell into the water and was carried away astern. Numbers 
were on sale alive at Port Said at Ad. each. In the Medi- 
terranean, on September 28th, a Quail cam3 on board and 
was captured by the carpenter, who gave it to me. I placed 
it with my Francolins, which did not offer to hurt it, and it 
is now in the Zoological Gardens. 

■'^ Fraxcolinus GRAXT[. 

This species is very common on INIombasa Island, judging 
from the frequency with which one hears its clanking cry 

R 2 



232 Mr. F. Finn on Birds 

at dawn and dusk. The birds, however, cannot be made to 
rise in the thick bush, so that the Doves on the mainland 
form the chief local game. 

^ NUMIDA MITRATA. 

This species is very easily rendered tame, the specimens 
brought home being absolutely impudent. Mr. F. Pordage 
who had a very beautiful specimen, slighter-looking, though 
fully adult, than those brought home, told me they were 
easily tamed by shutting them up and feeding them well for 
awhile, when they would stay about the bungalow when set at 
liberty, as his bird did. This species has the native name of 
" Kanga," a tufted species which I saw tame in Zanzibar (pro- 
bably N. puchercmi) being distinguished as " Karoro." 

■^ Glareola ocularis. 

I am indebted to Mr. R. Macalister for two specimens 
of this interesting bird. I accompanied him on one occasion 
a few miles up the mainland opposite Mombasa Island to a 
small lake, or rather bog, for it was filled with vegetation, 
abounding with grasshoppers and small frogs, and frequented 
by Ibises (/. tethiopica and a taller black species) and white 
Egrets. The Ibises were too wary to be obtained, but my 
companion shot two Pratincoles, one, which was mortally 
wounded, at the lake, and one on our journey back, which was 
winged. The broken part of the Aving having been amjmtated 
and the stump dressed with Friar^s balsam, the bird^s wound 
healed in a very few days, though after the first day it 
refused food and I had to feed it for about a week by hand, 
during which operation it bit with considerable vigour. 
When turned loose in a small yard its attitude when startled 
strongly reminded me of a small Gull, which it also resembled 
in its gait ; but it had the bobbing motion of the head cha- 
racteristic of a Plover. Its flight resembles that of the 
Golden Plover, but also reminds one, in its slowness, of a 
Tern, and its cry, though rattling, can yet be recognized as 
that of a Pluvialine bird. 

This bird is now in a large cage in the Insect-house in the 
Zoological Society's Gardens, and appears to be doing well. 



observed in Eastern Africa. 233 

Dromas ardeola. 

I saw two of these curious birds in the shallow water on 
the shore at Aden^ and took them at a distance for Gulls, 
which they certainly resemble, thou^jh the long legs and 
quicker flight point out at once their Limicoline affinities. 

LaRUS HEMPRICHI. 

Abundant and tame at the southern end of the Red Sea, 
especially at Aden, where, however, I found them less numer- 
ous on the return journey, while the Kites Avere more so. 
These Gulls more than once alighted on the ship. 

Stercorarius pomarinus. 

Numbers of these Skuas appeared when we had passed 
through the Straits of Gibraltar on October 6th, and we saw 
them for a day or two. They were at first difficult to dis- 
tinguish from the Shearwaters [Pvffinus kuldi ?), being mostly 
in immature plumage. In their flight, however, they dif- 
fered much from the sailing Shearwaters, and to a lesser 
extent from the Gulls, being heavier and more Crow-like on 
the wing, and this difference was especially apparent when 
they stooped on food in the water. 

Ph(exicopterus antiquorum. 

Seen from the ship in the Suez Canal, in flight tliis bird 
is certainly quite Anserine. I was told that a cartful of 
living birds was on sale at 10 shillings each at Port Said, 
on the return journey ; but though I was ashore at the time 
and looking out for birds, I was not fortunate enough to 
meet with these. From the birds I saw I should consider 
Port Said a very excellent place in which to pick up good 
living specimens, since one meets with cage-birds there from 
many different localities. 

^ LiMNOCORAX NIGER. 

Four of these beautiful little Gallinules were among the 
animals put on board the 'Malda^ by General Mathews. 
They were extremely tame in the cage, but seem to have 
become shy in the Western Aviary. They fed readily on 
minced raw meat, soaked biscuit, dari, and hemj)-seed, and 



234 Dr. W. T. Blanford on some 

did not attempt to hurt a Spotted Crake which came on 
board on Wednesday, October 5 th, we being then in the 
Mediterranean. The latter bird, however, was restless, and 
pined, drooped, and provokingly died just before reaching the 
Gardens. 



XXII. — On some Gene7'a of Oriental Bar-bets. 
By W. T. Blanford, F.R.S. 

Whilst examining the Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese 
Barbets, and preparing an account of them for the third 
volume of the ' Birds ' in the ' Fauna of British India,' I 
have been led to suggest a slight modification of the generic 
arrangement adopted by Captain Shelley in the nineteenth 
volume of the British Museum Catalogue. I quite agree 
with Captain Shelley's remarks (Cat. Birds B. M. xix. p. 13) 
as to the great difficulties in the way of generic separation 
presented by many members of the family, but at the same 
time I am inclined to rely upon style of coloration to a 
areater extent than he does. 

In the work mentioned the Barbets of the Oriental Region 
are arranged in the following seven gcnei-a : — 

Calorhamphus, Mesobucco. 

Megalcp.ma. Xantholama. 

Chotorhea. Fsilopoyon. 
Cyanops. 

Of these Calorhamphus differs widely, both in structure 
and coloration, from all the others"^. The genus Psilopogon, 
though far less distinct than Calorhamphus, is readily se- 
parated by its greatly graduated tail-feathers. The other 
five genera contain a number of species, the relations of 

* According to Davison's account of the liabits of C. hayi (' Stray 
Feathers,' vi. p. 149), this is by far the most insectivorous of the Oriental 
Barbets, and resembles some of the African forms of Melanohucco, Tri- 
chol(e7na, TvacJiyphonus, &c., in respect of food. This is somewhat note- 
worthy, for Calorhamplais has no rictal bristles, whilst in other Oriental 
genera the gape and chin are beset with long hairs. 



Genera of Oriental Barbels. 235 

wliich have long been a difficulty, and scarcely any two 
naturalists have adopted the same generic divisions. It is 
unnecessary to enter at any length into the various arrange- 
ments that have been adopted, and it will suffice to notice 
those employed by a few of the principal writers who have 
dealt with the family. 

In 1849 all the species belonging to the five genera men- 
tioned, so far as they were then known, Avere included by 
Mr. G. R. Gray in his genus Megalahna (Gen. Birds, ii. 
p. 429). In 1854 Bonaparte, in the 'Conspectus Volucrum 
Zygodactylorum/ divided the members of Gray^s genus 
Megalama into two genera, Bucco and Megalama, the latter 
being subdivided into four subgenera, MegaJcema, Chotorhea, 
Cyanops, and Xantholcema, the last three terms being then 
proposed as new. In the ' Monograph of the Capitonidse ' 
(1871), Messrs. C. H. T. and G. F. L. Marshall reunited 
four of Bonaparte's genera and subgenera under Gray's 
generic name Megalama [Bucco had been shown to be some- 
thing very different), Xantholama alone being kept separate. 
This distinction of Xanlholama, of which the type is X hcenia- 
tocephala, the common " Coppersmith '' of India, has been 
generally accepted, as both the bill and the wing are different 
in form from those of the species retained by Messrs. Marshall 
in Megalcema. 

But although all the species of Bonaparte's Bucco, Mega- 
lama, Chotorliea, and Cyanops were arranged in one genus 
in the Monograph, that genus in the key (pp. xxvi-xxvii) 
was divided into three sections, none of which, except the 
first, corresponded with any of Bonaparte's genera. The 
first of these sections, distinguished as " Sect, a, maxima, 
dorso olivascenti-brunneo,'' corresponded to Bonaparte's 
Bucco, and contained only one species, M. virens (the Hima- 
layan iV/e^fl/«wrt marshallorum was subsequently distinguished 
from typical M. virens by Swinhoe) ; the second section, thus 
characterized, " b, virides, capite versicolori," comprised the 
Megalcema, Cyanops, and part of the Chotorhea of Bonaparte ; 
whilst the third, with these characters, " c, virides, capite 
brumieo vel albo striate,'' contained a well-known group of 



236 Dr. W. T. Blant'ord on >iome 

Barbets,amougst wliich are Megalcema zeylonica [M. caniceps), 
M. lineata, and M. virid'is, Avbich had been assigned to Cho- 
torhea by Bonaparte (and by G. R. Gray in his ' Hand-list '), 
but had been left in Megakema by Horsfield and Moore (Cat. 
Birds Mns. E.I. Co. pp. 636-640) and by Jerdon ('Birds of 
India/ i. pp. 309-312), although in both -works Cyanops and 
Chotorhea were kept distinct from Megakema. At p. xxxix of 
the Monograph, in the account of the distribution, section c 
is classed as one of the subgenera of yiegahema, and the name 
Megakema is restricted to it. 

In the British Museum Catalogue all Bonaparte's genera, 
except Bkcco, are recognized, though the species assigned to 
them ditier widely from those in Bouaparte's list. Megakema 
in the Catalogue corresponds to sectiou a of the Monograph, 
whilst section c of that work, and part of section b, are referred 
to Cyanops. An additional genus, Mtsobucco, is proposed 
for some small species distinguished by their small size and 
long rictal bristles. 

Thus it will be seen that Megalama zeylonica [M. caniceps) 
and its allies, the section c of ^Messrs. ^larshalTs Monograph, 
have been referred by various naturalists to every one of the 
three geuera Megakema (restricted), Cyanops, and Chotorhea, 
and the first change that I would suggest in the generic 
classification of Indian Barbets is the separation of this 
small group of species as a distinct genus with peculiar 
coloration. It will, however, be best to review the various 
genera in order. If, in doing so, I appear to attach more 
importance to coloration than has been usual amongst orni- 
thologists, I can only plead that the colour of feathers has 
been shown to depend either on the presence or absence of 
certain pigments, or on the surface-structure^, and in either 
case is quite as definite a structural character as, for in- 
stance, the shape that the feathers assume. 

The genus MegaJama of the British Museum Catalogue is 
precisely equivalent to Bonaparte^s geuus Bucco and to Mega- 
kema, section a, of Messrs. MarshalFs ^[ouograph, and it is 
restricted to two species, M. v'lrens and M. marshallorum. 
* Gadow, r. Z. S. 1S8-2. p. 400. 



Genera of Oriental Barbets. 237 

A most important character in these birds, and one which I 
am disposed to regard as of generic importance, is the pos- 
session of bright red lower tail-coverts. The bill, too, is 
pale in colour and peculiarly shaped, high at the base, with 
the culmen slightly curved, whilst the nostrils are concealed 
by dense plumes. Xow there is a little-known species of 
Barbet, M. lagrandieri, found in Cochin-China, but unfor- 
tunately not represented, so far as I know, in any English 
collection, that agrees with typical Megaldsma in these cha- 
racters, and should, I think, be referred to it. This species 
has been described and figured by Jules Yerreaux, and the 
figure is copied and the description translated in Messrs. 
MarshalFs Olouograph of the Capitonidse.' 

]S early allied to Meyal<B na, but distinguished by the want 
of the bright red under tail-coverts, by the whole head, neck, 
and breast being brown with paler stria, by having a some- 
what difi'erently shaped bill, lower at the base, and by the 
nostrils being free from plumes, is the group so often men- 
tioned as section c of the Monograph. For this I propose 
the name Thereiceryx*, the type being Bucco zeylonicus, 
Gmel. The bill is reddish, brownish, or yellow, not black, 
and is intermediate in shape between that of Megalcema and 
that of Cyanops. With the typical species, T. zeylunicus, I 
unite Bucco caniceps, Franklin, and Megalama inornata, 
Walden, the Ceylon and South- Indian form zeylonicus being 
simply a smaller and darker and more richly coloured variety 
of the North- Indian caniceps. It is a general rule, not con- 
fined to birds, that animals from Ceylon and the southern 
part of the Indian Peninsula are smaller and more deeply 
coloured than those from Xorthern India. A good example 
is afforded by Eurystomus latior (Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1890, 
p. 551). The other species of Thereiceryx besides T. zey- 
lonicus are Capito lineatus, Vieill. (I agree with Captain 
Shelley in regarding Megalcenia hodgsoni, Bp., as identical), 
Bucco viridis, Bodd., and the species from Cochin-China to 

• " Herald of the hot season " : Bipos, summer, the hot season ; and 
KTjpv^, a herald. The loud notes of these birds ai'e constantly uttered just 
before and duimg- the hut season. 



238 Dr. W. T. Blanford on some 

Avliicli the liybrid name of Megalama or Cyanops phaostriata 
is applied in the ' Monograph of the Capitonida3^ and in the 
British Museum Catalogue. This was originally named 
Bucco faiostrictus by Temminck^ PI. Col. pi. 527 (Rarbu 
grivele)^ but in his account of the genus Bucco, published at 
the same time (88'^livraison), the name is ^v'xniQAfaiustriatus. 
By Bonaparte (Consp. Gen. Av. i. p. 144) the name was 
corrected to phaiostictus [phceostictus) , and this spelling is a 
great improvement^ and may^ I thiuk^ Avitli advantage be 
adopted, as it was by Goffin and G. R. Gray. Thereiceryx 
ph(Bostictus is by no means a tyjiical member of the genus ; 
both in the shape of the bill and in some details of coloration, 
especially in having a red spot on each side of the fore neck, 
it shows a passage to Cyanops. 

There remain several species of more gaudily coloured 
Barbets, the section b of the Monograph. These are divided 
in the British Museum Catalogue between Chotorhea and 
Cijanops. I concur in the separation of the two genera. 
Chotorhea is distinguished by having a much longer and 
very black bill, lower at the base, with the culmen greatly 
curved. There is, however, one species, Bucco mystacophanus, 
Temm., placed by Shelley in Cyanops, which I agree with 
Horsfield and Moore, Salvadori (TJcc. Born. p. 3 J), and 
Gates (' Birds of Burma,' ii. p. 130) in referring to Chotorhea. 
On the other hand, I do not regard the differences exhibited 
by Mesobucco as generic. The type of the genus, M. clu- 
vauceli, certainly has very long rictal bristles, but they are 
of less length in M. cyanotis, and in a sp)ccies recently de- 
scribed from Borneo under the name of M. eximius by 
Dr. Bowdler Sliarpe (Ibis, 1892, pp. 324, 441, pi. xi.) they 
are scarcely, if at all, longer than the bill, whilst in typical 
forms of Cyanops they are very little, if at all, shorter. In 
other details of structure and in plumage the species of 
Mesobucco agree with Cyanops, and the only remaining dis- 
tinction is the smaller size of the former, but this by itself 
is scarcely of generic importance. 

The following is a key to the genera of Oriental Barbets 
as above defined, and a list of the species : — 



Genera of Oriental Barbels. 239 

A. No green on plumage ; no lictal bristles Calokhami'UUS. 

B. Prevailing' colour green ; long rictal bristles. 

a. Tail square or slightly rounded. 

a'. Lower tail-coverts red Megal^ma. 

b'. Lower tail-coverts green. 

cr. Second primary shorter than tenth. 
a^. Head, neck, and breast brown, with pale 

longitudinal streaks Theeeiceryx. 

P. Head and neck brightly coloured, not 
streaked. 

«*. Culmen longer than tarsus Chotorhea. 

b^. Culmen not longer than tarsus .... Cyanops. 
b^. Second primary longer than eighth .... XANTiiOLiEMA. 

b. Tail-feathers much graduated PsiLoroGON. 

List of Species. 

Genus Calorhamphus. 
Calorhaniphus hayi. C. fuliginosus. 



Genus Megaljema. 
IMegalagma virens. M. uiarshallorum. 

M. lagrandieri. 

Genus Thereiceryx. 
Thereiceryx zeylonicus. T. lineatus. 

T. viridis. T. phacostictus. 

Genus Chotorhea. 
Chotorhea javensis. C. chrysopsis (? distinct). 

C. corvina. C. versicolor. 

C. chrysopogon. 0. mystacophanes. 

Genus Cyanops. 

Cyanops asiatica. C. ramsayi. 

C. davisoni. C. oorti. 

C. flavifrous. C. monticola. 

C. armillaris. C. nuchalis. 

C. henrici. C. faber. 

C. incognita. C. duvauceli. 

C. pulcherrinia. C. cyanotis. 

C. franklini. C. eximia. 



2J0 Mr. H. E. Dresser on Acredula cauclata 

Genus Xantholjema. 
Xantholfcina hiematocepliala. X. malabarica. 

X. rubricapilla. X. rosea. 

X. australis. X. intermedia. 

Genus Psilopogon. 
Psilopog'on pyrolophus. 



XXIII. — On Acredula caudata and its allied Forms. 
By H. E. Dresser, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

Some two years ago, when Count Salvador! was in London, 
I showed him an example of a peculiar form of Acredula 
received from Greece, where it had been obtained on Mount 
Olympus by Dr. Th. Kriiper. Though generally resembling 
Acredula rosea, it differed in several particulars from that bird. 
Count Salvadori pronounced it to belong, in his opinion, to a 
perfectly distinct species, and urged me to describe it. This 
I was loth to do on the faith of a single S2)ecimen, and I 
elected to wait until I could procure more. But I have as 
yet not succeeded in obtaining another specimen from Greece, 
where it must consequently be a rare bird. When, last 
autumn. Count Salvadori again visited England, he urged 
me to lose no further time in characterizing this bird, and I 
handed it over to him and proposed that he should describe 
it. But this he would not do, and I therefore arranged to 
describe it conjointly with him, which I did at the last meeting 
of the British Ornithologists^ Club in 1892, giving it the name, 
which Count Salvadori suggested, of Acredula macedonica. 
As only a short diagnosis of this species was published in 
the Bulletin of the B.O.C., I take this opportunity of giving 
a fuller description as follows : — 

Acredula macedonica, Salvad. & Dresser, Bull. B. O. C. 

iv. p. XV*. 

^ ad. Fronte et parte media pilei usque ad occiput 
albidis ; lateribus pilei a rostri basi usque ad cervicem 
latissirae nigris ; dorso et corpore supra sicut in A. rosea ; 
genis albidis fusco variis ; gula albida in medio plaga 
fusca ornata, et a pectore fascia pectoral! transversa 

* See also Dr. Bowdler Sharpe's remarks, Bull. B. O. C. v. p. xxiii. 



and its allied Forms. 241 

nigricante divisa ; gastroeo reliquo albido, lateribns, 

abdomine imo^ et subcaudalibiis roseo indutis; alls et 

Cauda sicut in A. rosea coloratis. Long. tot. 5*5 poll., 

culmin. 0"3, alae 2*4, caudse 3"5, tarsi 0'6. 

This new species has the upper parts like Acredula rosea, 

but the black on the sides of the head is much broader and 

extends to the base of the bill, the lores also being black. 

The underparts resemble those of Acredula tephronota on 

account of the dark patch on the throat. The type of this 

species was obtained by Dr. Kriiper on Mount Olympus in 

Macedonia, and is in my own collection. 

The number of Long-tailed Titmice inhabiting the Western 
Palsearctic Region is now increased to six, which are as 
follows : — 

L Acredula caudata (Linn.), which is easily distinguishable 
from having the sides of the crown and entire head 
white. 
Hab. Northern Europe and Northern Asia. 

Of the Long-tailed Titmice which have the sides of the 
head black, two have the centre of the back black and the 
sides rose-coloured, viz. : — 

2. Acredula rosea (Blytli), which has the lores and base of 

the bill white and the underparts white or whitish. 
Hab. British Isles, ranging south to Austria and Northern 
Italy. 

3. Acredula macedonica, Salvad. & Dresser, as above de- 

scribed, which has the lores black and the underparts as 
in Acredula tephronota. 
Hab. Greece. 

One other species has the sides of the head black, but 
differs from nos. 2 and 3 in having the centre of the back 
grey, viz. :— 

4. Acredula irbii, Sharpe & Dresser, which has the under- 

parts as in A. rosea, but differs in having the centre 
of the back grey and not black, atid the centre of the 
crown generally slightly marked with blackish and not 
pure white. 
Hub. Southern Spain, Southern Italy, and Sicily. 



242 On Acrcdula caudata and allied Forms. 

5. AcREDULA TEPHRONOTA (Guiitlier) lesembles A. irbii, 
differing only in having a large blackish patch on the 
centre of the throat. 
Hab. Tuikey in Europe, Asia Minor, ranging into 

Turkestan and Persia. 

According to Dr. Radde (^ Ornis Caucasica,^ p. 144) speci- 
mens from Tiflis and the sources of the Schamchor differ 
from typical A. tephronota, and he describes and figures 
this form under the name of Acredula tephronota, var. lyiajor. 
I have not been o.ble to procure a specimen of this bird for 
comparison, and am therefore unable to say whether it can 
be considered a valid subspecies. There is, however, a Tit- 
mouse from Kuban in the Caucasus, viz. : — 

C. Acredula caucasica, Lorenz [Mecistura irbyi, subsp. cau- 
casica, Lorenz, Beitr. orn. Faun. Nord. Kaukasus, p. 60, 
Nachtrag, 1887), which is specifically distinct. This 
species, of which I possess one specimen from Kuban, 
has the back grey, like A. irbii and A. tephronota, but 
lacks the blackish patch which the latter has on the 
throat, though there are a few pale blackish markings 
on the lower throat. It may, however, be readily dis- 
tinguished by having the forehead j)ale brownish and 
the sides of the crown brown instead of black. It would 
appear from Dr. Radde's remarks (Orn. Cauc. p. 143) 
that it is this species to which he refers under the name 
of Acredula caudata. 
Hab. The northern slopes of the Caucasus. 

I may here remark that Dr. Gadow (Cat. B. Brit. Mus. 
viii. p. 62) states that the Japanese Long-tailed Titmouse, 
A. trivirgata (Temm.), differs from Acredula rosea in having 
the brownish-black band on the sides of the crown in adult 
specimens extending over the loral and nasal region ; but in 
the series I have before me this character does not hold good, 
as in no specimen does the black extend over these parts. 
The only differences I can detect between Acredula trivirgata 
and A. rosea are that the former is smaller than the latter, 
tlie wing measuring 2*2, as against 2'35, and that the black 



The Editor on two Papuan Birds. 243 

hand on the side of the crown is rather broader in A. tri- 
virgata than in A. rosea. But these differences are at best 
very trifling. 



XXIV. — Notes on Paramythia niontinm and Amalocichla 
sclateriaua. By The Editor. 

(Plate VII.) 

Mr. C. W. de Vis, the Curator of the Queensland Museum, 
Brisbane, has, with the consent of the Trustees of that 
Institution, most kindly forwarded to me for examination 
examples of the two remarkable types of the Papuan Avi- 
fauna which he has lately described as Pararnytlda montium 
and Amalocichla sclateriana. Of the former of these, which 
is one of the most remarkable Passerine forms that I have 
ever seen, I am able to give a figure, and I venture to add 
a few notes on both of them, which may be acceptable to 
ornithologists who have not had an opportunity of examining 
these rare birds. 

Mr. de Vis has referred Paramythia montium* to the 
Sturnidie, but I do not think that can be its proper place. 
So far as I can tell from the examination of the single speci- 
men (iu which the wings are not perfect) it has only nine 
primaries, and the tarsi are long, slender, and smooth, quite 
different from those of the Starling-group. But when I ask 
voy^eli where is its natural position I am not able to give a 
satisfactory answer, nor can Dr. Bowdler Sharpe, Avho at my 
request has carefully studied the question, assist me much 
in the matter. There can be no doubt, however, that 
Paramythia is a typical Oscinine bird, with nearly smooth 
tarsi and very feeble rictal bristles. If, as I believe, it 
has only nine primaries, it must come into the Fringilliforra 
Osciiies of the British Museum Catalogue (vol. x. p. 1). Of 
this section the Palseogean families there recognized are the 
Dicseidag, Ampelidse, Hirundinidse, Motacillidaj, and Fringil- 

* First described iu ' Annual Report on British New Guinea ' for 
1890-1 (Brisbane, 1892), y). 95. See also Ann. Queensland Mus. no. 2, 
1). 0; and Ibis, 1892, p. ^348. 



2 It The Editor on two Papuan Birds. 

li(l;v. Parann/f/iia docs not fit in well Avith any of these 
gronps, and must consequently (until further investigation) 
stand l)y itself, as representative of a family, Paramythiidoe, 
coming perhaps nearest to the Am})elicUe and some of the 
Dieandre. 

As the works in which Paramythia are described are not 
readily accessible, I reprint Mr. de Vis's accnrate description 
of this remarkable form to accompany the figure. 




Bill and foot of Paramythia montiiim. 

" Pakamythia, de Vis. 

" Bill shorter than the head, slightly notched at the tip, 
compressed, acuminate ; fore part of upper mandible curving 
gently to the tip ; cnlmen obtuse ; tomium somewhat in- 
flected. Nostril exposed, elongate-ovate, placed in the basal 
half of the nasal groove, with a superior membrane. A few 
small soft rictal hairs. Wing subacnminate, snbelongatc ; 
the first primary in place as long as the eighth ; the third, 
fourth, fifth, and sixth forming the tip of the wing. Tail 
long-er than wing, cuneate. Tarsus moderate, with scutella- 
tion entire. A small bare spot behind the eye. Head 
crested. 

" Pakamythia moxtium, de Vis. (Plate VII.) 
'^ Chin, throat, fore cheek, lore, a narrow superciliary line, 
and a broad frontal crest extending over crown black ; sin- 



The Editor on tvjo Papuan Birds. 245 

ciput and crown cream-white, the latter slightly tinged with 
blue; breast, upper abdomen, thigh, hinder cheek, and a 
broad band across occiput and upper back dull blue ; the 
rest of the upper surface bright olive-green. Lower 
abdomen, vent, under tail-coverts, and a hypochondrial patch 
dull golden yellow. Wing above fuscous, the primaries 
narrowly edged with greenish grey, the rest with olive-green. 
Tail above brown on the inner, dull blue on the outer webs ; 
the median feathers blue on both webs. Lower surface of 
wing and tail brown ; inner webs of remiges obscurely edged 
with ashy grey. fnder wing-coverts ashy grey with dark 
brown tips. Bill black ; legs and feet blackish brown ; iris 
brown. Total length 190-0 millim. ; wing 87-0 ; tail 1100 ; 
bill(gape) IG'O; tarsus 30-0. 

" Hab. Musgrave Range, British New Guinea, 7000-8000 
feet, July 1891 [Sir Wm. Macgregor)." 

As regards Amalocichla sclateriana, which will be found 
described in the same paper, I can only say that I 
think this form rather belongs to the Turdidse than to the 
Timeliidse, as suggested by Mr. de Vis. The wings are short 
and rounded, it is true, but the bill and feet are those of 
Turdus, and the pale fulvous bar on the under surface of the 
remiges seems to betray Geocichline affinities. Lnfortunately 
the only individual of this species obtained is not in perfect 
plumage and is in partial moult. 

I subjoin, for facility of reference, ^[r. de Vis's descrip- 
tion of this rare form : — 

"^ Amalocichla, de Vis. 
" Bill Geocichline, but with the nostril small and placed 
in the anterior end of the nasal groove, and with the under 
mandible straight as far as the tip, which is slightly deflected ; 
mandibular notch shallow. Rictal bristles moderate. Wing 
short, rounded, concave ; first primary about half its length 
shorter than the second ; second to fifth, which is the longest, 
graduated. Tail of twelve feathers, rounded, shorter than 
wing. Tarsus elongate, slender, ocreate. Plumage soft and 
loose. 

SER. VI. VOL. v. s 



246 The Editor on the Proper Use of 

'^ Amalocichla sclateriana^ de Vis. 

" Above rufous brown ; head smoky brown ; the feathers 
of the hind head with fuscous margins. Upper and under 
tail-coverts rufous; chin and throat white, appearing as an 
ill-defined gorget ; the feathers with narrow paler brown 
edges, forming obscure transverse bars. Feathers of the 
upper breast greyish white, with broad smoky-brown margins 
forming an ill-defined pectoral band. Lower breast, sides of 
abdomen, and thighs grey; centre of abdomen white. 
Lores grey mottled with brown ; cheeks, ear-coverts, and 
sides of neck rufous, grading to rufous brown, and edged 
with fuscous brown. Under wing-coverts and surface of 
quills ashy brown, the latter with a large buff spot near the 
base of the inner webs of all but the first three primaries, the 
spots forming a clearly defined band. Bill black; base of 
lower mandible and feet horn-brown. Length 1950 millim. ; 
wing 103-0; tail 71-0; tarsus 47*0; gape 24-0. 

'' Hab. Mount Owen Stanley, British New Guinea." 

Mr. Seebohm, our great authority on the Turdidse, does 
not seem disposed to admit Amalocichla into that family. 
He suggests that it may belong to the Pittidse, which is 
possible, though not, I think, likely. This point, however, 
can be settled only when specimens are obtained for anato- 
mical examination. 



XXV. — JSlote on the Proper Use of the Generic Terms 
Certhiola and Ccereba. By The Editor. 

The American ornithologists have recently caused needless 
confusion by proposing to reject the long-recognized name 
Certhiola of Sundevall, and to use in its place Ccereba of 
Vieillot, a term always hitherto applied to a ditferent genus. 
This has been done (see Eidgway, ' Manual N. A. '&.,' Ap- 
pendix, p. 590) under the mistaken notion that the type of 
Coereba, Vieillot (Ois. de I'Amer. Septentr. ii. p. 70), must 
necessarily be Ccereba fiaveola, as being the only species 
actually named when the original term was first introduced. 



the Generic Terms Certhiola and Coereba. 247 

But it is obvdous on reference to Vieillot's work that the 
term Coereba was intended as a Latin equivalent for the 
'^Guit-Guit^' of Buffon; and the "Guit-Guit " of Buffon was 
primarily the South-American species usually called Coereba 
cyanea, as will be seen by reference to the ' Histoire Naturelle ' 
(V. p. 529). Buffon called the Sugar-birds of the West 
Indies (^Certhiola) by another name, '^Sucrier''^ {op. cit. 
p. 542) . It is therefore quite erroneous to use Coereba for 
the " Sucriers '' instead of the " Guit-Guits.'^ 

On reference to Vieillot's ^ Analyse^ (p. 46), which, although 
not published until 1816, may surely be used to explain 
Vieillot's meaning in his former work, it will be observed 
that the type of the genus Ccereba [op. cit. p, 46) is given as 
the " Guit-Guit '" of Buffon, and that no other species is 
named. I maintain, therefore, that the usage (which I 
followed in the 11th volume of the 'Catalogue of Birds ^) of 
employing Certhiola for the Sugar-birds of the West Indies 
and Coereba for the " Blue Creepers " of South America is 
absolutely correct, and should be followed. And I trust 
that our friends of the American Ornithologists' Union will 
reconsider their determination to reject the former name for 
Coereba, which, as Mr. Ridgway himself expresses it, has been 
'' quite universally employed " by recent authors for a dif- 
ferent genus. 

Such radical changes should be made only on absolutely 
certain grounds, and not when there is a legitimate difl'ereuce 
of opinion on the subject. 

To transfer a name " quite universally employed " from one 
generic type to another renders it absolutely useless as a 
designation for the latter. 

Even according to the canons of nomenclature adopted by 
the A. O. U. it may be argued that Ccereba of Vieillot in- 
cludes both the " Guit-Guits " and the " Sucriers," and that 
Sundevall (K. Vet.-Ak. Handl. 1835, p. 99) had a perfect 
right to restrict that term to the "Guit-Guits" and give a 
new appellation [Certhiola^ to the "^ Sucriers." 



s2 



248 Bulletin of the British 

XXVI. — Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. 
Nos. IV.-VI. 

No. IV. (Dec. 31st, 1892.) 

The third meeting; of the Club was held at the Moua 
Hotel, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, on Wednesday, 
December 21st, 1892. 

Chairman : P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. 

Members present : — E. Bidwell, K. Stephenson Clarke, 
Philip Crowley, H. E. Dresser, H. O. Forbes, W. R. 
Ogilvie-Grant, Lt.-Col. H. L. Irby, St. George Mivart, 
F.R.S., H. J. Pearson, F. Penrose, Howard Saunders 
(Treas.), W. L. Sclater, Henry Seebohm, R. Bowdler 
Sharpe, Rev. H. H. Slater, Capt. Horace Terry, J. F. 
Tristram-Valentine. 

Guests : A. Trevor-Battye, E. Hartert, E. J. Hart. 

The Treasurer announced that the number of Members 
amounted to 78. 

Mr. H. E. Dresser exhibited a specimen of a new species 
of Acredula from Macedonia, which he had received from 
Dr. Kriiper. He proposed to call it 

Acredula macedonica, sp. n. 

A. sirailis A. rosea, sed nigredine pilei lateralis latiore et 
usque ad nares producta, itaque loris nigris et plaga 
gutturali sic ut in A. tephro?iota, distinguenda. Long, 
tot. 5*5 poll., culm. 0'3, alae 2'4, caudfe 3'5, tarsi 0"6. 
Hab. In monte Olympo. 

Mr. Philip Crowley exhibited a nest and egg of Para- 
disea raggiana and the egg of Chlamydodera cerviniventris 
from South-eastern New Guinea; also an egg of Chlamy- 
dodera maculata from Clarence River, N. S. Wales. That 
of C. cerviniventris had been procured by Mr. Goldie at Milne 
Bay, S.E. New Guinea. The Paradisea was stated to build 
in shrubs from about 15 to 20 feet in height, and the egg 



Ornitholoyists' Club. 249 

resembled that of Paradisea apoda figured by Dr. Meyer 
from the Aru Islands (Zeitsclir. ges. Orn. i. Taf. xvii. fig. 2) . 

Mr. A. Trevor-Battye exhibited some skins of Parus 
borealls and P. palustris from Sweden, and made some 
remarks on the different habits and notes of the two species 
as observed by him in that country. Remarks on this subject 
were made by Mr. Howard Saunders, Rev. H. H. Slater, 
Mr. Ernst Hartert, and Mr. H. J. Pearson. 

The Hon. Walter Rothschild sent for exhibition the 
type of the remarkable new genus, Palmeria mirabilis, from 
Mauai, Sandwich Islands, as well as the types of Loxops 
ochracea and Hemignathus affinis, the descriptions of which 
would appear in ' The Ibis ' for January 1893. 

Mr. Ernst Hartert exhibited an example of a new Conurus 
obtained by him on the island of Aruba, which he proposed 
to call 
- Conurus arubensis, sp. n. 

Conurus C. (Erug'moso simillimus, sed fronte pallidiore, loris, 
capitis lateribus et gula Isetioribus et conspicue luteo vel 
aureo tinctis distinguendus. Al. 5*4 poll., caud. 5. 
This new form might be called intermediate between 
C pertinax and C. ceruginosus. Mr. Hartert had obtained 
four skins, which he had compared with a good many skins of 
both C. (eruginosus and C. pertinax in Mus. H. v. Berlepsch, 
the British Museum, and the Rothschild Museum. 
Hab. Aruba, West Indies. 

Dr. P. L. ScLATER exhibited a specimen of an extra- 
ordinary bird from South-eastern New Guinea, Paramythia 
montium, De Vis (Ann. Queensl. Mus. No. 2, p. 6). This 
species had been discovered by Sir William Macgregor on 
Mount Suckling, and placed by Mr. de Vis in the family 
Sturnidce ; but it was doubtful whetlier its affinities lay with 
the Starlings. 

The Hon. Walter Rothschild sent for exhil)ition a typical 
specimen of a new Duck, which he proposed to call 



250 Bulletin of the British 

Anas laysanensis, sp. n. 

Bill blackish ; top of the head and hind neck deep blackish 
brown ; sides of the head more mottled with brown ; round 
the eye a white ring; interscapular region, scapulars, and wing- 
coverts light rusty brown, boldly variegated with blackish ; 
feathers of the back and rump blackish, edged with rufous 
brown and with more or less conspicuous pale shaft-lines ; 
upper tail-coverts and rectrices light brown, barred with 
blackish ; primaries pale brown, with very light edges ; chin 
Avhitish ; feathers of the rest of the lower parts light rusty 
brown, irregularly barred and spotted with darker brown ; 
feet yellow. In the male there is a conspicuous deep green 
and black speculum, bordered with white below ; in the 
female the speculum is only indicated, the primary-coverts 
being edged with white. Total length 15 to 17 inches, wing 
7*5 to 7'7 , tail 3'5, culmen 16, tarsus V9. 

Hah. Island of Laysan, North Pacific. 

Mr. Henry Seebohm exhibited two examples (<^ and ? ) 
of a Crossoptilon which he regarded as representing an 
undescribed species. He proposed to call it 

Crossoptilon leucurum. 
C. similis C. tibetano, sed rectricibus albis nigro terminatis 
( ^ ) aut marginatis ( ? ) distinguendum. 

These examples had been obtained by Captain Bower and 
Dr. Thorold in Eastern Tibet between the Sok Pass and 
Chiamdo. Similar specimens had been obtained by Prince 
Henry of Orleans and Monsieur Bonvalot on the plateau 
between the Sok Pass and Lhassa. Still further to the 
south, 150 miles east of Lhassa, Avas found C. harmani, of 
which a drawing was exhibited. East of Chiamdo and 
Batang, examples of 6'. tibetanum had been found by the 
Abbe David in Moupin, and by Mr. Pratt at Ta-chien-loo, and 
examples from both localities were exhibited. The range of 
this species seemed to overlap that of C. leucurum in East 
Tibet, but the latter was not known to extend into Western 
China. Examples of C. auritum collected by General Prje- 
valski on the i)iateau east of Koko-Nor, and the type of 



Ondtkoloyista' Club. 251 

C. numchuricum obtained by the Abbe David on the plateau 
west of Pekin^ were laid on the table for comparison. 

Dr. BowDLER Sharpe exhibited a specimen of an appa- 
rently new species of Rhlpidura from the island of Dammar^ 
in the Banda Sea, where it had been procured by Dr. Bassett 
Smith during the recent voyage of H.M.S. 'Penguin' : — 

Rhipidura buettikoferi, sp. n. 
7?. similis R.setosce, sed ubique saturatior, nigricanti-brunnea, 
nee grisea, et rectricibus duabus exterioribus longiiis 
albo terminatis. Long. tot. 6"8 poll., culm. OT, alse 3"4, 
caudse 'S'4, tarsi 0*65. 
According to the describer^s arrangement in the ' Cata- 
logue of Birds,' the species would fall in the " Key " to the 
species of Rhipidura (vol. iv. pp. 303-308) close to R. setosa 
(/. c. p. 329) ; but it differed from the latter in being blackish 
brown instead of ashy grey, and the while on the tail was 
much more extended. Under Count Salvadori^s arrange- 
ment (Orn. Papuasia, ii. p. 53) of the genus Rhipidura, the 
Dammar species would also be closely allied to R. setosa. 
According, however, to the most recent disposition of the 
genus by Mr, Biittikofer (Notes Leyden Mus. xv. pp. 65-98), 
the new species would come into a different section from 
R. setosa, because the upper surface could never be considered 
to be " pure ashy grey ; " on the contrary, the colour of the 
upper parts was dark chocolate-brown, almost blackish. Thus, 
to follow Mr. Biiltikofer, the species would come next to 
R. isura ; but here again, as in the case of R. setosa, the dark 
brown colour — instead of grey — would at once separate it. 
Dr. Sharpe added that Count Salvadori agreed with him 
that the species was new to science, and he wished to apologize 
to Mr. Biittikofer for not having shown him the specimen 
during his recent visit to London, as, though it had been 
specially put aside for his examination, it had been mislaid. 

Dr. BowDLER Sharpe also exhibited the types of the 
species of Hainan birds described by Mr. Styan at the first 
Meeting of the Club on October 19th, 1892, which had been 



25.2 Bulletin of the British 

forwarded by him for examination. ]\Ir. Styan had already 
discovered that lihCri/ptolopha Z)iCo/o?'was not aCri/ptolopha, 
but was Herpornis tyrannulas of Swinhoe. Of the other 
species Dr. Sharpe found iha,t Pinarocichla schmackeri, Styan, 
was Crtniger pallidus of Swinhoe C^Ibis/ 1870, p. 252; cf. 
Sharpe, Cat. B. vi. p. 81). The Cnjpsii'hina nigra was a 
Temnurus, a form which had remained uniqne in the Paris 
Museum since 1825. The original species, Temnurus trun- 
catus, was said to have come from Cochin Chiua, but had 
never been met with since. It was, however, extremely pro- 
bable that the geims Temnurus would be found both in Cochin 
China and Hainan, for Mr. Schmacker's collection conclu- 
sively proved (if, indeed, any further proof were necessary 
after Swinhoc's researches) that Hainan formed an integral 
part of tiie Indo-Chinese Region ; such species as Harpacte.s 
erythrocephalus, lanthcenas punicevs, and Siphia paUidipes, 
which were true Himalayan forms, proclaiming Hainan to 
be connected with the Himalayan subregion. Whether 
Temnurus niger would prove to be conspecific with Temnurus 
truncatus could only be determined by a comparison of it 
with the types in Paris. 

Dr. Sharpe next made some remarks on a remarkable 
paper recently published by Dr. Hartlaub, entitled "Vier 
seltcne Eallen^' (Abhaudl. nat. Ver. Bremen, xii. Heft 3, 
pp. 389-402) . In this paper Dr. Hartlaub had discussed Rallus 
monasa of Kittlitz from Kuschai, and proposed the generic 
name oi Kittlitzia for the bird. Dr, Sharpe pointed out that 
this generic name had already been employed by Mr. Hartert 
for the Starling of Kuschai, which Kittlitz called Caloimis 
corvina [cf. Hartert, ' Kat. Vogelsamml. Senckenb. Mus.' 
p. 75). He proposed, therefore, to change the name of 
Kittlitzia, Hartlaub {nee Hartert), to Aphanolimnas , the 
characters being the same as those so fully set forth by 
Dr. Hartlaub in his paper. 

Of the second species mentioned by Dr. Hartlaub, Pennula 
ecaudato (King), a specimen was placed upon the table from 
the collection of the Hon. Walter Hothschild, who had kindly 



Ornitholofjists' Club. 253 

lent it for the occasion. In his paper Dr. Hartlaub had 
mentioned that there were five specimens extant of this rare 
and probably extinct species, four of which were in Hono- 
lulu, and one in the Cambridge Museum. Mr. Rothschild 
had stated, in a memorandum, that, so far as he was aware, 
only one specimen remained in Honolulu, and that of the 
other four, one was in Cambridge, one in Mexico, and the 
remaining two in his own Museum at Tring. Dr. Sharpe 
suggested that Dr. Hartlaub's third species of Rail, Rnllus 
sandwichensis, Gm., — which was evidently a Pennula, and 
should be called Pennula sandwichensis (Gm.) — was really the 
same as Pennula ecaudata (King). The fourth species — which 
Dr. Hartlaub had also included in the genus Pennula — was the 
Porzanula palmeri of Frohawk, a specimen of which had been 
also lent for exhibition by Mr. Rothschild. Dr. Sharpe differed 
from Dr. Hartlaub as to the location of this species in the 
genus Pennula, and contended that it must be retained in 
the genus Porzanula, as it was much nearer to true Porzana 
than to any of the other Ralline genera, but possessed cha- 
racters of sufficient generic value to warrant its separation. 

Mr. H. O. Forbes stated that he had recently received 
from his correspondent Mr. Hawkins a specimen of Cabalus 
modestus of Hutton, from the island of Mangare in the 
Chatham group. The specimen was evidently that of a young 
bird, and Mr. Forbes had no doubt that Cabalus modestus 
was only the young of Cabalus dieffenbachi. 

Dr. BowDLER Sharpe announced that he had intended to 
speak about the classification and distribution of the Rails, 
but, owing to the lateness of the hour, this communication 
was postponed till the meeting in January. 

Mr. H. O. Forbes exhibited the osteological remains of 
several of the species of birds he had discovered in the 
Chatham Islands, lying 500 miles to the east of Banks Penin- 
sula, Xew Zealand. He pointed out that the species he had 
(' Nature,^ xlvi. p. 252j assigned to the genus Aphanapteryx, 



254 Bulletin of the British 

and named A. hatvkinsi (after his correspondent who had 
brought him the first fragments of its cranium) , he was now 
inclined to place in a new genus_, which he proposed (at the 
suggestion of Prof. A. Newton^ F.E-.S.) to call Diaphorapteryx 
(Sia^opo9=: different). Diapho7'apteryx hawkinsi belonged to 
the Ocydromine group of the Rallidse, and was nearly related 
not only to Ocydromus itself, but even more closely to Aphan- 
apteryx of Mauritius. It appeared, indeed, to be nearer to 
Aphanapteryx than the latter genus was lo Erythromachus of 
Rodriguez. 

Erythromachus differed from Diaphorapteryx and Aphan- 
apteryx in the greater length of its nasal aperture, which was 
less than one third of the length of the beak inDiaphorajAeryx. 
The latter also differed from both these genera and from 
Ocydromus in the large protuberances on the basi-temporal 
region of the skull ; and from Ocydromus in its widely sepa- 
rated palatine bones, which, as they did not meet posteriorly 
in the middle line, disclosed the whole of the post-vomerine 
parasphenoidal rostrum as seen from the palatal surface. It 
had a strong, thick, short tarso-metatarsus, shorter than the 
metatarsus as figured by M. Milne-Edwards in his ' Oiseaux 
Possiles de France.^ The beak was highly arched — as in 
Aphanapteryx and Erythromachus, — and was longer than 
the tarso-metatarsus. 

Palceocorax moriorum. — This species of the Corvidse, 
established on the wing- and limb-bones, had been originally 
placed in the genus Corvus {cf. ' Nature,^ xlvi. p. 252), as 
these bones presented no characters distinguishing them from 
those of the most typical Crow. The cranium, however, 
differed from that of every known species of that genus, so 
that Mr. Forbes had found it necessary to establish a new 
genus, Palceocorax, for its reception. 

There were present minute rudiments of the basipterygoid 
processes on the parasphenoid. The vomer was broad, flat, 
three-pointed in front. The maxillaries were anchylosed to 
the premaxillaries; the latter were anchylosed to the expanded 
ossified base of the nasal septum. The ossified mesethmoid 
stretched backward and was lodged in the concavity of the 



Ormtholoyists' Club. 255 

upper surface of the vomer, so that it presented a form in- 
termediate between the complete aegithognathous Coraco- 
morphffij such as Corvus, and the compound segitliognathous 
forms, such as Gymnoi'hina, in which desmognathism was 
superadded by " anchylosis of the inner edge of the maxil- 
laries with a highly ossified alinasal wall and nasal septum " 
( Parker) . 



No. V. (Jan. 26th, 1893.) 

The fourth meeting of the Club was held at the Kestaurant 
Frascati, 32 Oxford Street, on Wednesday, the 18th of 
January, 1893. 

Chairman : P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. 

Members present : — E. Bidwell, R. Stephenson Clarke, 
W. R. Ogilvie-Grant, Col. L. Howard Irby, H. J. Pear- 
son, P. Penrose, Evelyn Rawson, W. L. Sclater, Howard 
Saunders [Treas.), R. Bowdler Sharpe, H. Seebohm, 
J. Young. 

Guest : C. E. Baker. 

The Treasurer reported that the number of Members 
amounted to 79. 

A letter was read from Count Salvador! commenting on 
some of the communications made to the last meeting of the 
Club, and expressing an opinion that Cabalus modestus of 
Hutton would be found to be distinct from C. dieffenbachi. 

The Editor expressed his regret that, by an oversight, the 
name of Count Salvadori had not been attached to the de- 
scription of Acredula macedonica in the last number of the 
' Bulletin.'' He accepted the responsibility and apologized for 
this omission, which was caused by a misunderstanding on 
his part, and stated that the species should be called Acredula 
macedonica of Salvadori and Dresser. 



256 Bulletin of the British 

Mr. Howard Saunders exhibited a mature male Scoter 
[CEdemia nigra), shot by Mr. Chas. Fowler, of Chichester, 
in August 1891. Mr. Fowler stated that he had seen the 
two old birds, off and on, all the summer, without thiuking 
of the probability of their breeding ; but that early in August 
he had come upon them with a brood of seven nestlings just 
able to fly a short distance, and had shot the drake (see Zool. 
189.2, pp. 151, 228). On making inquiries he was told that 
the Scoter nested in Earnsley Marshes every year. 

Mr. ScLATER exhibited a prepared wing and tail of the 
Martineta Tinamou [Calodromas elegans), and pointed out 
that this form of the Tinamidse had 12 rectrices, although 
these feathers could not be discriminated from the adjacent 
coverts without careful examination. 

There were 10 raetacarpo-digitals and 15 cubitals in the 
wing. The fifth cubital remex was present and well deve- 
loped, as in all the Tinami (see 'Ibis/ 1890, p. 82). There 
were 3 feathers on the pollex {alula spuria) . 

Mr. ScLATER read an extract from a letter addressed to 
him by Dr. G. Hartlaub, in which Dr. Hartlaub pointed out 
that Dr. Bowdler Sharpe was in error in suggesting (Bull. 
B. O. C. iv. p. xx) that Pennula ecaudata (King) and P. 
sandivichensis (Gm.) were identical. Dr. Hartlaub had com- 
pared the Cambridge specimen of the former with the Leyden 
specimen of the latter, and had found them distinct. The 
notseum of P. sandivichensis was marked by great blackish 
spots, whereas in P. ecaudata the upper parts were of a uni- 
form brown. It was possible that Latham's " Dusky Rail '' 
might belong to P. sandivichensis and not to P. ecaudata. 

A communication was read from the Hon. Walter 
BoTHSCHiLD containing the descri|)tion of a new species 
of Hemignathus from the island of Lanai in the Sandwich 
group. He proposed for it the name of 

Hemignathus lanaiensis, sp. n. 
H. simiUs H. obscuro, sed rostro valde longiore et crassiore, 



Ornithologists' Club. 257 

pileo cinerascente, iiotaeo sordidiore olivascenti-viridi, 
pectore sordide flavo, liypocliondriis sordide olivascenti- 
bus, et subcaudalibus albicantibus, distingueudus. Long, 
alse 3- 1-3-3 poll., culm. 2-9-3-1. 
Hab. in insula Sandwichensi ' Lanai ' dicta. 
Mr. Rothschild's communication contained the following 
remarks on this new bird : — 

" This species belongs to the typical section of Hemi- 
gnathus, which, in my opinion, includes two different species 
from the island of Kauai, one from Hawai, and one from 
Oahu, in addition to the new species. They all have the 
upper and lower mandible of about the same leng-th, while 
the aberrant Heterorhynchus-sectlon, which now contains 
four species, has the upper mandible nearly twice the length 
of the lower. 

" The male differs from the same sex of H. obscurus (its 
nearest ally) from Hawai in its much longer and very stout 
bill, ashy-greyish tint of the crown, and much duller oliva- 
ceous green of the back, neck, and rump. Breast dirty 
yellow, gradually passing into dull olive on the flanks, in- 
stead of bright yellowish olive as in H. obscurus. Under 
tail-coverts creamy white, instead of olive-green. 

" Female. Everywhere dull greyish olive, becoming more 
yellowish on the abdomen and under tail-coverts. Throat and 
cheeks dull greyish. 

'' Young male. Similar to the adult male, but all the colours 
strongly suffused with an ochraceous tinge. 

" Iris dark brown ; bill blackish brown, greyish at the 
base ; feet and legs bright slaty blue, soles of the feet yel- 
lowish. Wing 3*1 to 3*3 inches, culmen 2*9 to 3*1 (much 
longer than that of H. obscurus) ." 

Mr. Henry Seebohm exhibited two males, a female, and 
a young male in first plumage of a new species of Merula, 
which he proposed to call 

Merula w^hiteheadi, sp. n. 
Supra brunnea, capite canescente, abdomine castaneo, ventre 
medio albo, subcaudalibus albo striatis. 



258 Bulletin of the British 

The specimens had been procured near Tozari in East Java, 
7000 feet above sea-level, in August and September 1886, by 
Mr. John Whitehead. 

Mr. Seebohm also made some critical remarks on a recent 
paper by Mr. Bvittikofer on the same group of Thrushes 
(Notes Leyd. Mus. xv. p. 109), and exhibited the type 
specimen of Merula papuensis of De Vis, which had been 
lent to him by the describer for illustration in his forth- 
coming ' Monograph of the Turdidoe.' 

Mr. Seebohm next exhibited and made remarks upon a 
specimen of a new species of Zosterops from East Java, 
procured by INIr. John Whitehead in 1886. This species he 
proposed to call 

Zosterops neglecta, sp. n. 
Similis Z. palpebrosa, sed magis olivasccns, et macula ante- 
oculari obscuriore distinguenda. 

This made the sixth species of Zosterops found in the 
island of Java. 

Dr. BowDLER Shakpe read a paper on the Classification 
of the RaUidce. He pointed out that the popular division 
of the family into Rails, Gallinules, and Coots was an un- 
tenable one, the Coots alone having definite characters for 
their separation as a subfamily, and that even these characters 
were approached by those of the Gallinules. It seemed, 
therefore, best to keep the whole of the Rails together as a 
family, and not to recognize minor divisions such as those 
specified. The gradual transition from typical Rails to 
Crakes (e. g. Eidabeornis — Rallina), and from Crakes to 
Gallinules {Limnobanus and Amaurornis to Gallinula), was so 
marked that it was impossible to say where the Rails ended 
and the Crakes began, or where the Crakes ended and the 
Gallinules began. 

According to Dr. Sharpe's views, the Rails were an ancient 
group of birds, which were once more numerously distri- 
buted, especially in the southern hemisphere. Many of the 
surviving representatives of the family, from their isolation 



Ornithologists' Club. 259 

and restricted habitats, had become modified in structure, 
and a mnch larger number of generic forms existed than 
had hitherto been supposed. 

The following were the genera which Dr. Sharpe 
proposed to recognize: — 1. Rallus, L.; 2. Limnopurdalus, 
Cab. ; 3. Hyijotfeyiidia, lleiclienb. ; 4. Cabalus, Ilutton ; 
5. Eulabeornis, Gould ; G. Tricholimnas, gen. n. ; 7. Gym- 
nocrex, Salvad.; 8. Aramides, Pucher. ; 9. Megacrex, Salvad. ; 
10. Habroptila, Gray ; 11. Ocydromus, Wagl. ; 12. Ajjhun- 
apteryx, Frauenf. ; 13. Diaphorapteryx, Forbes ; 14. Ery- 
thromachus, Milne-Edwards ; 15. Hirnantornis, Schl. ; 16. 
Dryolimnus, gen. n. ; 17. Canir alius, Hartl. ; 18. Rallina, 
Rciehenb.; 19. Castanolimnas,gen.n.; 20. Crecopsis,gen.Ti.; 
21. Crex, Bechst. ; 22. (Enolimnas, gen. u. ; 23. Amaurolim- 
nas, gen. n. ; 24. Anurolimnas, gen. n. ; 25. Zapornia, Leach; 
26. Porzana, Vieill. ; 27. Pennula, Dole ; 28. Aphanolimnas, 
Sharpe ; 29. Corethrura, Reiehenb. ; 30. Rallicula, Schl. ; 
31. T/iyror/iina, Scl. & Salv. ; 32. Ortygops, Heine; 33. 
Poliolimnas, gen. n. ; 34. Purzanula, P'rohawk ; 35. Crecis- 
CM.9, Cab.; 36. Z/mnot'oraa;^ Swains.; 37. Limnoi^enMs, Sund. ; 
38. Amaurornis, lleiclienb. ; 39. Rougetius, Bp. ; 40. A^eo- 
crex, Scl. & Salv. ; 41. Tribonyx, Du Bus ; 42. Micro- 
tribonyx, gen. n. ; 43. Pareudiastes, Hartl. & Finsch ; 44. 
Porphyriornis, Allen ; 45. Gallinula,^nss. ; 46. Porphyriops, 
Pucher. ; 47. Gallicrex, Blytli ; 48. Psammocrex, Oust. ; 
49. lonornis, Reichenb. ; 50. Porphyrio, J^riss. ; 51. Notornis, 
Mantell ; 52. Fulica, Briss. ; 53. Leguatia, Schl. Besides 
these genera there were a few fossil forms, the exact position 
of which it was difficult to decide upon. 

Dr. Sharpe stated that he had lately examined the type 
specimen of Gallirallvs brachypterus, from the Caen Museum. 
For the loan of the specimen he was indebted to Professor 
Joyeux-Laffine, the Director of that Museum. Dr. Sharpe 
pointed out that the species had been the subject of 
much controversial opinion, but was evidently the same 
as Gallirallus fuscus of Du Bus^ which must therefore be 
known as Ocydromus brachypterus (Lafr.). The species 
identified l)y Sir Walter BuUer as 0. brachypterus, and 



260 Bulletin of the British 

figured as such in his ' Birds of New Zealand/ had in 
consequence been wrongly determined. 

The following were the characters of the new genera 
proprosed by Dr. Sharpe : — 

TricholimnaSj gen. n. Simile generi '' Eulabeornis " dicto, sed 
tectricibus alarum maxime elongatis, remiges ipsos 
celantibusj distinguendum. 

Typus T. lafresnayanus (Verr.). 

Dryolimnas, gen. n. Simile generi " Canirallus " dicto et 
culmine longiore quam digitus internus cum ungue^ sed 
naribus longitudinalibus angustissimis^ apertura nasali 
vix evidente, distinguendum. 

Typus D. cuvieri (Pucher.). 

Castanolimnas, gen. n. Simile generi " Rallina " dicto, sed 
secundariis primariisque sequalibus, et tectricibus alarum 
elongatis, remigibus albo f asciatis, et rectricibus mollibus 
decompositis, distinguendum. 

Typus C. canningi (Blyth). 

Crecopsis, gen. n. Simile prsecedeuti, sed dorso variegato, 
remigibus concoloribus, et remigibus rectricibusque nor- 
malibus distinguendum. 

Typus C egregia (Peters). 

(Enolimnas, gen. n. Simile generi " Crex '^ dicto, sed ptilosi 
concolori baud variegata, et rectricibus latissimis, ad 
apicem decompositis distinguendum. 

Typus (E. isabellinus (Schl.). 

Amaurolimnas, gen. n. Simile generi ""Crex " dicto, sed rostro 
longiore, culmine digito iuterno sequali, distinguendum. 
Typus A. concolor (Gosse). 

Anurolimnas, gen. n., digito medio cum ungue longiore 
quam culmen, rectricibus baud evidentibus, mollibus, 
decompositis, a tectricibus caudalibus celatis, distinguen- 
dum. 

Typus A. castaneiceps (Scl. & Salv.). 

PoLiOLiMNAs, gen. n. Simile generi '^ Porzana " dicto, sed 
secundariis primariisque sequalibus, alis pedibusque 
fortibus, illis tarso et digitis sequantibus, distinguen- 
dum. 

Typus P. cinereus (V.). 



Ornithuloyists' Club. 261 

MicROTRiBONYx, gen, n. Simile geueri " Tribonyx " dlcto, 
sed alis robustis, primariis quam cubitales longioribus, 
distinguendum. 

Typus M. ventralis (Gould). 



By permission of the Hon. Walter Rothschild, Dr. 
Sharpe was enabled to lay on the table some specimens 
of Ocydromi belonging to the Rothschild Museum. These 
were from the Buller collection^ and were supposed to 
illustrate the species of Ocydromus recognized by Sir Walter 
Buller in his second edition of the ' Birds of New Zealand ' ; 
but Dr. Sharpe found it very difficult to follow the author in 
his conclusions^ and infinitely preferred the more simple 
view as to the number of species which had been adopted in 
the first edition of the ' Birds of New Zealand.' 

In the second edition Sir Walter Buller, after discussing 
at some length the number of species, which had been 
debated between Professor Hutton and himself, had come 
to the conclusion that five should be recognized, viz. : — 
0. greyi, sp. nov. ; O. fuscus (Du Bus) ; O. earli, Gray ; 
0. australis (Sparrman) ; and 0. hrachypterus (Lafr.). The 
plates in Sir Walter Buller's work did not help much 
towards the identification of the species ; for although in 
nearly every case the actual specimens figured were now in 
the Rothschild collection, it was almost impossible to re- 
cognize them in the chromo-lithographic plates themselves. 
The question was further complicated by the misleading way 
in which the species were arranged in the book referred to. 
Thus, between O. greyi and 0. earli (the latter not being 
even figured) was interposed O. fuscus, the most distinct of all 
the Weka Rails ; so that the idea was conveyed that 0. greyi 
of Buller and 0. earli of Gray were widely diff'erent species, 
whereas Dr. Sharpe stated that, in his opinion, they were not 
distinguishable. Sir Walter Buller wished to restrict the true 
0. earli to the South Island, because it seemed to be identical 
with some specimens procured by Mr. Reischek in the latter 
island. As a matter of fact, however, the type-specimen of 
0. earli was a young bird ; and even if there were two species 

SER. VI. — VOL. v. T 



2G2 Bulletin of the British 

inhabiting the North and South Islands respectively, Dr. 
Sharpe maintained that it would be perfectly impossible to say 
to which of these species the young birds belonged. After 
comparing two of Mr. Reischck's South-Island specimens 
in the Rothschild collection, supposed by Sir Walter BuUer 
to be the true O. earli, with the series of so-called O. greyi 
from the Nortli Island, Dr. Sharpe admitted his inability to 
separate them even as races. With regai'd to 0. australis 
the question of races was much more difficult, and at first 
sight it would appear that two well-defined forms coiild be 
distinguished — one a sandy-tinted bird, and the other a 
cinnamon-tinted one. Between these two, however, there 
appeared to be every possible link and gradation of colour; 
so that it was impossible to define any races or subspecies. 
Sir Walter Bullcr, in liis second edition, had indeed hinted 
that altitude and locality had something to do with the 
variations in plumage ; but the want of labels and definite 
localities in the specimens of the Bullcr collection prevented 
Dr. Sharpe from drawing any satisfactory conclusion. 

While speaking of the genus Ocydromiis, Dr. Sharpe 
remarked that the so-called Ocydromus sylvestris, Sclater, 
from Lord Howe Island, was not an Ocydromus in his 
opinion, but a Cabahis, congeneric with Cabalus dieffenbachi 
from the Chatham Islands, and should therefore be called 
Cabalus sylvestris. 

Mr. Seebohm made remarks on the Geographical Distri- 
bution of British Birds, recognizing 401 species and 13 sub- 
species as having more or less claim to be admitted to the 
list. 



No. VI. (March 1st, 1893.) 

The fifth meeting of the Club was held at the Restaurant 
Frascati, 32 Oxford Street, on Wednesday, the loth of 
Fcl)ruary, 1893. 



Ornithologists' Club. 2G3 

Chairman: P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. 
Members present :— E. BrowELL, II. E. Dresser, H O 
Forbes, W. R. Ogilvie-Grant, Col. L. Howard Irbv, 
Dr. St. George Mivart, F.R.S., E. Neale, H. J. Pearson 
F. Penrose, Capt. Savile Reid, Howard Saunders [Treas.), 
R. BowDLER Sharpe, Henry Seebohm, J. T. Tristram- 
Valentine. 

Guests: C. Fletcher, Ernst Hartert, Charles Hose. 

Mr. H. E. Dresser exhibited on behalf of Mr. John 
Whitehead a specimen of a Cryptolopha from the island of 
Palawan, which Dr. Sharpe had identified as Cryptolopha 
mantis {cf. ' Ihh/ 1888, p. 199). Mr. Whitehead, however, 
had proposed to separate it from the Kina-Balu species, on 
account of its yellow rump, and to call it 

Cryptolopha xanthopygia, sp. n. 

Similis C. mantis, sed rostro crassiore et uropygio sulphureo 
distinguenda. ^ 

Hab. in montibus insulae Palawanensis. 

Mr. Seebohm exhibited an egg supposed to be that of the 
Knot {Tringa canutus) taken near Disco in Greenland. 

A communication was read from Mr. Osbert Salvin, 
F.R.S., on two new species of birds from Nicaragua, as 
follows : — 

''In a collection of birds recently sent by Mr. W. B. 
Richardson from Nicaragua, several interesting species' are 
represented which, so far as I know, have not hitherto been 
noticed in Nicaragua. Thus we find Thryophilus costari- 
censis, the Costa- Rican form of T. castaneus, as well as T. tho- 
racicus and Thryothorus atrigularis, both of which, however 
have been noticed at Greytown. Skins of a Cyphorhinus 
from Santo Domingo, in Chontales, differ from C. lawrencii 
and may be described as 

-*" "Cyphorhinus richardsoni, sp. n. 

" S C. lawrencii affinis, sed supra pallidior, et loris, sicut 
gula, distincte castancis, necnon tectricibus alarum 
minoribus vix transfasciatis, distingucndus. 

t2 



264 Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. 

" Mr. Eichardson also sends a specimen o£ Piprites gri- 
seiceps from San Carlos, which is only the second we have 
seen ; and, along with several interesting Formicariidse, an 
example o£ a new Rhopoterpe, a genus not yet included in 
the Central- American fauna. This we propose to call 

+ " Rhopoterpe stictoptera, sp. n. 

r " J R. torquatie affinis et ejusdem staturse, necnon coloribus 

plerumque similis ; sed capite summo obscuriore, 

uropygio et cauda fuscescentioribus, remigibus in pogo- 

^ nio externo ad apicem cervino distincte notatis, maculis 

i celatis in pogonio interno cervinis (nee albis), et tec- 

tricibus majoribus late cervino terminatis distinguendus. 

" Hab. Nicaragua ; Santo Domingo. 

*^We also find in Mr. Richardson's collection a single 
specimen of Conurusfinschi, originally described from Panama 
specimens ; and a pair, taken at Leon, of the pretty little 
Gampsomjx swainsoni, a well-known bird in South America, 
but quite new to the Central- American fauna.'' 

A second communication from Mr. Salvin related to a 
new species of Petrel. 

In the collection of birds made by Mr. Hawkins on the 
Chatham Islands were two specimens of an (Estrelata be- 
longing to a species allied to CE. cooki, but which differed 
in several marked characters. The skins were not quite 
adult, but were marked male and female ; the birds had 
been shot on the south-east island on the 8th of May, 1892. 
Mr. Salvin proposed to describe the species as follows : — 

-^ (Estrelata axillaris, sp. n. 

CE. cooki aflfiuis, sed minor ; rostro breviore et magis robusto ; 
supra pallidior, tectricibus alarum mediis cinerascentibus 
albo limbatis, rectricibus lateralibus magis cinereis ; 
axillaribus et tectricibus subalaribus secundariis nigris : 
rostro nigro, pedibus carneis, digitis et palamis plerum- 
que nigris ad basin carneis. Long, tota circa 12-0 poll., 
alffi 8-3, caudae rectr. med. 3-8, rectr. lat. 3-2, rostri a 
rictu 1-3, tarsi 1-2, dig. med. cum ungue I'S. 
Hab. Chatham Islands. 



Recently published Ornithological Works. 265 

Mr. E. Hartert exhibited the type-specimens of Hemi- 
gnathus lanaiensis, Rothschild, from Lanai, described at the 
last Meeting of the Club, as well as examples of its 
nearest allies. 

Mr. Hartert also exhibited the skin of a Goose, supposed 
by him to be a hybrid between Bernicla brenta and Anser 
albifrons. 

Mr, Henry Seebohm gave a short explanation of a theory 
propounded by Dr. Nicholski, of St. Petersburg, to account 
for the variations in the shape of birds' eggs. 

Mr. W. R. Ogilvie-Grant made some remarks on the 
classification of the Game-Birds and on the changes of the 
plumage in the Tetraonida. 

Mr. ScLATER drew attention to the protected district 
round Aden as being very convenient for an ornithological 
excursion, and a place where it was evident, from Lieut. 
Barnes's recent article in ' The Ibis,' that much more good 
work remained to be done. 



XXVII. — Notices of recent Ornithological Publications. 

[Continued from p. 150.] 
48. BUttikofer on the Species o/Rhipidura. 

[A Review of the Genus Hhijndiira, with an Enumeration of the Speci- 
mens in the Leyden Museum. By J. Biittikofer. Notes Leydeu 3Ius. 
XV. p. 65.] 

Mr. Biittikofer gives a complete list, with diagnoses, of 
the species of this numerous Oriental genus of Muscicapidse, 
and excellent critical notes on those of which he has ex- 
amined specimens. He includes Leucocerca, Neomyias, and 
Sauloprocta in the genus Rhipidura, and recognizes 78 
species, of which 5 are now described as new, namely, R. ce- 
lebensis and R. teysmanni, from Celebes ; R. sumbavensis, 
from Sumbava; R. rosenbergi, from Aru; and R. hoedti, 
from Lettic, Timor group. 



266 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

49. Cory's ' Catalogue of West-Indian Birds' 

[Catalogue of West-Indian Birda, containing a List of all Species known 
to occur in the Bahama Islands, the Greater Antilles, the Caymans, and 
the Lesser Antilles, excepting the Islands of Tobago and Trinidad. By 
Charles B. Cory. 4to. Boston : 1892.] 

Mr. Cory's new ' Catalogue of West-Indian Birds ' is 
another valuable contribution to our knowledge of the avi- 
fauna of the Antillean Subregion, which the author has long 
made a subject of successful study. In his preface Mr. Cory 
divides the West Indies into three groups — the Bahamas, the 
Greater Antilles, ana tUc Lesser Antilles. To the first 
category are attributed 33 component islands, to the second 
17, and to the third 33, making altogether 83 islands, which 
have been more or less critically examined by Mr. Cory and 
his collectors — operations which have resulted in a splendid 
series of from 14,000 to 15,000 specimens of birds. 

Mr. Cory commences with a " table of genera and species 
peculiar to the West Indies," and a complete list of ornitho- 
logical publications on the subject, arranged first geographic- 
ally and then chronologically. The former of these enables 
one to see at a glance what work has been done in the case 
of each individual island, and will be very useful to future 
investigators. The systematic catalogue of the birds, which 
follows, is arranged according to the fashion of the American 
Code. It enumerates 585 species and subspecies, of which 
293 are peculiar to the Antillean Subregion, as shown in the 
annexed Table (p. 267) . 

There are 38 genera of birds restricted to the West Indies, 
of which 1 is peculiar to the Bahamas, 24 to the Greater 
Antilles, and 8 to the Lesser Antilles. 

After the general list are given a very useful list of species 
and subspecies restricted to the different islands, and an Ap- 
pendix, which contains a variety of critical notes. 

The plan adopted of referring to the different islands by 
numbers only is not, we think, a good one, and saves little 
space, while it gives unnecessary trouble and is likely to lead 
to error. Nor is the map quite so clear as it ought to be. 
There are also some very obvious misprints in the scientific 



Recently published Ornithological Works. 



267 



names, which the author, as he kindly tells us, will correct 
in subsequent issues of the work. But this useful sum- 
mary of Mr. Cory's prolonged labours on this interesting avi- 
fauna deserves the cordial recognition of all ornithologists. 



Order. 


Species. 


Peculiar. 


Order. 


Species. 


Peculiar. 


Pygopedes 

Longipemies .... 

Tubinares 

Steganopodes .... 

Anseres 

Odontoglosste .... 

Herodiones 

Paludicolfe 

Limicolfe 


3 
19 

6 
12 

30 

1 

20 

19 

38 


1 
1 
1 

2 

6* 

1 


Brought forward 

Gallinfe 

Columbse 

Raptores 

Psittaci 

Coccyges 

Pici 


148 
5 
21 
39 
15 
22 
17 
35 

283 


12 
1 
12 
19 
14 
16 
16 
21 
182 


Macrochires .... 
Passeres 


Carried forward 


148 


12 


Total 


585 


293 



50. Godman and Salvin's ' Biologia Centrali- Americana.' f 

[Biologia Centrali-Americana ; or, Contributions to the Knowledge of 
the Fauna and Flora of Mexico and Central America. Edited by 
F. DuCane Godman and Osbert Salvin. (Zoology.) Parts CV. & CVI. 
4to. London : 1892-93. Published for the Editors by R. H, Porter, 
18 Princes Street, Cavendish Square, W.] 

The sixteen pages devoted to Birds in the present parts of 
the ' Biologia ' enable the authors to finish their account of 
the Trochilidse with the genera Stellula, Lophornis, and 
Prymnacantha, and to commence the Cypselidse with Aero- 
naut es, Panyptila, and Chcetura. 



51. Hartlaub on four rare Rails. 

[Vier seltene Rallen. Von Dr. G. Hartlaub. Abh. naturw. Ver. 
Bremen, xii. p. 389.] 

The four rare Rails which our much-esteemed Foreign 
Member discourses upon are Kittlitzia (gen. nov.) monasa 

* Mr. Cory is, we believe, in error in making Ballus tnacidatus a species 
peculiar to Cuba. It has a wide range in South America. See Sol. 
et Iluds. Arg. Orn. ii. p. 148. 

t For last notice of this work see above, p. 134. 



2<')H Recently published Orrdthologicdl IVorks. 

r.'-om Ifahm^ l*cnnula ecavdula jiiid I*, sandwichensis of tlic 
Sandwich Islands, and Pevtmlupalineri'^' from Laysan Island, 
North Pacific. On this paper Dr. Sharpens remarks (above, 
p. 252) and Dr. Ilartlaub's reply (p. 256) should be con- 
sulted. 

52. Lilford's ' Coloured Figures of British Birds.' 

[Colourerl Figures of the Birds of the British Islands. Issued by Lord 
liilford, RZ.8. &c., Priisident of the J^ritiah Oinithologists' Union. 
Part XVIII., April 1801; XIX., July 1891; XX., December 1891; 
XXI., August 1892. 8vo. London.] 

Since we last noticed the progress of Lord Lilford's work 
(Ibis, 1891, p. 455) four more parts have been published, 
making 21 in all now issued. We need hardly say that the 
recently issued figures quite maintain the high standard of 
accuracy and artistic treatment displayed in the previous 
numbers of this work, which, we trust, will be shortly 
brought to a successful conclusion. 

53. Martorelli on the Migration of Birds. 

[lit! Aluto regressive dogli Uccelli Migranti e il loro sonmbio tra gli 
Einisferi Nord e Sud. Meni(M'ia dcsl I'rof. Oifuunto Martoi-cUi. 8vo. 
Milano : 1892. Estratto degli Atli d.-lla Soc. Ital. d. Sci. nat. 1892.] 

Prof. JVTartorclli discusses the rpicstion of the relation of 
the moulting of birds to their migrations, and alludes espe- 
cially to the writings of JVIessrs. Seebohm, Parker, and 
Tristram. He sums up his results in twenty conclusions, 
Vov these we must refer our readers to the original article, 
which well merits the attention of those interested in this 
obscure subject. 

51. Middendorff on Bird-life on the Russian Lighthouses. 

[Vogelleben an den Ilussisclien LeuchUliiirnien des Schwarzen, Kas- 
pischen und Woisseu Moeros. Von 10. v. Middendorff. 8vo. VS^ien : 
1892.] 

Dr. E. V. IVIiddcndorff has comj)ik(l this report in com- 

I* Porzaindd pnliiwr?', Krohawk, Ann. N. II. ser. 0, vol. i.v. p. 247 
( 1H92). 



Recently published Ornithological IVurks. 2G9 

pliancc with the dpinands of the International Ornithological 
Congress of 1881 for such information. It contains an 
account of the occurrences of hirds at 29 Light- Stations, — 8 on 
the Caspian, 1 on the White Sea, and the remainder on the 
Black Sea and Sea of Azof. In the systematic part 113 
hirds are enumerated, hut in many eases the exact species 
has not been determined. 

55. Muckler-Ftrryman's Voyage up the Niger. 

[Up the Niger. Narrative of Major Claude ]\Iacdonalcl's Mission to 
the Niger and lionno Rivers, West Africa. By Captain A. F. Mockler- 
Ferryman, F.K.U.S., F.Z.S. To which is added a chapter ou Native 
Musical Instruments, by Captain C. R. Day. 8vo. London : 1S92.] 

Hicrc are several allusions to birds in the course of Capt. 
Mocklcr-Fcrryman's narrative of Major Macdonald's expe- 
dition, and in the Appendix (p. 310) will be found a list of 
33 species of birds of which specimens were obtained on the 
Niger and Bonne. The names have been furnished by 
Dr. Sharpe, and examples of most of the species have been 
deposited in tlie National Collection. We may mention that 
" Agdydipna" in the list is a misprint for Hedydipna. 

56. North on tlte Nesting o/ Manucodia. 

[Note on the Nidification of Mamicodia comrii, Sclatcr. By A. J. 
North. Rec. Austral. Mus. ii. p. 32.] 

The Rev. R. H. Riekard io\n\({ Manucodia coniriihvcciWw^ 
on Fergusson Island, S.E. New Guinea, in July 1891. The 
nest was a loosely-made, open structure, placed in a bread- 
fruit tree, 20 feet from the ground. The egg (which is 
figured on a cohmred plate) is elongate ovoid in form, of a 
warm isabelline ground-colour, with purplisii dots, blotches, 
and streaks, and measures 1*G5 by 1*13 inch. 



57. North on Additions to tlte Tasmanian Avifauna. 

[Additions to tlie Avifaunas of Tasmania and Norfolk and Lord Howe 
lauds. By A. J. North. Rec. Austral. Mus. ii. p. 30.] 

Amongst the rare grallatorial and natatorial birds that 



270 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

have recently appeared Mr. North chronicles Erismatura 
australis and Spatula variegnta in Tasmania^ and three 
species new to the ornis of Norfolk Island. 

58. Pigott on London Birds. 

[London Birds and London Insects (Revised Edition) and other 
Sketciies. By T. Digby Pigott, C.B. Royal 8vo. London : 1892.] 

Mr. Pigott^s sketches of bird-life in London, the Shetlands, 
St. Kilda, and elsewhere are evidently those of an ardent 
observer who is devoted to a favourite subject. They have 
already become known to many of us in the pages of the 
* Contemporary Review ' and other periodicals, and will be 
much appreciated in their collected form. In the Appendix 
is given a list of wild birds noticed in London, based upon 
Dr. Hamilton's list of 1879 ('Zoologist/ 1879, p. 273). It 
records 94< species. 

59. Schalow on Pratincola rubicola in N.E. Germany. 

[Ueber das Vorkommen von Pratincola rubicola (L.) im ostlichen Nord- 
deutschland. Von H. Schalow. Sitz.-Ber. Ges. nat. Freunde, Berlin, 
1892, p. 141.] 

Just as the Elbe in Northern Germany divides the areas 
occupied by Corvus corone on the west and C. comix on the 
east, so, it would appear from Herr Schalow's observations, 
does it separate the ranges of Pratincola rubicola and P. ru- 
betra, except that between the Elbe and the Weser both 
species are found. East of the Elbe P. rubetra is the ordinary 
species, though it occurs occasionally on the west of that river, 
whereas west of the Elbe P. rubicola is by far the most pre- 
dominant form. {Cf. Hartert, Ibis, 1892, p. 357.) 

60. Shufeldt on the Fossil Birds of the Oregon Desert 
Region. 

[A Study of the Fossil Avifauna of the Equus Beds of the Oregon 
Desert. By R. W. Shufeldt, M.D. Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc. Philad. ix. 
p. 389.] 

Dr. Shufeldt now gives us a complete account of the very 



Recently published Oi'tiitholoffical Works. 271 

interesting fossil avifauna of the " Equus-heds'' of Silver 
Lake in Central Oregon, concerning which he has previously 
published the " results of an initiatory study " {cf. Ibis, 
]892, p. 574). Silver-Lake Region has been described by 
Prof. Cope in the ^American Naturalist' (1891, p. 970). 
The '' Equus-heds " belong to the latest tertiaries, and are 
so called from containing abundant remains of several species 
of extinct horses. 

After preliminary remarks on the physical characters of 
the district, its existing fauna, and the nature and condition 
of the abundant bird-remains found in the old lake-bottom, 
the author discusses the fossils group by group. Many of 
tliem are referable to existing species, but there are a large 
number which necessitate classification as extinct forms of 
recent genera. Some of these have been already described 
by Prof. Cope, but Dr. Shufeldt now characterizes as new 
Larus robustus, L. oregonus, Ariser condoni, Branta propinqutty 
Phmnicopterus copei, Ardea palocci dent alls, Fulica minor, 
Pedioecetes lucasi, P. nanus, Palceotetrix (gen. nov.) (/illi, 
Aquila sodalis, Scolecophagus affinis, and Corvus annectens. 
Finally the bird-life of the ancient lake is pictured as fol- 
lows : — 

" Great flocks of Swans, Geese, and Ducks were there, 
feeding on the marshy shores of the lake or disporting them- 
selves upon its waters. With but few exceptions they were 
of modern genera and species. A ponderous Goose appeared 
among them, perhaps but sparingly during Pliocene time, 
for it must then have been nearly extinct. And a Swan, too, 
whose race has since died out, was also there, but it was of 
a size quite in keeping with present-day Swans. Several 
species of Grebe swam upon and dived in those ancient 
waters ; they were all like our existing Grebes, and most 
probably had similar habits. To these groups we must add 
many individuals of a great, strange Cormorant [Phalacro- 
cor ax macropus) , larger than any of our existing Cormorants, 
though probably, too, with habits not unlike theirs. Gulls 
and Terns in numbers were in the air, and doubtless files of 
Pelicans alon^ the shore-lines. But the strangest figure 



272 Recently published Ornithological Works, 

upon the scene among the birds was a true Flamingo. It 
could not have been very abundant, for it has left but 
scanty remains. Scill it was there, and its presence has its 
meaning — it may even suggest ideas as to what the climate 
may have been in those times. Herons were to be seen, and 
in the marshes cackled Coots and flew flocks of Blackbirds, 
no doubt with notes and habits very similar to those of their 
descendants of the present day. Tringece and Phalaropes 
coursed along the shores of the lakers margin, while upon its 
more rugged borders may have been seen Ravens perching, 
or even some representative of the Raptorial group. Further 
back from the lake's limits we would meet with several 
species of Grouse, and these were perhaps occasionally preyed 
upon by the Falcon-like Eagle and its companion, the lesser 
form, which may have been seen circling in the air over- 
head.'^ 

61. Stejncger on Additions to the Japanese Avifauna. 

[Two Additions to tlie Japanese Avifauna, inehiding Description of a 
new Species. J3y Leonliard Stejneger. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xv. p. ;571.] 

The additions made to the Japanese avifauna in this article 
are Tringa temmincki, obtained near Tokyo in the autumn of 
1891, and Acanthojmetiste ijimcB, sp. nov., from the Idzu 
Islands, previously referred by the author to Phyllopseustes 
coronatas (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887, p. 486). 

62. Stejneger on Mr. Henson's Collection from Yezo, Japan. 

[Notes on a Collection of llirds made by Harry V. Ilenson in the 
Island of Yezo, Japan. By Leonliard Stejneger. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 
XV. p. 289.] 

Mr. Harry V. Henson's " large and interesting " collection 
from the vicinity of Hakodadi is now in the U.S. National 
Museum, and Dr. Stejneger gives us a complete account of 
it. The specimens are referred to about 62 species, which 
are commented upon to a greater or less length. We note 
the following points: — The Little Grebe [Tachybaptes flavia- 
tilis of the B. O. U. List) is now proposed to be called by 
the specific name nigricans, ex Colymbus nigricans, Scop. 



Recently published Ornithological Works. 273 

Ann. I. Hist. -Nat. p. 77 (1769). This takes two years' pre- 
cedence over fluviatiiis of Tunstall, which is moreover (in 
Dr. Stejneger^s opinion) a " nomen nudum/'* 

Five specimens of Eurynorhynchus pi/pno'us yveve obtained 
at Hakodadi during the " fall migration '' of 1884-5 and '86. 

Dr. Stejneger proposes to change the name of the large 
Himalayan Ceryle from Ceryle guttata to Ceryle guttulata, 
" because Alcedo guttata of Vigors (1831) is preoccupied by 
Alcedu guttata of Boddaert (1783) .•" He regards Ceryle 
lugubris of Japan as distinct. 

A fine pair of Picas martins are in Mr. Henson's collection. 
They are of an intense blacky and the bill is somewhat larger 
than in European specimens. [Cf. Blakiston, Ibis^ 1862, 
p. 325.) 

The Japanese Wagtails are discussed at great length, and 
Motacilla lugens, Kittlitz, is distinguished from M. grandis, 
Sharpe. 

The generic term Cichloselys of Bonaparte is proposed to 
be limited to Tardus sibiricus, which is considered to be 
generically distinct from Geocichla, though closely allied. 

The new generic term Urophlexis is substituted for Uro- 
sphena, " preoccupied " — it is not stated where or how. 

Parus hensoni of Yezo is described as a new Tit of the 
palustris group, while the Parus jnponicus of Seebohm, from 
Hondo, is proposed to be called Parus seebohmi. There are 
thus three forms of the subgenus Poecile in Japan. 

Hypsipetes amaurotis hensoni is a new subspecies from Yezo. 

63. Thomson's ' British New Chiinea.' 

[British New Guinea. By J. P. Thomson, F.R.S.G.S. London : 
1892.] 

This book appears to have been written principally for the 
laudification of Sir William Macgregor, the Administrator 
of British New Guinea, who, however, quite deserves all the 
attentions paid to him. It is useful to the student of the 
Papuan avifauna, as containing a quantity of geographical 

* [This is not quite the case, in my opinion, as tlie EugHsh and French 
names identify it witliout a doubt. — P. L. S.] 



274 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

information^ but, except in the Appendix, is singularly des- 
titute of all references to natural history. We have, how- 
ever, managed to find one paragraph that will be interesting 
to ornithologists. Speaking of the S.E. promontory of 
British New Guinea, the author says : — 

'' The forests of the upper Kemp-Welch abound in birds 
of every kind, from modest forms to the most gorgeously 
plumaged Birds of Paradise and the most charming Pigeons. 
The successful capture of these Paradise-birds is an occupation 
only to be learned by experience. They usually congregate 
upon a certain tree called, in sporting parlance, ' the dancing- 
tree.' Here they meet at a certain hour to exhibit their 
gorgeous plumage by numerous elegant motions towards 
one another. Male birds usually possess the most brilliant 
colours, diflPused over the whole surface of their glossy plu- 
mage, and appearing as tints of the most exquisite blending. 
They hop from branch to branch and from limb to limb, 
bowing and curtseying to one another gracefully and ele- 
gantly. The mountain natives make use of a very clever 
device for catching these beautiful birds by trapping. The 
most favourable place in the jungle is selected, and a clearing 
made, about thirty feet wide at one end, and gradually con- 
verging to a point like the letter V, where it terminates in a 
framework constructed of saplings crossing one another at 
intervals, and supported by their ends to two suitable trees. 
This structure is then perfected by attaching numbers of 
snares thereto, so placed as to trap the unwary birds in their 
flight through the tempting opening in the jungle. The 
skins of these birds, even to the native, possess some com- 
mercial value for ornamental purposes. The long feathers 
of the tails and wings are used for personal adornment, and 
the shorter feathers for the beautification. of spears, shields, 
and other implements of war. That these beautiful birds 
are provided by nature with such gorgeousness of plumage 
for some specific purpose there can surely be no reasonable 
doubt ; whether that purpose be sexual attraction, or is an 
effect produced by the influence of local environment, we do 
not venture to advance an opinion." 



Letters, Extracts, Notices, 5fc. 275 

64. Ti-aquair's Address to the Royal Physical Society. 

[Address delivered at tlie Royal Physical Society, Edinburgh, by 
Dr. R. H. Traquair, F.R.S., on the word " Museum." Proc. R. Phys. 
Soc. Edinb. xi. p. 173.] 

We venture to call the attention of all those interested in 
the arrangement of museums to Dr. Traquair^s excellent 
remarks on this important subject. '' It is not necessary 
that all the contents of a public museum should be exposed 
in glass cases.'' At the same time the exhibited collection 
should be as large, and contain as well selected a series of 
typical forms, as circumstances will allow, besides objects of 
general popular interest. Dr. Traquair endorses Sir William 
Flower's well-known views as to the " unfortunate separation 
of Palseontology from Biology." 



XXVIII. — Letters, Extracts^ Notices, ^c. 

We have received the following letters, addressed to the 
Editor of ' The Ibis ' :— 

Sir, — In reply to your enquiries I have great pleasure in 
placing at your disposal the following memorandum respecting 
the ^' Crocodile-bird " of the Nile : — 

In the latter part of February or the first days of March 
1876, I, with several other members of my family, on the 
Nile between the first and second cataracts, noticed on a 
very large sand-bank near Derr (the capital of Lower Nubia) 
some crocodiles of considerable size, and several of the birds 
which are called by all the natives of the Nile Valley the 
" Crocodile-bird." As we had plenty of time to spare, I 
decided with my brother-in-law, Mr. John E. Hodges (who 
has recently died), that we would spend a few hours in 
watching the crocodiles and the Crocodile-birds. For this 
purpose, during the dark hours, we had a small pit dug on 
the western side of the large sand-bank in question, and 
about the peep of day the following morning we ensconced 
ourselves in the pit with the intention of remaining some 
hours, if necessary, until the crocodiles came on to the 



276 Letters, Extracts, Notices, ^c. 

bank, as we believed they did every day, to bask in the sun- 
shine and sleep. 

We watched patiently until about noon, when two large 
crocodiles came out of the water on to the bank, and appa- 
rently were soon asleep. Several Crocodile-birds commenced 
flitting over them, and through our field-glasses we watched 
one bird and saw it deliberately go up to a crocodile, appa- 
rently asleep, which opened its jaws. The bird hopped in, 
and the crocodile closed its jaws. In what appeared to be a 
very short time, probably not more than a minute or two, 
the crocodile opened its jaws, and we saw the Crocodile-bird 
go down to the water's edge. As the sand-bank was, I should 
say, at least half a mile across, and the bird's back was turned 
towards us, we could not see whether it vomited in the water 
or drank, but in the course of a few seconds it returned to 
the crocodile, which opened its mouth again, and the bird 
again entered. The mouth was closed, and in a short time 
was opened again for the bird to come out, and the same 
operation was repeated at the river-bank. We saw the same 
bird enter the crocodile's mouth three times, and on three 
occasions run to the water to either vomit or drink. 

Having satisfied our curiosity, and knowing that we could 
not bag the crocodile, and there being two or three Crocodile- 
birds about, I took aim and shot two of them. I could not 
assert positively that I shot the actual bird that we had seen 
go in and out of the crocodile's mouth, but one of the birds 
was presented to the Leicester Museum, and the other I have 
in a case at home. 

Both my late brother-iu-law and I have told these circum- 
stances, since 1876, a hundred times or more, I suppose, and 
never knew that the fact of the Crocodile-bird entering the 
crocodile's mouth was seriously doubted until the con- 
versation I had the pleasure of having with you and 
Mr. Seebohm at the Geographical Club on Monday the 

14th inst. 

I am, Sir, 

Yours &c., 
Ludgate Ch-ciis, John M. Cook. 

■2?,\-di November, ]S92. 



Letterfi, Extracts, Notices, ^c. 277 

[We have great pleasure in giving publieity to Mr. Cook's 
interesting memorandum concerning a story universally 
believed on the Nile, but, so far as we know, not confirmed 
by eye-witness since the days of* Herodotus (Hist. ii. ch. 68), 
Aristotle {Hist. An. ix. ch. 8), and Julian (Nat. An. xii. 15). 

It will be found alluded to by Geoffrey St.-IIilaire (Descr. 
d'Egypte, ed. 2, xxiv. p. 439, 1829), Mr. E. C Taylor (Ibis, 
1859, p. 52), Dr. A. L. Adams (' Nile Valley,' p. 5 J, 1870), 
Dresser (B. ICurope, vii. p. 522), and numerous other writers, 
but not as confirmed by recent observations. 

Curiously enough, a somewhat similar story is lold of the 
crocodile of San Domingo [Crocodi/us americanus) by Dcs- 
courtilz (Voy. d'un Nat. iii. p. 26, 1809). 

In a subsequent letter Mr. Cook identifies the Crocodile- 
bird as Hoplopterus spinosus (Shelley, B. Egypt, p. 232), not 
as Pluvianus (eyijidias, often supposed to be the species in 
question. I have applied to tiie authorities of the Leicester 
Museum, but they cannot ascertain that any " Crocodile- 
bird " presented by Mr. Cook is now in that collection. — 
Ed.] 



Sir,— In the last part of 'The Ibis ' (1892, p. 481), Mr. De 
la Touche mentions, in his list of Foochow and Swatow 
birds, that Mr. Baun procured a specimen of a Barbet, said 
to have been shot near Foochow (it was at the village of 
Puehing), which he sent to mc for identification. This is 
quite correct. In December 1886 I received the bird in a 
parcel from Mr. Baun, and I immediately replied, telling 
him that it was (as Mr. Sclater also suspected) the common 
Malaccan Megalcema versicolor. In 1890 I showed the 
specimen to Mr. Scebohm, who agreed with me that it was 
very doubtful whether it was a Foochow bird. 

I am, Sir, 

Yours &c., 
Chmtiiuiia, 17th Dec, 1892. R. Collett. 



Sir,— On the 25th and 26th October, 1892, I visited 
Dassen Island, about 33 miles north of Cape Town. I found 

SEK. VI. VOL. V. u 



278 Letters, E^rtrads, Notices, S^c. 

a Cormorant breeding there wliicli I have little dovibt is 
Phalacrocorax neglectus (Wahlberg's Cormorant) . It appears 
to correspond sufficiently well with the description of that 
species quoted in Sharpens edition of Layard's 'Birds of 
South Africa' (p. 779) from Gurney's 'Birds of Damaraland ' 
(p. 369). The men on the islands call them "Bank 
Duikers." 

I had been on the look-out for this bird for some time, as 

1 had a suspicion that it might prove to be P. neglectus. I 
had occasionally seen Cormorants which were apparently 
neither P. capenns, nor P. lucidus, nor P. africanus, but I 
had never been able to obtain a specimen. 

This Cormorant was breeding in most cases in small colonies 
by itself, but in one instance I saw its nests and those of 
P. capefisis placed together on the same rock. On Dassen 
Island P. capensis generally makes its nest on the ground, 
but all the nests of P. neglectus that I saw were placed on 
rocks near the sea. In some cases they were stuck or 
balanced on the top or edge of the rocks, where the seaweed, 
of which they were composed, enabled them to adhere. Sea- 
weed usually formed the whole material of the nest, the 
lining being made of the finer and softer material. In a 
few instances the foundation of the nest was composed of 
the coarse dried stems of a plant that grows on the island, 
seaweed forming the top and lining of the nest. P. capensis, 
on the other hand, prefers sticks and stalks of plants when 
they are obtainable. 

In shape the nests of P. neglectus were cylindrical, from 

2 or 3 to 8 or 10 inches in height, with a good depression at 
the top. 

The eggs in character exactly resemble those of our other 
Cormorants. They average larger than those of P. capensis, 
but vary in size. I did not find more than three in a nest, 
and two seemed to be the usual number. 

The birds were very tame at the nest, in marked contrast 
to P. capensis and P. lucidus. I had actually in some cases 
to drive them off the nest to see if there were any eggs, and 
found sometimes that it was a new empty nest they were 
thus guarding ! 



Letters, Extracts, Notices, 8^c. 279 

The specimen sent was captured on the nest, and I could 
have caught others. When approached tliey uttered a loud, 
melancholy cry. The feathers on the forehead, immediately 
above the beak, are erected in life so as to form a short but 
very distinct crest. On the skin they lie flat. 

The specimen sent is a male. The iris was brown above, 
greenish on the lower portion. The skin of the eyelid, and 
at the base of the lower mandible, as well as the legs, feet, 
and claws, are inky black. The bill was black, tips lighter. 
The throat was not bare. Length, in flesh, from tip of 
bill to end of tail, 2 feet 3| inches. The eggs sent, procured 
at Dassen Island, are marked "26.10.92.0.''^ 2 specimens; 
'' 26.10.92. q." 1 specimen. 

Subsecjuently, when lying off Jutten Island, in the mouth 
of Saldanha Bay, I heard what was evidently the cry of the 
same species. 

I am, Sir, &c., 

W. G. Fairbridge. 

21st December, 1892. 

[Professor Newton informs us that the specimen above 
mentioned as having been sent to England corresponds in 
all respects Avith Wahlberg's description of his Graculus 
neglectus (Journ. fiir Orn. 1857, p. 4), leaving little room 
for doubt that Mr. Fairbridge is right in assigning his birds 
to that species, to which probably belonged the examples 
obtained by Mr. Layard and Oaptain Sperling in Simon's 
Bay in 1867 (Ibis, 1868, pp. 120, 121), there referred by the 
former to Phalacrocorax carho, but suggested by our prede- 
cessor to belong to some other species. — Ed.] 



Sir, — In a recent paper by Dr. Oustalet on Nias birds 
(Bull. Soc. Philom. (8) iv. pp. 107-122), he mentions a 
specimen of Cittocincla tricolor (Vieill.) from that island; 
and the presence of this species, together with my Cittocincla 
melanuru, induces him to believe that the latter, after all, 
may not be quite so distinct as I had supposed. 

I wish to mention that when Dr. Oustalet kindly showed 
me his materials, during a recent visit to the Paris Museum, 



280 Letters, Extracts, Notices, ^c. 

I immediately noticed that the skin of the example of Citto- 
cincla tricolor was of a very different '^ make " from that of 
those helonging to C. melanura, and I have no doubt what- 
ever that it was a Sumatran or Malaccan skin, wliich had 
accidentally become mixed with the Nias birds. The series 
C. melanura in the Paris Museum proves in the most evident 
way that the species is a perfectly distinct one ; there is not 
the least gradual transition from C. tricolor, with the lateral 
tail-feathers broadly white-tipped, to the uniform black-tailed 
C. melanura, and the slight whitish edges at the tip of the 
tail-feathers of some young specimens of the latter evidently 
disappear by abrasion. 

I am, Sir, 

Yours &c., 
Turin, Zoological Museum, T. Salvadori. 

2oth Jan., 1893. 



Sir/ — On page 133 of 'The Ibis' for January I observe a 
short critique on a paper by me on Cyanorhamphus erythrotis 
from Antipodes Island, which appeared in the last volume 
of the ' Transactions ' of the New Zealand Institute. " Mr. 
Forbes is not correct, we believe/' it is stated, '' in his iden- 
tification of the Cyanorhamphus of Antipodes Island belonging 
to the group of C. nova-zealandice." I am quite ready 
to agree with Count Salvadori that the Antipodes-Island 
bird is the same as that described by Mr, Reischek as 
C. hochstetteri, the description of which I regret I had over- 
looked when writing the paper referred to. I am not, how- 
ever, prepared to admit that C. hochstetteri is distinct from 
C. erythrotis. At all events, though Count Salvadori con- 
siders them different (and his opinion is one to be dissented 
from only with the greatest caution), he could not, when com- 
paring them along with me, point out any I'eal distinguishing 
characters beyond a slight difference in the shade of the 
yellow, and the fact that they had different habitats. I feel 
confident that, when the skeleton of C. erythrotis is compared 
with that of the Antipodes-Island bird, the same charac- 
teristic strength in the wing- and leg-bones seen in the latter 



Letters, Extracts, Notices, ^c. 281 

will be also present in the skeleton of the former. In the 
British Museum Collection there are two specimens of Cyano- 
rhamphus erythrotis , one without locality and the other from 
the Macquarie Islands, both of which I have most carefully- 
examined and compared with my own specimen from An- 
tipodes Island now in the British Museum, and I can find 
nothing by which they can be separated from each other. 
Indeed, the two specimens of C erythrotis in the Museum 
present between themselves greater differences than the 
Antipodes-Island specimen does from either. I have shown 
the three specimens to Dr. Sharpe, and he quite agrees with 
me that they all belong to the same species. The name of 
C. hochstetteri becomes, therefore, in my opinion a synonym 
of C. erythrotis. I am. Sir, 

Yours &c., 
1 Philbeach Gardens, Henry O. Forbes. 

Earl's Court, S.W. 

8th Feb., 1893. 



Sir, — Mr. A. H. Everett has forwarded for my inspection 
a small collection of birds obtained by Dr. Haviland on Kina- 
Balu in the spring of 1892. The only species of interest 
represented in it is Zosterops squamifronSj Sharpe, a species 
discovered by Mr. Hose on Mount Dulit, in Sarawak, and 
now recorded for the first time from Kina-Balu. 

Dr. Haviland also procured the young of Androphilus 
accentor, Sharpe. It differs from the adult in having no 
white on the throat nor ashy grey on the breast, these parts 
being brown, slightly lighter on the throat, where the fea- 
thers terminate in dusky-black spots. The labels bear the 
date of April, and the altitude of some of the specimens is 
given as 11,000 feet. All my examples of this form were 
obtained at about 8000 feet. 

I am, Sir, 

Yours &c., 

John Whitehead. 



Sir, — When I published my description oi Loxops ochracea 
(Ibis, 1893, p. 112) Mr. Scott Wilson had not issued the 



282 Letters, Extracts, Notices, ^c. 

fourth part of his '^ Aves Hawaiienses/ Now, however, this 
part has appeared, and I observe that its authors have applied 
to the bird from Mauai the name aurea, Finsch (nee Dre- 
panis aurea, Dole), and have put it iu the genus Himatione. 
I therefore am bound to justify my name of " Loxops 
ochracea," and to endeavour to disentangle the confusion 
which surrounds this species. 

Judge Dole, in the ' Hawaiian Almanack ' for 1879 (p. 45), 
described the young of Loxops coccinea of Hawaii under the 
name Drepaiiis aurea. "Next, Dr. Finsch, in 'The Ibis^ for 
1880 (p. 80), described a bird from Mauai as Hijpoloxias 
aurea, and identified it with the Drepanis aurea of Dole. 
Finally, Dr. Sharpe (Cat, B. x. p. 50) followed Dr. Finsch in 
putting the bird into the genus Hypoloxias, but applied to 
it the older generic name of Loxops. 

In his new part, Mr. Wilson, in trying to unravel this 
confusion, has unfortunately made it much worse by retaining 
Dr. Finsch's name aurea and putting the bird into the genus 
Himatione. This is entirely a mistake, because the bird 
from Mauai is, as I can prove by my very large series of 
males, females, and young, a true Loxops. The male only 
differs from the male of Loxops coccinea in colour, and the 
females of both species are barely distinguishable. 

Now it is a rule in zoological nomenclature that a name 
once used in a genus, even if only a synonym, cannot be 
used a second time ; therefore I maintain that the term 
"aurea," having been used by Dole for Loxops coccinea of 
Hawaii, is inadmissible for the Mauai bird, which must 
stand as follows : — 

Loxops ochracea, Rothsch. Ibis, 1893, p. 112. 
Hypoloxias aurea, Finsch, Ibis, 1880, p. 80. 
Loxops aurea, Sharpe, Cat. B. x. p. 50. 
Himatione aurea, Wilson, Aves Haw. pt. iv. 1893. 

I am. Sir, 

Yours &c., 
TringPark, W. KoTHSCUlLD. 

Marcli 6th, 1893. 



Letters, Extracts, Notices, ^c. 283 

The Preservation of the Native Birds of New Zealand. — 
In our last number (above, p. 158) we gave au abstract of 
an excellent memorandum drawn up by Lord Onslow, late 
Governor of New Zealand, on a plan for the preservation of 
the native birds of that colony by setting apart two islands 
for this purpose, namely Little Barrier or Hauturu Island in 
the north and Resolution Island in the south. As regards 
the first of these islands, we have received a copy of the 
Report by Mr, Henry Wright (addressed to the Hon. John 
Ballance, Premier of New Zealand) upon the subject. Ac- 
cording to Mr. Wright, Hauturu Island, in the Gulf of 
Hauraki, which is almost circular in shape, and contains 
an area of from 9000 to 10,000 acres, rising in the middle 
to an elevation of about 2000 feet, is very well adapted 
for the purpose required. Writing with a thorough know- 
ledge of the whole of the North Island, Mr. Wright is able 
to say that there is no other part of it where the native 
birds are to be found in anything like such profusion and 
variety. He gives a list of forty species to be met with 
within its limits, and mentions the Stitch-bird or Kotihe 
{Pogono7'nis cincta) and the large dark Kiwi (Apteri/x bulteri) 
as both found there. There are slight difficulties in the way 
of the project, such as the presence of about a dozen Maoris 
now living on the island, and of a claimant for the timber, 
which, in the shape of Kauri pine (Dammara australis), is 
present in large quantities. There are no wekas in the 
island to destroy the birds^-eggs, and there are no bees, 
which, for some reasons, are considered to be inimical to the 
native birds in New Zealand. The wild pigs, formerly 
numerous, have been killed out, and the Mutton-bird ( (Estre- 
lata gouldi), the young of which were formerly eaten by the 
pigs, will consequently be able to breed again undisturbed. 
Cats, unfortunately, are very numerous, but Mr. Wright 
proposes to offer at once a reward for their destruction, which 
is, of course, of great importance. 

Mr. Wright's report seems quite convincing as to the 
suitability of Hauturu Island for the object in view, but we 
regret to hear that some difficiilties have arisen in the Parlia- 



284 Letters, Extracts, Notices, ^c. 

ment of New Zealand as to the appropriation of tlie funds 
required for the purpose. 

Lord OnsloWj however, is not disposed to let the matter 
drop, and will, we are sure, be strongly supported by Lord 
Glasgow, the present Governor of New Zealand, in carrying 
the plan to a successful issue. The Zoological Society of 
London, whose attention has been called to the scheme, have 
passed a series of resolutions in its favour. 



News of Ornithologists Abroad. — Mr. F. Withington now 
writes to us from new quarters near Tulancingo, in the State 
of Hidalgo, Mexico, and says : — '' I have changed my place, 
and have come here to see what I can do in planting. 1 am 
now some 30 leagues from Tulancingo, and about 15 
from Tuxpan, on the Atlantic, which you will find on the 
map between Vera Cruz and Tampico. The tunnel -contract 
at Mexico City did not turn out well, and I am now going to 
try my luck in coffee. This place is quite tropical, tree- 
ferns abound, and there is any amount of birds, which I 
am now returning to work at with great zest.'^ 

Mr. O. V. Aplin writes from Santa Elena, Monzon, Uru- 
guay, on January 8th, as follows : — " I am now making this 
my head- quarters, though I have spent some weeks on and 
off in the (new) Department of Flores, at an estancia only 
three leagues from here, and therefore in the same district. 
I have also made a journey to the Rio Negro, near where 
the Gee and our Arroyo Grande flow into it. I remained 
there about ten days and got examples of nearly twenty new 
species, including the beautiful Blue Tanager figured in your 
book [Stephanophorus leucocephalus) , and a fine Parrot, which 
does not seem to be included in the ' Argentine Ornithology.' 
It is dark green all over, a few red feathers on the neck of 
the male, and the under surface of wings red and yellow. It is 
(improperly) called the ' Barranquero,' but nests in hollow 
trees. A Curassow is also found there and well known as ' Pavo 
del monte.' I saw one, having a good view of it, but I only 
had my small gun, and when waiting for a friend to come uj) 



Letters, Extracts, Notices, i^c. 285 

with a 12-bore it slipped away and escaped in the thick 
' monte.' From descriptions by Englishmen, and from what 
I saw, I have little doubt it is the Crax sclateri. Perhaps I 
may get a skin of it from a man whom I taught to skin there. 
I have obtained specimens of about 100 species, and identified a 
good many of the larger birds besides. Vultures have been 
abundant, on account of the seca and the numbers of dead 
cattle. Cathartes atratus breeds here, and C. aura has been 
a fairly numerous visitor, but does not breed, so far as I 
know. This has been a very bad season for a naturalist. 
The fearful drought, which has brought the country into a 
most serious condition, is such that I can get hardly any 
plants or butterHies, so I shall do very badly in this way." 

Dr. Percy Rendall, F.Z.S., has accepted an appointment 
as Resident Medical Officer to the Sheba Gold -Mining Com- 
pany in the Barberton District of the Transvaal, and has 
left England to take up his quarters at Eureka City, at an 
elevation of 5000 feet above the sea-level. Dr. Rendall 
made a good collection of birds during his recent residence 
at Bathurst, on the Gambia, of which he gave us an account 
in 'The Ibis' for last year (Ibis, 1892, p. 215). His new 
appointment will give him excellent opportunities for ad- 
vancing ornithological knowledge iu a little-explored district. 



The Humming-birds of Paraguay. — Dr. Carlos Berg sends 
us for examination a skin of a Humming-bird from Paraguay, 
belonging to the National Museum of Buenos Ayres, which 
Mr. Salvin has kindly determined as Polytmus thaumantias 
(Cat. B. xvi. p. 174). As examples of this species were 
obtained at Chapada, in Matto Grosso, by H. H. Smith 
[op. cit. p. 175), it may well occur in Paraguay. It should 
be therefore added to the list of Humming-birds of Paraguay 
given in Graf v. Berlepsch's Catalogue (J. f. O. 1887, 
p. 120), as may be also Hylocharis sapphirina (Cat. B. xvi. 
p. 245), of which specimens were procured by Mr. Graham 
Kerr on the Pilcomayo [cf. Ibis, 1892, p. 135). The recognized 

SER. VI. VOL. V. X 



286 Letters, Extracts, Notices, ^c. 

Trocliilidne of Paraguay will therefore be (using Mr. Salvin^s 
nomenclature and arrangement) six, namely : — 

1. Chlorostilbon spleudidus. 4. Polytmus tliauniantias. 

2. Lamporuis violieauda. 5. Hylocliaris sappliirina. 

3. Heliomaster furcifer. 6. Chrysiironia nificollis. 

To these should probably be added Spargannra sappho, 
Leucippus chiogaster, and perhaps Leucochloris albicollis, 
which occur in Northern Argentina (see Arg. Orn. vol. ii.), 
and will ultimately, no doubt, be found in Paraguay. A 
series of birds from Paraguay would make a valuable addi- 
tion to the great collection in the British Museum, which 
has scarcely any well-authenticated specimens from that 
country. 

The Sheuthbill in Ireland. — At the Meeting of the Zoo- 
logical Society of London on the 28th of February last the 
Secretary, on behalf of Mr. R. M. Barrington, exhibited a 
specimen of the Antarctic Sheathbill (Chionis alba), killed 
at the Carlingford Lighthouse, co. Down, Ireland, in De- 
cember last. Full particulars concerning this remarkable 
occurrence will be found recorded by INIr. Barrington in the 
'Zoologist' for January last (Zool. sei'. 3, vol. xvii. p. 28). 
There can be no doubt that the bird in question is an adult 
example of the Antarctic Sheathbill {Chionis alba) in nearly 
perfect plumage. This species is known to occur only in the 
Falkland Islands and South Georgia. We may presume 
that the specimen in question could hardly have occurred 
so far from its native home without the assistance of man- 
kind in some shape. 

New British Polar Expedition. — Mr. Frederick George 
Jackson, F.R.G.S., who is organizing the New British Polar 
Expedition, is anxious to meet with a naturalist, of vigorous 
frame and suitable temperament, to accompany him in his 
daring enterprise. Mr. Jackson hopes to leave England this 
summer and to jaass the winter in Franz Josef's Land, so as 
to devote the following year to the investigation of the ques- 
tion how far that land extends towards the North Pole. We 



Letters, Extracts, Notices, S^c. 287 

need hardly point out what an excellent opportunity is here 
afforded for a young and ardent ornithologist to explore a 
wholly unknown region, and perhaps discover the true home 
of the Knot and the Curlew Sandpiper. 



Obituary. — The Rev. F. O. Morris; Henry Whitely. 

The Rev. Francis Orpen Morris, Rector of Nunburnholme, 
in Yorkshire, during the past 39 years, though he did not 
claim to be a scientific ornithologist, was passionately 
devoted to the study of our native birds, and took a leading 
part in the well-justified agitation that has lately spread so 
far for their protection. Mr. Morris was born at Cove, in 
Ireland, on the 25tli March, 1810, and was educated at a 
private school and at Worcester College, Oxford, where he 
took his B.A. degree in 1833. His principal work was a 
' History of British Birds,' of which a third edition in six 
volumes was issued some two years ago. He was also the 
author of 'The Nests and Eggs of British Birds ' (3 vols. 
London, 1856-61), and of many other popular works on the 
Natural History of the British Islands. His name is well 
known to readers of ' The Times ' from numerous letters 
contributed to the columns of that newspaper for a long 
series of years on subjects connected with natural history. 
He died at Nunburnholme on the lOtli of February last. 

Henry Whitely. — Intelligence has been received in this 
country of the death, in the interior of British Guiana, on 
the 11th of July last year, of Henry Whitely, Jun,, the weli- 
known traveller and collector. Whitely was born at Wool- 
wich on June 18th, 1844, the son of Mr. Henry Whitely, of 
Woolwich, formerly Curator of the Royal Artillery Institu- 
tion. He made his first expedition to Japan in 1864, and 
the ornithological results were published in this Journal^. 

After returning to Europe, Whitely proceeded, in 1867, to 
Western Peru, and made good collectious of birds at various 

* "Notes on Birds collected near Hakodadi, in Northern Japan." By 
Henry Whitely, Jun. Ibis, 1867, p. 193. 



288 Letters, Extracts, Notices, b^c. 

points in the provinces of Arequipa and Cuzco*. Here he 
discovered, amongst other novelties^ the splendid Oreonympha 
iiobilis (Gould, Trochilidse, Suppl. pi. 43), pronounced by 
Gould to be " one of the finest Humming-birds '' he ever 
described. 

After passing some time in Southern Peru, Wliitely pro- 
ceeded north, and crossing the Andes descended the Amazons 
to Para. On his way down he stayed some time at Yquitos, 
in Eastern Peru, and collected a fine series of the birds of 
this rich and varied avifauna. 

The last years of Whitely^slife were devoted to the explora- 
tion of the wilds of British Guiana, in which he passed the 
greater part of his time, accompanied only by his Indian 
followers. During this period he made large collections of 
birds, and added materially to our knowledge of the Guianan 
avifauna. Mr. Salvin has contributed to this journal a 
complete list of the species obtained by Mr, Whitely, which 
were upwards of 600 in number f. Among Whitely's most 
notable discoveries in British Guiana, and there were many 
of great interest, we may allude especially to CuUiste 
whitelyi (Ibis, 1884, p. 445, pi. xiii.), Luthria streptoplwra 
(Ibis, L884;, p. 448, pi. xiv.), Pipreola luhitelyi (Ibis, 1884, 
p. 449), and Lophornis pavoninus (Gould, Monogr. Troch. 
Suppl. pi. 36), all very remarkable additions to the groups 
to which they belong. Whitely also did a considerable 
amount of geographical work, and in 1884 published an 
account of his explorations of the extraordinary table-topped 
mountains Roraima and Kukenain, in the ' Proceedings ' of 
the Royal Geographical Society J. 

* "On Peruvian Birds collected by Mr. II. Whitely." By P. L. 
Sclater and Osbert SaWin. Pt. I. P. Z. S. 1867, p. 982 ; il. 1868, p. 173 ; 
III. 1868, p. 568 ; IV. 1869, p. 151 ; V. 1869, p. 596; VI. 1873, p. 184; 
VII. 1873, p. 779 ; VIII. 1874, p. 677 ; IX. 1876, p. 15. 

t " A List of the Birds obtained by Mr. Henry \\'hitely in British 
Cruiana." By Osbert Salvin. Ibis, 1885, pp. 195, 291, 418, and 1886, 
pp. 57, 168, 499. 

I Proc. R. GeogT. Soc. vi. p. 452. 



THE IBIS. 



SIXTH SERIES. 



No. XIX. JULY 1893. 



XXIX. — On tJie Birds of the Islands of Aruha, Curac^ao, 
and Bonaire. By Ernst Hartert. 

(Plates VIII., IX.) 

Contents. 

Pago 

I. Introduction , 280 

11. Birds of Aruba 293 

III. Birds of Curasao 311 

IV. Birds of Bonaire 326 

V. General Conclusions 337 

I. Introduction. 

The three Dutch West-Indian Islands of Aruba, Curasao, 
and Bonaire (see map, Plate VIII.) are situated off the western 
part of the north coast of Venezuela. Aruba, being only 
about 16 miles from Cape San Homan, the north point of the 
peninsula of Paraguana, is nearest to the continent ; Cura9ao 
lies about 43 miles to the east; and Bonaire, the most 
oceanic of the three, still further to the east. Although 
near to the mainland, these islands do not, like Trinidad, 
belong geologically to the continent, but are of a difterent 
formation. They are surrounded by a coral-limestone belt, 
and for the most part are covered with a thick coral -limestone 
capping, and parts of coral-reefs are seen near Willemstad 

SER. VI. VOL. V. Y 



290 Mr. E. Hartert on the Birds of 

on CurayaOj and on the east coast of Bonaire ; while Aruba^ 
for almost its entire length on the leeward side, is skirted by 
a coral-reef, inside of which is a calm and beautiful lagoon. 

The interior parts of the islands consist of sedimentary 
rocks, in several places pierced by volcanic rocks, while on 
Aruba grey granite is said to predominate, and many quartz 
veins are found, containing a considerable amount of gold. 
Deposits of phosphate are distributed over the islands {cf. 
Blackburn, ' Aruba- Phosphate,^ p. 5). 

The geologist. Professor K. Martin, who explored the 
islands in 1885, came to the conclusion that they were 
formerly atolls; but his conclusion is questionable, for a 
similar coralline belt is found on many West-Indian islands. 

The same naturalist {cf. '^Bericht iiber eine Reise nach 
Niederlandisch Westindien,' 1887) came to the conclusion 
" that the islands of Aruba and Curacao (the materials col- 
lected on Bonaire were too incomplete for any conclusions) 
are zoologically closely allied to the continent of South 
America, and, on the other hand, that the fauna of both 
diflfers in many points. ^^ Both these conclusions of the 
learned author — whose excellent book was of much service 
to me — must, however, be qualified in some way, although 
they are not altogether wrong. It is true that the greater 
part of the fauna is similar to that of the northern parts of 
Venezuela, but there are likewise a great many forms of 
West-Indian origin, and this not only among the birds, but 
also among the reptiles, and, according to Dr. Kobelt, very 
strikingly among the land-shells. The ornis and the whole 
fauna of the three islands are generally similar, although 
there are some remarkable diflFerences. 

The idea that the fauna of these islands is the same as 
that of the adjacent parts of the continent, together with 
their barren and rocky appearance from the sea, and the 
exaggerated reports of their heat and dryness, are perhaps 
the reasons why the ornis of Aruba and Bonaire remained 
unexplored until my researches, and why that of Curasao 
has only quite recently, and incompletely, been explored. 

No tropical forest is found on the islands, but trees of 



Aruba, Curac^ao, and Bonaire. 291 

different kinds abound, many of them introduced. The date- 
palm and the tamarind have been introduced and grow splen- 
didly; the cocoanut-palm grows wherever it is planted. The 
bitter orange is grown in several large gardens to supply 
the valuable peel with which the famous Curacao-liqueur is 
made. A great part of the islands is planted with the 
dividivi-tree [Libidibi coriaced), the husks of which are 
largely exported. The most characteristic features of the 
landscape, however, are the gigantic species of Cereus, Opuntia, 
and Melocactus, and the large fields of Aloe. The largest 
tree I saw on the islands was an old and fine Eriodendron, 
at the foot of Mt. Christoffel, not far from Savonet. On 
all the islands the Rhizophora grows here and there on the 
coast, and in many places over a great extent. 

As I have stated above, the accounts of the extraordinary 
dryness of these islands are exaggerated. The year 1892 
was, it is true, an unusually wet one, and 1885, the year in 
which Professor Martin visited the islands, was perhaps one 
of the driest of the century. Having read the description 
of Martin and that of Herr Peters (J. f. O. 1892, p. 105) 
in manuscript, I did not expect to find much vegetation. 
Great, therefore, were my joy and astonishment when on 
the 3rd of June, at daybreak, I saw the picturesque rocks of 
Cura9ao before me, sparsely but thoroughly covered with the 
freshest green. 

That day I could not leave the steamer for hours, and the 
shops of Willemstad were not opened before 11 o'clock, on 
account of the pouring rain — and rain troubled me more 
than once after this on these " rainless " islands. The vege- 
tation, therefore, was rather rich during my stay, and many 
lovely flowers were seen, especially on the slopes of the 
Christoffel, where I found three species of orchids. These 
plants, of course, must be indigenous, and trees of several 
metres in girth and of considerable height cannot grow up 
and disappear at short intervals. 

Fresh water is very scarce and valuable at times, and 
there are only one or two places on each island with natural 
springs ; but there are beds of rivulets on the slopes of the 

Y 2 



29.2 Mr. E. Hartert on the Birds of 

Christoffel, and also on Aruba and Bonaire^ which must 
sometimes be filled with water. 

The spring at Hato on Curacao is the only known habitat 
of a little fish [Pcecilia vandepolli). Of water-beetles I 
caught examples of several species on Curacao and Bonaire. 
Mammals are very scarce; I found only one species of Bat, 
and the European Rat and Common Mouse. A species of 
Hare is common on Aruba and Curacao, but is not found 
on Bonaire. The Venezuelan Deer has been introduced in 
Curasao, and a great number of goats ruu all over the 
islands, and, no doubt, do much harm to the vegetation. 

Bird-life is abundant, and there are many species that 
could not be more numerous anywhere. Breeding-places of 
sea-birds are found only on Aruba and Bonaire, and they 
are not very extensive, but enormous numbers of sea-birds 
breed on " Los Aves," east of Bonaire, and " The Monks,'' 
west of Aruba. Now and then boats go there and bring large 
quantities of eggs to Curacao for sale as food. Unfortunately 
I was too late, so I was told, for the egg-season, and there- 
fore I did not visit those uninhabited rocks, thinking that the 
results, at that time of the year, would not be sufficient to 
repay the costs and hardships of such a trip in one of the 
fishing-boats, but I should advise future explorers to go 
there at the proper time. 

The trade-wind blows over the islands almost incessantly, 
with more or less vigour, and on exposed parts all the trees 
lie over to the westward, presenting a peculiarly stormy 
appearance. The strong wind is, perhaps, one of the chief 
reasons why insect-life is so scarce. Reptiles, however, are 
very numerous, but not many species occur. Bird-life, too, 
is influenced by the wind, for biixis are more numerous in 
places where the trade-wind does not penetrate, M-hile on 
exposed plateaus they are very scarce as a rule. 

On Curac^ao I collected for three weeks altogether, and 
visited many places in all parts of the island, staying 10 days 
at Savonet at the foot of the ChristofFel, ascending to the 
top of this mountain, staying at Willemstad, Beekenburg, 
and Hato, and exploring the country round these places. 



Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire. 293 

On Ai'uba I remained IG days, and about the same time 
on Bonaire. I visited many places on both these islands, 
the hills and the plains, the barest and driest places, and the 
richest and best-wooded parts, and, with the help of my wife, 
collected birds vigorously all the time. 

The almost continuous sunshine, the beautiful clear atmo- 
sjihcre, the salubrious and wonderfully warm temperature, 
never or seldom rising to an unendurable heat, and the 
picturesque scenery gave me pleasures which can never be 
forgotten. 

I wish here to express my sincerest thanks to my friend 
Freiherr Hans von Berlej)sch, in whose museum and com- 
pany I compared and studied the greater part of my collec- 
tion on my return. 

The types and the first pick of all my skins are in Mr, 
Walter Rothschild's Museum at Tring, and most of the du- 
plicates, containing some co-types, are in Freiherr von 
Berlepsch^s collection. 

II. Birds of Aruba. 

Aruba is the driest and in most parts the barest of the 
three islands. There are several good breeding-places for 
sea-birds. I was on the island from the 21st of June to the 
5th of July, the season when but few wanderers from the 
north can be expected, and therefore most of the birds that 
I collected are residents. The island is, of course, resorted 
to by several northern birds in winter, and Venezuelan birds 
are said to visit it often in autumn. 

I am much obliged to several inhabitants of Aruba, and 
above all to our amiable host. Dr. Coates Cole, the English 
surgeon of the island. 

Nothing has as yet been written on the birds of Aruba. 
But Prof. Martin mentions in his book that he saw a 
Conurus that was different from C. pertinax of Cura9ao, a 
large kind of parrot, a Mimus, two Humming-birds, an 
Icterus, an Ortyx, and a Pelecanus. Besides this, Mr. G. 
N. Lawrence has described a living parrot from Aruba under 
the name of Chrysotis canifrons, and so long ago as lGo8 



294 Mr. E. Hartert on the Birds of 

the French traveller Rochefort stated that he saw two kinds 
of Humming-birds^ of which one was the smallest and the 
most beautiful he knew, on Aruba (Berl. J. f. O. 1892, p. 65). 
All the above-mentioned birds were found by us_, and 
collected in sufficient numbers to enable us to identify them. 

—1. MiMus GiLVTJs RosTRATus, Ridgw. Proc. U. S. N. M. 
1884, p. 173 (Curacao) ; Berl. J. f. O. 1892, p. 74 (Curac^ao) ; 
Peters, J. f. 0. 1892, p. 114. 

(1) S ad. sect. Aruba, 22 vi. 1892. Wing 4-4 inches, 
tail 4"6, culmen 09, tarsus 1*4. 

(2) c? ad. sect. Aruba, 23 vi. 92. Wing 4-25 inches, 
tail 4"5, culmen 0*9, tarsus 1*4. 

The specimens of this bird from Aruba agree in every 
respect with those from Curacao. Berlepsch (/. c.) has said 
much about this form, which to a certain extent varies indi- 
vidually. It certainly does not deserve more than subspecific 
rank. 

The '' Tjutjubi " is not rare on Aruba, but less numerous 
than on Curac^ao. 

The iris is dark orange-brown, bill and feet black. 
Its food consists of fruits, chiefly that of the Cereus, and 
beetles. 

The nest is a large and somewhat loose structure, mostly 
placed in the dividivi-trees. The eggs are four or five in 
number, with the well-known coloration of those of the other 
forms of Mimus, all much of the Turdus-tjipe, thereby con- 
firming my opinion that Mimus should not be removed too far 
from the Thrushes. 

The name " Tjutjubi " is taken from an often-heard note 
of this bird, closely resembling these syllables. 

I found fresh eggs on Curasao in the middle of June, and 
hard-set ones at the beginning of August. In the meantime 
I frequently met with quite young birds flying about, and 
also found some nestlings. 

The " Tjutjubi," sitting on the top of the high Cereus, and 
often singing its pleasant notes even from the roofs of the 
houses, is one of the most characteristic features of the avi- 
fauna of Curacj'ao, Bonaire, and Aruba. 



Aruba, Curar^ao, and Bonaire. 295 

2. Dendrceca rufopileata, Ridgw. 

Dendt^oica rufopileata, Ridgw, Proc. U. S. N. M. 1884, 
p. ]73 (Curacao) ; Berl. J. f. O. 1892, p. 7Q (Curasao). 

This bird is very common on Curasao and Bonaire, but 
rather scarce on Arnba, where I found it in a few localities 
only, and in small numbers. I have only three skins from 
Aruba. For further details see below, p. 311. 

3. Certhiola uropygialis (Berl.), 

Coereba uropygialis, Berl. J. f. O. 1892, p. 77 (Curacao). 

Not rare on Curacao and Bonaire, but much less nume- 
rous on Aruba than on the other two islands. Aruban 
specimens agree in every respect with those from Cura9ao. 

v4. Euetheia sharpei, Hartert, Bull. B. O. C. vii. p. xxxvii. 
Not rare on Aruba. 

+- 5. Zonotrichia pileata (Bodd.), Berl. J. f. O. 1892, p. 82 
(Cura9ao) . 

This bird is common on Curagao, where it is met with 
everywhere. On Aruba it is very rare, and unknown on 
Bonaire. The single specimen I have from Aruba has a very 
stout bill, but otherwise agrees entirely with those from 
Curayao. 

6. Icterus xanthornus curacaoensis (Ridgw.), Berl. 
J. f. O. 1892, p. 82 (Curasao). 

Icterus curacaoensis, Ridgw. Proc. U. S. N. M. 1884, 
p. 174; Scl. Cat. B. B. M. xi. p. 381 (1886). 

Berlepsch has carefully compared several specimens of this 
bird from Cura9ao with those from other localities, and has 
pointed out that there is nothing to distinguish the Cura5ao 
form but its longer bill. It is true that the bills of the 
Cura9ao birds are longer than usual, and the colour is also a 
little paler as a rule ; it may therefore stand as a subspecific 
form of Icterus xanthornus. 

The specimens from Cura9ao all agree, but two males from 
Aruba have the bills shorter and stronger, and also the 
yellow colour brighter and more tinged with orange. They 
therefore point more to the true continental Icterus xan- 



296 Mr. E. Hartert on the Birds of 

thornus. This is another reason for considering the Curasao 
bird merely a subspecies. The measurements of my speci- 
mens are as follows : — 

^ ad. sect. Aruba^ 23 vi. Culmen 0*9 inch^ wing 3"9. 

^ ad. sect. Aruba, 1 vii. Culmen 0*88 inch, wing 3"8. 

(^ sect. Cura9ao, 8 vi. Culmen 1 inch, wing 3*7. 

$ sect. Cura9ao, 13 vi. Culmen 1*05 inch, wing 3'5. 

$ sect. Cura9ao, 14 vi. Culmen 1*06 inch, wing 3" 7. 

? sect. Curagao, 16 vi. Culmen 1 inch, wing 3*5. 

$ sect. Cura9ao, 3 viii. Culmen 1*05 inch, wing 3'7. 

It is, I think, very interesting that the birds from Aruba, 
the island nearest to the continent, agree better with the 
continental form than those from Cura9ao. The bird is 
equally common on all three islands, but only where it finds 
sufficient trees in which to build its long hanging nest. I 
have not procured skins from Bonaire, but the birds there 
agree with those from Cura9ao. I got an egg on the 22nd 
of July on Bonaire. The colour is of a pale bluish white, 
sparingly covered with long and fine deeper lying cinereous 
hair-lines and overlaid patches and lines, like Arabian letters, 
of a deep purplish brown, more frequent on the thicker end. 
It measures 0'93 x 0*67 inch, and the weight of it is 250 
milligramms. 

The bird is sometimes kept in captivity, but is not much 
appreciated. Its piping notes are less clear than those of 
Icterus vulgaris, and they produce many screeching and 
mewing sounds. Herr Peters (J. f. O. 1892, p. 114) thinks 
that the Curacao form has a different note from that of the 
continental 1. xanthornus, but this seems to be imagination. 
I have heard the /. xanthornus , and both, without doubt, 
*' speak the same language.'"' 

In the " papiamento '^ — the mixed dialect of Spanish, 
Portuguese, and Dutch spoken on these islands — this bird 
is called " Trupial cacho," i. e. Dog-Trupial. On Aruba it is 
called " Gonzalito." 

The sexes in the adult bird are alike, but young birds have 
greenish-olive tails. They seem to retain the immature 
plumage for some years, as has beeu stated by Baird (B. N. 



Aruba, Curaqao, and Bonaire. 297 

Amer. p, 540) to be the case with other species of Icterus. 
I dissected specimens Avith green tails that had swollen 
testes and had paired. The black tail is assumed by 
changing the colour,, not by moult^ as two of my specimens 
clearly show. 

7. Icterus icterus (Linn.). 

Oriolus icterus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 161 (1766). 

Icterus vulgaris, Daud. Tr. d'Orn. ii. p. 430; Scl. Cat. B. 
B. M. xi. p. 382. 

Icterus vulgaris (subsp.?), Peters^ J. f. O, 1802, p. 114 
(Cura9ao) . 

Peters (/. c.) says that this bird occurs on Curagao, and is 
said to be paler than the continental form. After carefully 
comparing my specimens with those in the British Museum, 
I must say that my birds, on the contrary, have very bright 
colours, and that they are indistinguishable from the con- 
tinental Icterus icterus. My specimens are rather short- 
winged, but those from Santa Marta in the British Museum 
are quite similar. An example from Carupano is a good 
deal larger, but there are others intermediate. A specimen 
from an unknown locality in H. v. Berlepsch's museum has 
white spots on the outer rectrices, and one from Carthagena 
is rather paler than my birds. 

^ ad. sect. Aruba, 27 vi. Total length about 9 inches, 
wing 4'4, tail 4, tarsus 1*2, culmen 1-28. 

? ad. sect. Aruba, 27 vi. Total length about 9 inches, 
wing 4"3, tail 3*9, tarsus 1"2, culmen 1'3. 

^ sect. Cura9ao, 2 viii. Total length about 9'5 inches, 
wing 4"35, tail 4, tarsus 1'3, culmen 1'37. 

? sect. Curasao, 2 viii. Total length about 8*75 inches, 
wing 4"15, tail 39, tarsus 1'25, culmen 1"24. 

My specimens are in a somewhat worn plumage. I did 
not find any nests ; but, as everybody on Curacao knows, they 
are totally different from those of Icterus xanthornus in not 
having the long tube. 

This bird is much appreciated as a cage-bird on account of 
its pure flute-like notes, and is often sent for sale from 
Venezuela. 



298 Mr. E. Hartert on the Birds of 

This species is not rare in certain places, such as the rocky 
hills covered with brushwood and cactus, both on Aruba and 
Cura9ao, but it is absent from Bonaire, thus indicating its 
immigration from the continent. I saw it in the bush on 
St. Thomas, where it has already been stated to occur by 
Ridgway. It may have been introduced into that island ; but, 
on account of other affinities between the ornis of St. Thomas 
and that of Cura9ao, this is very questionable. 

— 8. Myiarchus brevipennis, Hartert, Bull, B. O. C. iii. 
p. xii; id. Ibis, 1893, p. 123. 

I have compared this new insular form of Myiarchus with 
specimens in Berlepsch^s museum and with the fine series in 
the British Museum, and find that it is closely allied to 
Myiarchus tyrannulus [cf. Scl. Cat. B, B. M. xiv. p. 251), but 
readily distinguishable from it by its shorter wings and tail, 
longer tarsus, the more olive-greyish and less brownish colour 
of the upper parts, and the blackish lower mandible, which in 
M. tyranmdus is pale brown. 

It is remarkable that in Venezuela the true M. tyrannulus 
occurs, and that the Island of Grenada is inhabited by 
another species, M. oheri, Lawr. Sclater (/. c.) has united 
M. oheri with M. tyrannulus ; but the specimens now in the 
British Museum and in Berlepsch^s collection show that 
M. oberi is a very distinct species. It differs in the much 
greater extent of the rusty colour on the inner webs of the 
rectrices, decidedly darker upper surface, longer bill, and 
longer wings and tail, thus pointing more to M. mexicanus 
in its size, but not in the colour of the back. Specimens 
from the three islands Aruba, Curasao, and Bonaire are 
quite similar. Total length about 7'3 inches, wing 3'4 to 
3-59, tail 3-3 to 3*5, culmen 0-7 to 0-8, tarsus 0-75 to 0-85. 

-^9. SuBLEGATUs GLABER, Scl. & Salv. P, Z, S. 1868, p, 171, 
pi. xiii. (Caracas); Berl. J. f. O. 1892, p, 84 (Cura9ao), 
Not very rare. 

-if-lO. Tyrannus dominicensis (Gm,). 

This bird seems to be very rare on Aruba, where I did not 
obtain it, but once saw a pair. That this species is rarest on 



Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire. 299 

Ariiba and more common on the other islands seems to point 
to the fact that it is a West-Indian form. 

-T-11. Chrysolampis mosquitus (Linn.). 

Common on flowering trees. While on Cura9ao in the 
beginning of June these birds were in moult, and it was 
impossible to obtain males in good plumage : they began to 
get out of their moult by the end of my stay on Aruba. 

When I met with this beautiful Humming-bird I did not 
know there was any question to settle about it, and did not 
pay especial attention to it. I did, however, collect a series 
of fine adult males, and, chiefly owing to the efforts of my 
wife, eight specimens in dull plumage, all well skinned and 
dissected. In looking over Mr. Salvin's description in the 
Cat. B. xvi. p. 114, I find the adult female described as 
having the lateral tail-feathers bronzy black, but my skins 
contravene this statement. According to my series the adult 
female has the rectrices chestnut-red, with a broad subterminal 
band of a purjylish steel-blue, and tijjped ivith lahite. They 
appear to have sometimes, if very aged, some glittering 
feathers along the middle of the throat. The young of both 
sexes — according to my collection — have the tail purplish 
black, and I have (in my own collection and among a 
number of trade-skins) many intermediate stages. Gould 
and Lesson have both figured the females as they really 
are, with the red tail. As regards the name, it should be 
written mosquitus and not moschitus, as shown before by 
Berlepsch. Linnseus in his Syst. Nat. ed. x. p. 120 (1758), 
as well as in ed. xii. p. 192 (1766), wrote it mosquitus, and 
it was only changed to moschitus by Gmelin. Linnseus very 
probably meant to designate it a small mosquito-like bird. 

-f- 12. Chlorostilbon caribous, Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. H. New 
York, X. (1871) p. 13. 

Not rare, but rather less common than the foregoing 
species. Badly in moult. Berlepsch has shown (J. f, O, 
1892, p. 87) that the name C. atala of Lesson is very 
doubtful, and that the acceptance of Lawrence^s name is 
advisable. 



300 Mr. E. Hartert 07i the Birds of 

-r]3. CoNURUs ARUBENSis, Hartci% Bull. B. O. C. iv. p. xvi 
(1892). 

Adult male and female. Forehead pale yellow for about 
0'3 inch; top of the head distinctly tinged with blue; 
circle round the eyes very narrow above^ broader below, 
pale orange-yellow; lores, cheeks, and sides of the head 
mixed light brown and very pale orange-yellow, the feathers, 
especially those on the ear-coverts, being yellowish in the 
middle and bordered with brown; throat and upper breast 
yellowish brown. Of the same size as Conurus ceruginosus, 
but tail longer as a rule. 

This form of Conurus is closely allied to C. ceruginosus 
from Guiana and Venezuela, from which it differs only in 
the lighter colour of the forehead, sides of the head, and 
throat, and I believe also in a somewhat longer tail. As my 
four specimens from Aruba differ in these points from nine 
skins from British Guiana in Mus. W. Rothschild, from all 
the skins from different localities in the British Museum, 
and from skins from Venezuela in Mus. H. v. Berlepsch, I 
believe I am right in distinguishing it as a new island form. 

$ sect. Aruba, 22 vi. Iris straw-yellow ; bill horn- 
brown; feet deep brown. Total length 9*7 inches, wing 5*3, 
tail 4'9, culmen 0*9, tarsus 0*5. 

$ sect. Aruba, 23 vi. Iris pale yellow. Total length 
about 9*6 inches, wing 5*3, tail 5'1, culmen 0*95, tarsus 0"5. 

$ ad. sect. Aruba, 2 vii. Wing 5'1 inches, tail 4*85, 
culmen 0'85. 

$ ad. sect. Aruba, 2 vii. Wing 5*45 inches, tail 4*9, 
culmen 0"78. 

In fifteen specimens of C. mrug'inosus from Guiana and 
Venezuela the tail measures 4*25 to 4'6 inches, the wing 
5*3 to 5*65, the culmen 0*85 on the average. In Salvadori^s 
description (Cat. B. xx. p. 196) the length of the bill is given 
as 0"28, which is evidently a misprint for 0*78 or 0'88. 

Conurus arubensis might, on account of its somewhat 
yellowish sides of the head, be looked upon as a form inter- 
mediate between the continental C. ctniginosus and C. per- 
tinax from Cura9ao and St. Thomas. To those naturalists 



Aruba, Curar^ao, and Bonaire. 301 

who unite these two forms, this statement may appear to be 
a rather bold one. But it is not wrong to say that those 
who cannot distinguish between C. pertinax and C. cerugi- 
nosus are not well acquainted with these birds, I myself did 
not know them when, two years ago, in my ' Katalog Vogels. 
Mus. Senckenberg/ (p. 156), I ventured to unite the two 
sj)ecies, having been (like Finsch, Schlegel, and others) 
misled by young specimens of C. pertinax and by inexact 
localities, so that the distribution could not be studied. 

With more material at hand it might not be wrong to 
regard this new form as a subspecies of C. (srnginosus, as it 
is close to it, and specimens might easily be found that very 
nearly approach it, but I prefer to keep it as a species, all the 
more on account of its isolated habitat. 

C. arubensis is very common everywhere on Aruba, The 
first morning when out shooting with my friend Dr. Cole, I 
obtained a specimen of it. Thinking that it was the common 
continental form, I was content to pick up a specimen occa- 
sionally, and brought home four skins only. My much 
honoured friend. Count Tommaso Salvadori, first called my 
attention to the light-coloured foreheads and cheeks in my 
skins as soon as he saw them, and I was glad that I found 
the surmises of this great ornithologist well founded, 

C. arubensis is similar in its habits and screaming voice to 
C. pertinax, and also lays its eggs in holes dug out in 
old ants^ nests and trees, and in the natural caves and 
holes in the lime rocks. Its food consists mostly of the 
fruits of Cereus, Melocactus, and other plants. 

7- 14. Chrysotis ochroptera (Gm.). 

PsHtacus amazonicus gutture luteo, Briss. Orn. i. p. 287. 

Le Perroquet a epaulettes jaunes, Levaill. Perr. pis. 98, 
98 bis. 

Chrysotis ochroptera, Reichen. Vogelb. pi. i, fig. 5 ; Salvad. 
Cat. B. B. M. XX. p. 288. 

Chrysotis canifrons, Lawr. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. ii. p. 381 
(1883) (Isl. of Aruba) ; Salvad. Cat.B. B. M. xx. p. 272 (note). 

This beautiful Amazon, of which, in spite of the numbers 



30,2 Mr. E. Hartert on the Birds of 

that are kept in confinement, specimens procured in a wild 
state are so rare in museums that its habitat could only be 
given with a query in Salvadori's Catalogue of the Parrots 
(/. c.) , inhabits the Island of Aruba. It might not be out of 
place here to state that it is also common in the lowland 
forests of the district of Coro, and in other parts of Vene- 
zuela, whence large numbers are sent to the bird-shops of the 
larger towns of Venezuela and to Cura9ao. 

I procured three adult males of this fine bird. They are 
very bright- coloured, forehead and lores white with a faint 
ashy hue, the greater part of the top of the head, and in all 
three specimens some of the feathers on the neck also, rich 
yellow with rosy-orange bases ; the entire sides of the head 
and chin of the same colour, corresponding with Brisson^s 
description and Levaillant's very good figure. The whole of 
the cubital edge, the bend of the wing, and nearly all of the 
lesser wing-coverts bright yellow ['' epaulettes jaunes " of 
Levaillant) ; thighs bright yellow with a rosy tinge at the bases 
of the feathers ; bill whitish horn- colour ; iris orange-red, 
shading into orange-yellow inwards ; feet dark grey. My 
specimens are coloured thus, but in captivity these birds often 
besmear the forehead with dirt, as many also do in a wild 
state with the sticky juice of the fruits of Cactus. In 
European Museums, where all or nearly all the specimens 
are from individuals that have died in confinement, the 
yellow is often not so much extended. The plumage of the 
perfectly adult bird may perhaps never be acquired in 
Europe, where most specimens of this Parrot are brought 
when very young. In the immature bird the yellow on the 
head is less diffused round the eyes ; the chin and cheeks are 
pale bluish, and probably quite blue in birds lately from the 
nest, the bluish colour getting more and more mixed and 
overspread with yellow as the bird gets older (as I observed 
in my live specimens from Coro that I brought home with 
me) ; bend of the wing greenish, and cubital edge not so 
bright yellow ; thighs pale yellow ; iris reddish brown. 

The cubital edge is always yellow, except in its innermost 
corner, where occasionally a few red feathers appear. Some- 



Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire. 303 

times some whitish feathers can be seen on the chin. Total 
length about 13*5 inches^ wing 8'4 to 8*7, tail 5'3, culmen 
1*4 to l*45j height of upper mandible 0*65. 

This Parrot is not rare in the more wooded and rocky 
parts of the island, but is somewhat shy and not easily to 
be obtained in numbers. It is said to breed in hollow trees. 
A live specimen from Coro in Venezuela in the possession 
of Dr. Cole was in every respect like my collected specimens, 
but in Europe such finely coloured birds are very seldom to 
be seen alive. 

There can be no doubt that Chry satis canifrons of Lawrence 
(/. c.) was described from an example of this species with a 
dirty forehead, such as I have seen in several cases. It was 
based on a living specimen brought to New York from Aruba, 
but the type has been lost. Among my specimens of 
Chrysotis rothschilcli from Bonaire are several that show a 
somewhat ashy colour on the forehead. 

H.5. PoLYBORUS CHERiWAY (Jacq.) . 
Not rare on all the three islands. I have a skin from 
the peninsula of Paraguana, Venezuela, collected by Herr 
Ludwig. It is similar to one shot for me by Dr. Cole on 
Aruba, which I did not skin. The skin from Paraguana 
agrees with those from other countries. On Bonaire this 
bird places its nest on trees. 
Local name " Waraivara." 

-^16. TiNNUNCULUS SPARVERIUS BREVIPENNIS, Bcrl. J. f. O. 

1892, p. 91 (Cura§ao). 

The " Kinikini" is not rare on all the three islands. I 
have several specimens of both sexes, and find BerlepscVs 
characters constant. I agree with him in distinguishing it 
subspecifically — the difficulties of such forms as those of 
Tinnunculus sparverius being best met by dividing them 
into several subspecies. The wings of the males measure 
6"5 to 6"8 inches, tails 4'9 to 5, tarsi 1'4; the wings of the 
females 65 to 67, tails 4"8 to 5, tarsi 1*3 to 1*4. 

The rufous spotting of the crown varies much, and is 
usually almost or quite absent. 



304 Mr. E. Hartert on the Birds of 

-f-17. BuTEo ALBicAUDATus coLONus^ Bcrl. J. f. O. 1892, 
pp. 89 & 91 (Cura9ao) . 

Seen, but not procured. Possibly, however, it was not 
this form, but the continental one. 

-^-18. Zenaida vinaceo-rufa, Ridgw. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 
1884, p. 176 (Curayao). 

Very common. Identical with examples from Cura9ao. 

-f-19. Columba gymnophthalma, Temm. 

Not rare on Aruba. Identical with specimens from 
Curasao. 

-V 20. Columbigallina passertna PERPALLiDA, subsp. nov. 

Columbigallina passerina, Berl. J. f. O. 1892, p. 97 
{Cura9ao}. 

There is hardly a bird that presents more local variation 
than this pretty little Ground-Dove. North- American 
authors distinguish between the form inhabiting the " South- 
Atlantic and Gulf States " and the one reaching from the 
South-western States throughout Mexico. The former they 
used to call C. passerina, but later on it was named C. pas- 
seri^ia purpurea by Maynard, and has quite recently been 
renamed C. passerina terrestris by Chapman. 

I have collected a large series from the three Dutch West- 
Indian Islands. All of them differ from the forms of other 
countries, that I have seen, in their pale colour throughout, 
and especially on the under tail-coverts, in the rather shorter 
wing, and in the base of the bill being yellow, not red. On 
Porto Rico and St. Thomas I shot examples of a different 
race, much richer and darker in colour everywhere ; the base 
of the bill deep red, not yellow, and the wing also short. 

The typical form of Linnseus^s C. passerina must be the 
Jamaica bird {cf. Berl. J. f. O. 1892, p. 97), which, if any- 
thing, has the wing a little longer on the average than the 
one from Porto Rico, and stands, as regards coloration, 
between the pale and dark forms. The Eastern North- 
American bird is closely allied to this form, but it is said to 
have the base of the bill red, and the Aving is certainly a 
little longer. It might therefore be distinguished sub- 



Arubu, Curacao, and Bonaire. 305 

specifically, tnore Americanorum. The Mexican j.ale form, 
however, is quite distinct, and the rich-coloured birds from 
Porto Rico deserve attention. The latter correspond with 
llidgway's description of C. passerina socorrensis, but are 
probably distinct from it. The form from Grand Cayman 
described as C. passerina insularis is probably the same as 
the true typical Jamaican C. iiasser'ina. My pale birds from 
Curasao are in colour nearest to the Mexican bird, but the 
wings are a little shorter, the colour still a trifle paler, and 
the base of the bill yellow, instead of red, as it is said to be 
in C passerina pallescens from Mexico. 

All the South-American examples of C. passerina seem to 
be very closely allied to the true Jamaican C. passerina, 
althuugh extremely variable. It is of course safer, to avoid 
mistakes, to unite all the forms together, but I am not pre- 
pared to do this. I have not seen Barbadian specimens, on 
which Bonaparte's name C. trochila (Consp. Avium, ii. p. 6) 
was based. 

The Ground-Dove of Cura9ao and its sister islands has the 
bill " deep brown at the tip, the basal portion pale orange- 
yellow or pale yellow, near the nostrils light yellow. Iris 
lilac and red. Naked ring round the eye light yellow. Feet 
light flesh-colour.''' Wing 3'05 to 3*15 inches. 

This Dove is extremely common on all the three islands, 
and is known as '' Tartolica" The nest is placed in bushes 
and trees, but mostly on the prickly branches of the Opuntia 
or Cereus. It contains two eggs. I found two bi'oods, and 
I was told that some of them breed in every month of the 
year. The eggs are of an elliptical ovate and elliptical 
oval form, varying into elongate ovate, occasionally ovate, 
and even nearly fusiform; they measure 19*6 x 15, 20 x 17, 
21 X 17 to 22 X 16, 22 x 17, 23 x 17, 235 x 157, 23 6 x 165 
to 23 X 17-5 mm. 
•+- 21. Leptoptila verreauxi, Bp. 

Appears to be very rare. I saw it only once in Aruba. 

-4-22. EUPSYCHORTYX CRISTATUS (L.). 

Eupsychortyx youldi, Berl. J. f. O. 1892, p. 100 in the 
text (Cura5ao). 

SEK. VI. VOL. A\ z 



306 Mr. E. Hartert on the Birds of 

Linn^'s description of Tetrao cristatus is founded on 
Brisson's Coturnix mexicana cristata (Orn. i. p. 260, pi. xxv.). 
Brisson is of course Avrong in his locality, but clearly figures 
and describes the form from Curayao. As this island was 
always visited by ships, the Abbe Aubry's Museum had very 
likely got specimens from there. Gould (Monogr. Odontoph. 
p. 16, pi. ix.) figures the present bird as E. cristatus, but 
his localities are no doubt partly, if not altogether, wrong. 
Berlepsch (/. c.) has already well described his E. gouldi, and 
has pointed out in what respects it differs from E. sonninii. 
The most obvious are the black stripes above and below the 
ear-coverts, which never show in the species from Guiana, and 
the colour of the underparts. The species from Colombia 
(Bogota) is, beneath, more similar to E. cristatus, while its 
head is more like that of E. sonninii. There can be no 
doubt that all three species are quite distinct. 

Berlepsch had received only one skin — a female, as stated 
by Peters, but in the fine plumage of the adult male, as 
figured by Gould. My series contains but one female, and 
this is similar to the males in plumage, but has the ear- 
coverts brown and merely traces of the black stripes on the 
sides of the head. I believe that the female gets the black 
stripes when fully adult, and that Peters^s statement was 
right, while Gould has figured young birds as females, for I 
have three young specimens in different stages — one male, 
one female, and one with the sex not determined. All these 
three are alike and agree with Gould's figures of the so- 
called females. The wings of my adult males measure from 
3"9 to 4'1 inches, tarsus 1. The iris is dark brown, bill black, 
and feet brownish grey. 

This pretty bird is not rare on Aruba and Cura9ao, but is 
not found everywhere. The natives call it " Sockle," a name 
derived from its note, which is uttered very frequently. It 
is much esteemed as food, and sometimes sold in the market 
alive. 

This bird is not easy to obtain in any great numbers 
without a dog, as it does not care to fly and is difficult to be 
seen in grassy places. It is not found on Bonaire. 



Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire. 307 

I am quite sure that GoulcFs habitat ('^ Mexico'^) for this 
species is wrong, for recent explorers have not found it there ; 
but I have reason to believe that the bird occurs in Vene- 
zuela^ where E. sonninii is also fouad^ but probably not in 
the same localities. 

•'^23. Ardea tricolor^ Mlill. 

Not plentiful, but of regular occurrence on Aruba and 
Bonaire, Identical with South-American specimens^ but 
different from the Mexican subspecies, which is spread over 
the West Indies. Culmen 365 inches, wing 9"4^. tarsus 3*5. 

->~ 24. Ardea candidissima, Cim. 

Seen on Aruba and on Bonaire. Bill — posterior portion 
bluish flesh-colour, anterior half blackish horn-colour. Iris 
silvery white. Legs sky-blue, large scales in front of tarsus 
black. Total length 27 inches, wing 12, culmen 3*5. 

— 25. BuTORiDEs viRESCENs (Linn.). 

Found on all the three islands. My specimens agree with 
other examples of this species, but the wings are rather 
shorter, measuring only 6'5 inches ; culmen 2"25, tail 2*4, 
tarsus 1"8. 

This is probably the bird called B. striata by Peters 
(J. f. O. 1892, p. 121). 

26. Phcenicopterus sp. inc. 

A Flamingo was seen and shot at by Dr. Cole. It is said 
to be rare, and a straggler only. 

— 27. Charadrius squatarola, Linn. 

I saw a few of this species and shot a male on the 24th 
June on Aruba. 

-~ 28. Strepsilas interpres, Linn. 

I saw three individuals and shot one on the 2ud July on 
Aruba. 

— 29. j^Egialitis rufinucha (Ridgw.). 

jEgialitis ivilsonius, var. rufinuchus, Kidgw. Am. Nat. viii. 
1874, p. 109 ; id. Man. N. Am. B. p. 175. {Hab. West Indies 
and Atlantic coast of S. America to Bahia.) 

z2 



308 Mr. E. Hartert on the Birds uf 

This Plover is common^ and undoubtedly breeds, on Aruba 
and Bonaire. I think it belongs to Ridgway's subspecies, 
but that it deserves specific rank. Two adult males in very 
fine plumage have no traces of a black band across the chest. 
Lores decidedly rusty. Culmen 0"83 to 0'85 inch, wing 4*45 
to 4*5, tarsus 1*1. 

The black band across the chest is probably always replaced 
in the adult male by a rusty rufous band. 

-A30. H^MATOPus PALLiATus (Tcmm.). 

1 only once saw a specimen of this Oyster-catclier on the 
reef on Aruba and fired at it, but unfortunately missed it. 

31. TOTANUS FLAVIPES (Gm,). 

This bird was common on Aruba on the 22nd June, when 
Dr. Cole shot two specimens. 

32. Pelecanus fuscus, Linn. 
Extremely common and not at all shy. 

33. Fregata aquila (Linn.). 

Schlegel (Mus. d. Pays-Bas), Gates (B. Brit. Burm.), and 
others are of opinion that the white-breasted specimens of 
this species are young birds, but Ridgway (B. N. Amer. 
and Man. N. Am. B.) has already well described the plumage 
of the adult female as well as that of the young, which has 
the whole head white. My male example agrees perfectly 
with specimens from the Pacific and Madagascar"^. The 
females have much larger bills than the males. My speci- 
mens measure : — 

^ ad. Aruba, 3 vii. Culmen 5'2 inches, wing 23"6, 
tail 17. 

? ? ad, Aruba, 3 vii. Culmen 5"5 to 5"6 inches, wing 
23 to 24-5, tail 15-5. 

-|-34. Phalacrocorax brasiltanus (Gm.), 

Great flocks of this Cormorant were seen on Aruba, but 
Avere very difficult to approach. 

* Hartlaub ('Vogel Madagascar^,' P- 399) mentioas only Fregata 
minor from tliat island, but examples of both these very distinct species 
have been recently received by the Tring Museum from Madagascar. 



Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire. 309 

-•35. Sterna maxima, Bodd. 

I have two specimens o£ this fine Tern, one from Aruba 
and one from Bonaire, but the bills and wings seem to be 
shorter than in Sterna maxima proper, and the comparative 
measurements of the bill do not quite correspond with those 
given by Bidgway in his ' Manual/ They do not, however, 
])elong to the Pacific S. elegans, nor to Saunders's Atlantic 
S. eurygnatha. This specialist in Laridse has seen one of my 
specimens and admitted it to be 5^. maxima, but I think that 
a larger series would be of interest, and might possibly lead 
to the establishment of a South West-Indian subspecies of 
S. maxima. The culmen in my specimens measures 3"25 to 
2'36 inches, wing 13"3 to 13"6, tarsus I'l, Iris brown, 
bill orange, feet black. A male and female from Georgia 
are similar in the form of the bill, but the latter is 0'3 inch 
longer, and the wings measure 14'5 inches. 

This Tern is not common on these islands and is some- 
what shy, but I saw it several times on the coasts of Aruba, 
Curayao, and Bonaire. 

-f 36. Sterna hirundo, Linn. 

I have seen this Tern flying about along the coasts of 
Aruba and on Bonaire, and I believe also on Cura5ao, but I 
have brought home only two skins. These agree with the 
European Sterna hirundo {= Sterna fluviatilis of Naumann) 
in appearance, but are much smaller and the bill somewhat 
less pointed. In fresh specimens it seemed to me that the 
abdomen was somewhat less greyish and of a more violet 
tint. I also believe that the black cap does not reach quite 
so low down on the neck. As my specimens have been com- 
pared with a good many skins from Heligoland, England, 
Morocco, and North America, which are larger, and as I 
have seen one skin from Southern Mexico that was entirely 
like my bird, I believe that it is a tropical subspecies ol ihe 
Common Tern. It is also remarkable that this Tern is not 
regularly found south of the Bahamas, and has not yet 
been recorded further south than Jamaica. My specimens 
measure: — Culmen 1'35 inch, wing lO'l, tail 5*4, tarsus 0'7. 



310 Mr. E. Hartert on the Birds of 

The North-American birds were formerly called Sterna 
wilsoni, but tliey are absolutely identical with European 
ones. 

4- 37. Sterna antillarum, Less. 

Common on Aruba and Bonaire in places where a sandy 
beach offers them good breeding-grounds. I believe they had 
laid their eggs on Aruba at the end of June, but I did not 
find any. At the end of July I found half- and full-grown 
young ones. In coloration the young bird is similar to that 
of S. minuta, and therefore requires no description. 

Iris deep brown ; bill yellow, with black tip ; feet 
yellow. 

-^ 38. Sterna dougalli, Mont. 

Cf. Sterna dougalli gracilis, Cory, Cat. W. Ind. B. pp. 82 
& 135 (1892). 

There was a large breeding-place of this Tern on the coral- 
reef on the coast of Aruba. The eggs are always three in 
number ; they are deposited on the sand and on the green 
shore-plants which often cover the soil. The eggs vary to 
the same extent as those of Sterna hirundo and S. paradisea 
and other species of the family. The skins are in plumage 
identical with those from Mexico and other parts of the 
West Indies. Iris dark brown ; bill blackish, basal half 
more or less orange-red ; feet bright red. If there is no 
other character to distinguish Sterna dougalli gracilis but the 
colour of the bill, my birds might belong to that subspecies. 

39. Sterna aNjEstheta, Scop. 

A good many of this species were found breeding on the 
coral-reef off Cero Colorado on Aruba, at the same place 
where S. dougalli had its eggs. The e^^n, however, were 
always laid in a corner under bushes, or under a stone or 
shell, and never placed so openly as those of S. dougalli. 
We found only one egg in each nest, and altogether not 
more than ten ; they were all more or less set. When 
flying overhead the uuderpart of the wing and abdomen of 
this bird appeared beautifully tinged with greenish blue, 
while in the living S. dougalli the delicate peach-blossom 



Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire. 31 1 

colour was exceedingly pretty, but soon faded away after 
the birds were skinned. Iris deep brown; bill and feet 
black. 

40. Larus atricilla, Linn. 

Often seen on the coasts of Aruba, Curasao, and Bonaire. 

III. Birds of Curasao. 

Curasao had been twice visited by collectors before my 
arrival, and two articles had been written on its birds. 
Ridgway (Proc. U. S. N. M. vii. pp. 173-177, 1884) enu- 
merated 6 species. Berlepsch (J. f. O. 1892, p. 61) gave 
19 species, the results of a collecting-tour made by Herr 
Peters, who appended to BerlepscVs admirable essay a list 
of 51 species supposed to occur on Cura(jao. Of these 51 
species, examples of 18 only were collected, and about 16 re- 
mained more or less doubtful or were founded on the 
erroneous information of the natives, Peters^s list, however, 
contains some very useful field-notes, local names, and other 
information. 

My collection contains examples of all the species that 
have been hitherto identified with certainty, except one^. 

I am greatly obliged for much help and kindness to Mijn- 
heer Harry Barge, the Governor of the Dutch West Indies, 
to Mijnheer van der Linde Schotborgh, owner of the beautiful 
estate of Savonet, and to the chemist, Herr Ludwig, who 
takes an ardent interest in the natural history of Curasao. 

-^ 1. MiMus QiLvus RosTRATUs, Ridgw. Proc. U. S. N. M. 
1884, p. 137 ; Berl. J. f. O. 1892, p. 74 ; Peters, t. c. p. 115. 

Common. See above, p. 294. 

Eggs were taken in June and July, but at the same time 
full-grown nestlings were found. 

— 2. Dendr(eca RuropiLEATA, Ridgw. Proc. U, S. N, M, 
1884, p. 173 (type from Cura9ao) ; Berl. J. f. O. 1892, 
p. 76. 

I have collected a series of twenty specimens of this bird 

* Ardea herodins, Liun. 



312 Mr. E. Harteit on the Birds of 

in Cura(j:ao and Bonaire, It is equally common on both 
these islands, and is an inhabitant of open bushy places, as 
well as of mangroves and other trees. My series shows a 
very great variation. The adult males are bright yellow 
beneath ; the breast, and sometimes the sides of the body, 
streaked with rufous ; and the top of the head has a large 
patch of cliestnut-brown. Sometimes the entire top of the 
head is covered with this colour, sometimes it forms a horse- 
shoe, sometimes it is developed only on the forehead and over 
the eyes. It seems that as the bird advances in age the 
chestnut on the head and the striations on the lower parts 
are more developed. Quite young birds have no streaks on 
the breast and no chestnut on the crown. The females, as a 
rule, have no chestnut on the head nor streaks beneath, but 
sometimes indications of the stripes and of the chestnut crown 
are visible, and in some specimens the top of the head is 
spotted with chestnut and the streaks on the breast are well 
developed, although not so strongly as in the adult males. 

This species is very closely allied to Dendroeca capitalis, 
Lawr., from Barbados, but the chestnut on the crown is 
generally lighter, and the streaks on the breast are some- 
what broader and not so well defined. Some specimens, 
however, run very close to those from Barbados. 

This bird is very familiar, and known under the name of 
"Para de misa/' which means '^mass-bird," and often 
lives with great tameness in the vicinity of houses. Its 
song is a melodious warbling, soft and short, chiefly heard 
in the early morning. The nest is placed on the outer twigs 
of bushes, and is a tiny, very deep cup-shaped structure, 
composed of thin grasses interwoven with spider-webs, 
feathers, and hairs, I found some nests at the end of July, 
but did not get any eggs. 

-u* 3, Certhiola uropygialis (Berl.). 

The nearest ally of this species is not C. bai'badensis , 
as surmised by H. von Berlepsch (J. f. O. 1892, p. 77), but 
C. newtoni, from St. Croix, and C. sancti-t homes. Berlepsch's 



Aruba, Cura(^ao, and Bonaire. 313 

new species, however, ean be distinguished by the large white 
spot between the yellow breast and the slaty-black throat. 
This white spot is extremely small and scarcely indicated in 
C newtoni, so small, in fact, that I have not found it 
mentioned in any description {cf. Sc'l. Cat. B. xi. p. 43). 
C. newtoni has also the uropygial band somewhat broader 
and of a moi'e yellowish-olive colour. The fresh unworn 
specimens of C uropyyialis have distinct whitish edges to 
the longest and some of the median wing-coverts. 

It is easily distinguishable from C. newtoni by the much 
darker throat, the white patch below the blackish throat, 
the smaller white wing-speculum, and the colour of the 
uropygial band. The plumage of the adult has been well 
described by Berlepsch (/. c). The young bird is grey 
above, the uropygial band less developed, the crown similar 
to or a little darker than the back ; beneath paler yellow, 
throat pale grey mixed with yellow, superciliary stripe 
yellow. In adult specimens the superciliary stripe is pure 
white, as a rule, but many are found with the stripe more 
or less tinted with yellow. 

Berlepsch's Flower-pecker is extremely common on the 
islands. It is called " Barica-geel," i. e. Yellow-breast. In 
Bonaire, at Mr. van den BrandhoFs, they came into the 
verandah to take milk and water and bread and fruits that 
were offered them on a plate. 

Its song is not loud nor attractive, being a metallic 
warbling, frequently repeated. 

The nest is a large ball of dry grasses and leaves, lined 
with feathers, and with a lateral entrance. It is placed 
mostly at the tips of branches at different heights from the 
ground. One, from which I took eggs, was built in a flower- 
basket hanging from the ceiling of Senor Ricardo^s verandah 
in Cura{;ao. The eggs were fresh, but the bird had left 
them. 

The eggs are four in number, of a whitish colour, more or 
less thickly covered with darker and paler rufous spots and 
patches. Their average size is 0*6 x 0'45 inch. 



314 Mr. E. Hartert on the Birds of 

•^ 4. Ammodromus savannarum (Gm.). 

Very rare on Cura9ao, and only met with near Beekenburg, 
in a stony valley of grass and low bushes. Not previously 
recorded from Cura(^ao. 

^5. ZoNOTRicHiA piLEATA (Bodd.) ; Bcrl, J. f, O. 1893, 
p. 82. 

Local name " Chonchorrongai." 

As a rule specimens of this bird from Curasao are rather 
pale, but this character is not constant. It does not build 
closed nests, as suggested by Herr Peters (J. f. O. 1892, 
p. 115), but open ones, like other species of this genus. I 
found two eggs at the end of July. They are of a very pale- 
blue colour, regularly spotted with rufous. They measure 
0-8 to 0-6 inch. 

+ 6. EuETHEiA sHARPEi, Hartert. 

Euetheia bicolor, Berl. J. f. O. 1892, p. 81 ; Peters, t. c. 
p. 116. 

Euetheia sharper, Hart. Bull. B. O. C. vii. p. xxxvii. 

Of all the birds that I collected on my West-Indian trip, 
those of the genus Euetheia (or Phonipara, as it is termed by 
Dr. Sharpe and others) are the most puzzling. After a care- 
ful comparison of all the materials at hand, I came to the 
following conclusions, and I believe that those ornithologists 
who have sufficient evidence to form an opinion will agree 
with me. 

(1) Dr. Sharpe is correct in retaining as a separate sub- 
species E. marchi, notwithstanding that Mr. Cory has united 
all the West-Indian Euetheice. A fine additional series from 
San Domingo has arrived at the British Museum since the 
publication of the twelfth volume of the Catalogue. I think 
it will speak well for the distinctness of E. marchi when I say 
that, on a dark December day in London, I was able to pick out 
in a minute all the males of E. marchi, without mistake or 
hesitation, from the box containing E. bicolor, in which they 
had been provisionally placed. Besides the characters given 
by Dr. Sharpe in the ' Catalogue of Birds,' E. marchi evidently 
has the bill of a much lighter brown. 



Aruba, Curaqao, and Bonaire. 315 

(3) The distribution of the two forms, E. bicolor and 
E. marchi, as given by Dr. Sharpe cannot be maintained. 
There is no doubt that the Greater Antilles, Jamaica, San 
Domingo (and Porto Rico ?) are inhabited by E. marchi, 
but Dr. Sharpe was misled by insufficient materials into 
including St. Thomas in its range. I have shot several 
males on St. Thomas, which clearly show that this island is 
tenanted by E. bicolor proper, the same as the Bahaman form, 
which is the typical one. Dr. Sharpe now agrees with me 
that the bird from St. Thomas is E. bicolor, and not E. marchi ; 
he further writes me that the only male from Santa Lucia in 
the British Museum is a badly made-up skin and difficult 
to determine, although it looks somewhat like E. marchi. 
The Barbadian bird, singularly enough, is, in Dr. Sharpens 
opinion, E. marchi, while the other islands of the Lesser 
Antilles are inhabited by E. bicolor. This seems very curious, 
but the outlying island of Barbados differs geologically 
and zoologically in many respects from the Lesser Antilles 
{of. Feilden, Ibis, 1889, p. 478) ; therefore it is not very re- 
markable that Barbados should have a different form of 
Euetheia, but possibly additional materials might show that 
it is not the same as E. marchi — unless it has been intro- 
duced, which is not likely, as it is so common on that 
island. 

(3) A series of skins from Aruba, Curasao, and Bonaire 
belongs to neither of these two forms. Berlepsch (J. f. O. 
1892, p. 81) first pointed out the differences of this new 
form, but having received only one male he did not know 
whether these differences were constant or not. I have named 
it E. sharpei, in honour of Dr. Sharpe and his work on the 
Fringillidse. 

(4) The birds from Venezuela and Tobago are similar 
inter se, but differ slightly from the Bahaman form, to which 
they are most nearly allied. These therefore must stand as 

JrE. omissa (Jardine) (type ex Tobago). 

(5) It might, on account of the close relationship of these 
forms, the not yet sufficiently defined distribution of them, 
and the possibility of the occurrence of intermediate forms. 



316 Mr. E. Hartert 07i the Birds of 

be more convenient to treat them as subspeeies ; but I think 
that, as a rule, insular forms, which, on account of their 
isolation are not likely to interbreed or produce inter- 
mediate forms, should be regarded as species rather than 
as subspecies, even if the differences be small, 

(G) Linnaeus, in 1758, named Catcsby's ^'Bahama Spar- 
row " Fringilla zena, but afterwards transferred this name to 
another member of his large group Fringilla — the Spindalis 
zena of the present epoch — and renamed the " Bahama Spar- 
row " Fringilla bicolor. According to the law of priority, 
both birds should bear the specific terra " bicolor," which 
could not cause any inconvenience, the one being a member 
of the Fringillidai and the other of the Tanagridae. 

(7) The females of all these forms are similar, and to be 
distinguished only with the greatest difficulty. 

The " bicolor '^-^vow]) of the genus Euetheia consists there- 
fore of the following species or subspecies : — 

(1) Euetheia uicolor (Linn.). 

^ . Forehead and crown dingy black, gradually shading 
off into the dusky olive of the back. Black of breast ex- 
tending down along the abdomen. Bill blackish brown. 
Wing 1-9 to 2-05 inches. 

Hab. Bahamas and most of the Lesser Antilles, accidentally 
in Southern Florida. 

(2) E. MARCHi (Baird). 

(^ . Above similar to E. bicolor, but the black on the 
underparts much less extended, abdomen paler and without 
black. Bill paler brown. Wing 2*05 inches. 

Hab. Jamaica, San Domingo (Barbados?). 

I have not seen specimens from Porto Rico, but they pro- 
bably belong to this species. 

(3) E. sHARPEi, Hartert. 

(^. Beneath similar to E. bicolor, but the black above 
confined to the forehead and sides of the head ; back and 
rnmp paler, a little more shaded with greyish ; the black of 



Araba, Curacao, and Bonaire. 317 

the breast somewhat less deep and duller. Wing 2 to 2" 15 
inches. 

Hab. Aruba, Cura9ao, and Bonaire. 

(4)+E. oMissA (Jardine). 

Similar to E. blcolor, bnt the wing longer and the colour 
of the back and rump deeper and more of a greenish olive. 
Wing 2' 15 to 2'2 inches. 

Hab. Venezuela, extending north to Tobago and parts of 
Colombia. 

E. sharpei is very common on Curac^ao. Its nest is a 
large ball of grass with a lateral entrance. All that I saw 
were placed in the prickly branches of the Opuntia and 
Cereus. I found from three to four eggs in the nest, which 
are whitish, with a very faint bluish hue, much speckled 
with rufous, and with a few deep brown spots. They mea- 
sure from 065 x 0"4.G to 0'7 x 0-5 inch. 

7. Icterus xanthornus curacaoensis (Ridgw.) ; Berl. 
J. f. O. 1892, p. 82. 

Icterus curaqaoensis, Ridgw. Proc. U. S. N. M. ISSi, 
p. 174. 
Not rare. 

8. Icterus icterus (Linn.). 

Icterus vulgaris, subsp. ? Peters, J. f. O. 1892, p. Hi. 

Not numerous, but well known. Colours of Curafao 
specimens very bright. Cory (Cat. W. Incl. B. p. 146) says 
the same of examples obtained in St. Thomas. 

— 9. HiRUNDO erythrogastra (Bodd.) ; Peters, J. f. O. 
1892, p. 117. 

I saw a specimen that was skinned by Herr Luclwig, and 
which undoubtedly belonged to this species. I think it is 
only a visitor from the north, because Peters tells us that it 
was numerous at the end of August, while it was so rare 
during my visit that I only saw* a few in the town and was 
not able to procure a specimen. 



318 Mr. E. Hartert on the Birds of 

— 10. ElAINEA MARTINICA RUSH (Scl.). 

Elainea riisii, Scl. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 314. 

Elainea martinica, Scl. Cat. B. B. M. xiv. p. 141 ; Berl. 
J. f. O. 1892, p. 85 (Curasao). 

I procured three specimens of this bird ou Mt. ChristofFel, 
but did not see it anywhere else. Mrs. Hartert thinks she 
saw it on Bonaire, but no specimen was obtained. My skins 
are in better plumage than those collected by Herr Peters, 
but are also somewhat worn. They entirely agree with 
specimens from St. Thomas. Specimens from Guadeloupe 
and Dominica are slightly different, and it is advisable to 
recognize Sclater's E. riisii (afterwards, in the ' Catalogue of 
Birds,' united with E. martinica by the same author) as a 
subspecies. 

This is another instance of Curacjao not having the conti- 
nental form, but the West-Indian one, and also of a nearer 
relationship to the St. -Thomas avifauna than to that of the 
other Lesser Antilles. 

-^1. Myiarchus brevipennis, Hartert, Bull. B. O. C. iii. 
p. xii. 

Not very rare near Savonet and in other well-wooded 
places. 

(Peters says (J. f. O. 1892, p. 118) that he saw a rather 
large species of Tyrant through his glasses. From his de- 
scription it cannot be any of those that are as yet known 
from Curasao.) 

12. SuBLEGATUS GLABER, Scl. ct Salv. ; Bcrl. J. f .0. 1892, 
p. 84 (Cura9ao). 

My specimens of this bird agree with the type from Caracas 
(Venezuela) in the British Museum. It occurs on all the 
three islands and is not rare, but is by no means common. 
The wings of my eight specimens measure 2*58 to 2*8 inches, 
mostly 2'6 and 2*65 inches. 

This species can be distinguished without difficulty from 
Sublegatus platyrhynchtis from Bahia, Brazil. 



Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire. 319 

--IS, Tyrannus domixicensis (Gra.); Berl. J. f. O. 1892, 
p. 86. 

H. V. Berlepsch raised the question whether the birds of 
Cura<;'ao belong to the typical form of Tyrannus dominicensis 
from the Greater Antilles or to the large-billed T. rostratus, 
Scl., from the Lesser Antilles. I have collected a series 
sufficient to show that they belong to the true Tyrannus 
dominicensis. 

This bird has the same name which it or its allies have 
almost everywhere in the West Indies and South America, 
" Pitirri " or " Pipirri." Its note, indeed, is exactly like its 
name. It is common on Curagao, especially near Savonet, 
and may even be seen in the outskirts of Willemstad. 

Sclater (Cat. B. xiv. p. 271) calls it Tyrannus griseus, but 
I agree with Berlepsch and others that Gmelin^s Lanius 
tyrannus /3 dominicensis, given with habitat and distinguished 
by description, should provide it with a name. 

-^ 14. Chrysolampis mosquitus (Linn.) ; Berl, J. f. O. 1892, 
p. 86. 

Not rare on flowering trees and on the flowers of the aloe, 
but less common than the next species. 

-/ 15. Chlorostilbon carib.eus, Lawr. ; Berl. J. f. O. 1892, 
p. 87. 

The type of C. cariheeus came from Curagao. The speci- 
mens are indistinguishable from those from Venezuela 
(generally called C atala). The nest is a tiny structure 
built on a small twig. I obtained two eggs from Herr 
Ludwig. They are oval in shape, and in colour plain white 
without gloss. They measure 0*4 x 0*29 inch, and weigh 
17 milligramms. 

— 16. Stenopsis cayennensis (Gm.) ; Berl. J. f. O. 1892, 
p. 87. 

Unfortunately I was not able to get an adult male, but 
only a female and two young birds of this Nightjar. When 
comparing my specimens with those in the British Museum, 
I was unable to find any differences. The bird breeds on 



320 Mr. E. Hartert on Ike Birds of 

Curnyao and Bonaire, but I did not see it on Aruba. It is 
not common, and is mostly found in dry and stony places 
with scanty vegetation. 

-1 17. CrOTOPHAGA SULCIROSTRIS, Sw. 

Not previously recorded from Curac^ao. 

I met with several of these birds near Savonet, and pro- 
cured a few specimens. Its occurrence so far eastwards is 
very remarkable. I believe that it is resident on Curasao. 
The stomach contained grasshoppers. Iris deep brown. 
Bill and feet black. 

4- 18. CoNURUs PERTiNAX (Linn.) ; Salvad. Cat. B. B. M. 
XX. p. 197; Bcrl. J. f. O. 189.2, p. 88; Peters, J. f. O. 1892, 
p. 112. 

Berlepsch (/. c.) gives his opinion that, on account of the 
peculiar fact that Conurus pertinax occurs on the two islands of 
Curajao and St. Thomas, and apparently nowhere else, it is 
quite possible that its original home is Cura(;*ao, where it 
seems to be more common than on St. Thomas. There are, 
however, other birds that occur on both these islands, so 
that I hesitate at present to accept this introduction-theory. 
On St, Thomas this lovely Parrakeet is restricted to the hills 
on the eastern side of the harbour (cf. A. & E. Newton, Ibis, 
1859, p. 374), and at the present time it is said to be so rare 
that they are no longer caught for sale, while formerly they 
were brought to the steamers by the negroes. On Cura(^ao 
it is very numerous in the w^estern parts of the island, but 
not so common, although by no means rare, in the eastern. 
The nests are mostly built in the large ants' -nests placed 
in trees, into which they dig holes. 

The negroes take the young ones from the nests and keep 
them in cages. Large numbers are sold to the sailors. 

The plumage of the adult bird is well descrilicd by Salva- 
dori, but the descriptions of Finsch and many others are 
confusing, as they do not distinguish between C. (eruginosus 
and C. pertinax. In the young of C. pertinax little of the 
beautiful orange-colour on the cheeks, which are brownish, 
is to be seen ; the forehead is tinged with greenish and 



Aricba, Curaqao, and Bunait'e. 321 

brownish, and the throat and upper breast are more tinged 
-with greenish than in the adult bird. The orange-colour 
gradually spreads over the sides of the head from the lores 
and region under the eyes, and is assumed not by moult 
only, as some of my skins, as well as my observations on two 
living specimens that I brought home with me, clearly show. 
The bill in the adult bird is deep horn-brown, while in 
youuger specimens the upper mandible is more or less pale 
and whitish. The sexes are quite similar. 

- 19. BuTEO ALBiCAUDATUs coLONUs, Berl. J. f. O. 1892, 
p. 91. 

This name was proposed by Berlepsch for the Buzzard of 
Curasao, of which he had a single young bird, probably in 
first plumage. Unfortunately I was unable to get an adult 
specimen of this bird, but I obtained a young male from Herr 
Ludwig and shot a young female on Bonaire. Both these 
specimens are quite similar to the one that is minutely de- 
scribed by H. V. Berlepsch, and the differences from the 
young of Buteo albicaudatus from other countries seem to be 
constant and well marked. I have seen the adult bird sailing 
over and around Mt. Christoffel on Cura9ao, and twice on 
Aruba, but had no chance of shooting one. The iris in the 
young is brown, feet yellow, cere pale greenish. In the 
stomach I found the remains of small birds, and the natives 
on the islands say that it is very destructive to fowls. Native 
name " Pata-lejo." The wings of my two specimens measure 
15*1 and 15'2 inches, the tarsus 82. 

The adults when flying high in the air looked like the con- 
tinental species, but will probably turn out to be distinct. 

^ 20. TiNNUNCULUS SPARVERIUS BREVIPENNIS, Bcrl. J. f. O, 

1892, p. 91. 
Not rare. 

-^ 21. PoLYBORUs CHERiWAY (Jacq.) ; Peters, J. f. O. 1892, 
p. 110. 
Not rare. 

SER. VI. VOL. V. 2 a 



322 Mr. E. Hartert on the Birds of 

22. Strix flammea bargei, Hartert, Bull. B. O. C. iii. 
p. xiii; id. Ibis, 1893, p. 12 k 

Face white, a dark brown spot in front of the eye. Upper sur- 
face the same as in most of the European specimens. Beneath 
white, sparsely spotted with dark brown. Tail pale greyish 
isabelline, spotted with dark grey, and with four distinct 
blackish bars. Iris deep brown. Bill whitish flesh-colour, 
toes brown, claws deep brown. Total length about 12 inches, 
wing 9*7, tail 4'3, tarsus 2'2. 

This insular form is entirely different from the Barn Owls 
of the West Indies, and also from the South- American form. 
In colour it is similar to many specimens from Europe, 
and also to some from the Pacific Islands, but in its small 
size it is only to be compared with the Galapagos species, 
which, however, is of an entirely different colour. I have 
only one specimen, which was caught for me by order of 
Mijnheer Harry Barge, Governor of the Dutch West 
Indies. 

This Barn Owl is said to be not very rare in some of the 
rocky parts of Curasao. Two specimens sent by Herr Lud- 
wig agree with my own. 

I do not know whether this Owl occurs on Aruba, but 
there appears to be another species of Owl on that island of 
only about half the size of it, and of an ashy colour. 
There is said to be another Owl on Curasao, but of what 
kind I do not know. 

-V 23. Columba gymnophthalma, Temm. ; Hartert, Bull. B. 
O. C. iii. p. xii; id. Ibis, 1893, p. 123. 

Although there are examples of this Pigeon in the Museums 
of Paris and Leyden, and one stuffed specimen in the British 
Museum, neither its exact habitat nor anything of its life- 
history was known, and it has been several times confounded 
with Columba jncazuro from Brazil, for instance by Herr v. 
Pelzeln (Orn. Bras. p. 274). 

It was first described in 1811 by Temminck in Madame 
Knip's work, ' Les Pigeons,^ on p. 48, and the figure 
(pi. xviii.) clearly represents this species, although the granu- 



Aruba, Curasao, and Bonaire. 323 

lated bare orbital space and the thighs are wrongly coloured^ 
and the belly and under tail-coverts are much too dark. 

It was observed and noticed on Cura(jao by E. Peters 
(J. f. O. 1892, p. 112) under the local name "Ala bianco" 
(not " blanca/' as Peters spells it) , but specimens were not 
preserved, and the species was not identified. 

In the living bird the bill is of a whitish flesh-colour, the 
iris deep orange-brown. Round the eye is a smooth bare 
ring of a bluish-grey colour ; this ring is surrounded by a 
large granulated naked space of a dark reddish-brown colour, 
somewhat like an over-ripe strawberry. Feet raspberry-red. 
The lower surface of the bird is viuaceous grey, shading into 
ashy on the flanks and belly. Thighs and under tail-coverts 
greyish white. The broad white line along the wing has 
caused this bird to be named "Ala bianco," or "White-wing," 
on these islands. I have five adult males and one young 
female. The latter has only an indication of the granules 
round the eye, and the beautiful scaly-looking white and 
blackish borders on the hind neck, and pale vinous and 
blackish borders to the feathers between the shoulders, are 
only slightly indicated, but this seems to be due rather to 
the immaturity of the specimen than to its sex. 

The total length of the adult males is about 13 inches, the 
wing measures from 7"55 to 7*85, tail about 5*3, culmen 0"65, 
tarsus 1 to I'l, middle toe 1*2 to 1*26. 

This species is not rare on Aruba, and is common in some 
localities on Curasao, where there are many trees ; it is also 
common on Bonaire. According to Herr Peters it likewise 
occurs on the coast of Venezuela, where it is called " Man- 
glera," but this statement requires confirmation. 

This beautiful Pigeon generally flies about in flocks, pick- 
ing up its food from the ground as well as from the trees. 
Its note is a deep cooing, consisting of four sounds. I found 
a fresh-made nest on the 23rd July, but no eggs in it. I 
also shot young birds at this time, so I believe that they 
breed twice during the year. The nest is a loose structure, 
like that of Columba palumhvs, and placed mostly in the 
mangroves, but sometimes in other trees. They are rather 



324 Mr. E. Hartert on the Birds of 

shy birds, but can be shot in great numbers in very dry 
weather near the water. The Europeans and natives on the 
islands much appreciate its flesh as food, and it does well in 
captivity. 

-- 24. Zenaida vinaceo-rufa, Ridgw. Proc. U. S. N. M. vii. 
p. 176; Berl. J. f. O. 1892, p. 95. 

Extremely common on Aruba, also common on Curasao, 
but most numerous on Bonaire. Peters (J. f. O. 1892, 
p. 113) mentions this species under three names — No. 13. 
"Ala duro," No. 14. " Blauw Duiff/' and No. 15. " Patruchi." 
All three names applj to Zenaida vinaceo-rufa. "Ala duro " 
is the most familiar name for the adult bird ; " Patruchi," 
a name that is by some of the islanders erroneously applied 
to Eupsychortyx gouldi, is less in use ; and " Blauw Duiff" is 
the Dutch name, mostly given to the young bird, which 
many natives believe to be a distinct species. Columba 
portoricensis is sometimes called by the last name on 
Bonaire. 

The young bird is more rusty above and beneath than the 
adult, most of the feathers have white edges and white 
lanceolate spots at the tips. The females are much darker 
in colour. 

Wing of adult 5 "2 to 5 '5 inches. I found the nest — a flat 
and loose structure, like all Pigeons' nests — about 10 feet 
high in a dividivi-tree. The two eggs are ovate in shape 
{cf. Ridgw. Nomencl. Col. pi. xvi. fig. 1), and in colour plain 
white, with a faint gloss. The weights are 460 and 455 
milligramms, and they measure 1'23 x 0*86 and I'l x 0-84 in. 

-^25. Leptoptila verreauxi (Bp.). 

My honoured friend Count Tommaso Salvadori has kindly 
examined some of my skins of this bird, and refers them to 
L. verreauxi. The species is rather rare on Curacao. 

Wing 5*4 inches. Iris pale orange or yellowish brown, 
bill black, feet red. 

I believe this to be Peters's No. 11 (J. f. O. p. 113), for 
the islanders call it " Tortel Duiff," and there is no such thing 
as Columba plumbea on Curacao. 



Aruha, Curaqao, and Bonaire. 325 

-26. COLUMBIGALLINA PASSERINA PERPALLIDA, Hartert. 

See above, p. 304. 
Extremely common. 

-/ 27. EUPSYCHORTYX CRISTATUS (L.) . 

See above, p. 305. 

Not rare. Often kept in confinement and sold for food. 

* 28. Ardea herodias, Linn.; Ridgw. Proc. U.S. Nat. 
Mus. 1884, p. 177. 

Messrs. Benedict and Nye have obtained examples of this 
species on Curac^ao. I did not shoot it, but once saw a huge 
Heron near Savonet at sunset, which I think belonged to 
this species. 

-^29. Ardea candidissima, Gm. 

White Herons are of irregular occurrence on Curasao, and 
as I shot A. candidissima on Aruba, I suppose that they 
belong to this species. 

-1^30. BuTORiDES viRESCENs (Linn.). 
See above, p. 307. 
I saw this bird several times on Curasao. 

J 31. ToTANUs MACULARius (Linn.). 

Actitis macularia, Peters, J. f. O. 1892, p. 120. 

I saw a few of these birds on the Schottegatt, but did not 
shoot any. 

•^ 32. HiMANTOPUs MEXicANUs (Mull.) ; Petcrs, J. f. O. 1892, 
p. 121 ("teste Ludwig"). 

Flocks of old and young of this Stilt were seen in June on 
the lagoon of Savonet. The immature birds were very young 
indeed, and were probably bred on the island. The wing of 
my adult male measures 8'8 inches, bill 2*65, tarsus 4'5 ; 
female adult, wing 8-4, bill 2-66, tarsus 4. Iris bright red ; 
bill black ; feet coral-red. In young birds the feet are paler, 
the iris somewhat dull red, and the bill grey. 

-^ 33. HjEMATOPUSPALLiATUs(Temm.) ; Peters, J. f. 0. 1892, 
p. 121. 

Herr Ludwig has seen and shot examples of this species. 



326 Mr. E. Hartert on the Birds of 

34. Pelecanus ruscus, Linn. 
Occasionally seen on the coast. 

35. Fregata aquila (Linn.) . 

Occasionally seen on the coast or sailing over the island. 

•f-36. PhALACROCORAX BRASILIANUS (Gm.) . 

Peters (J. f. O. 1892^ p. 122) mentions that he saw a 
Cormorant which can hardly belong to any other species 
than this. 

-f-37. Sterna maxima, Bodd. 
See above, p. 309. 
A few of these Terns were seen on the coast. 

-+^38. Sterna hirundo, Linn. 

A few Terns belonging to this species (or to S. dougalli, 
see above, p. 310) were seen on the Schottegatt and near 
Beekenburg. 

39. Larus atricilla, Linn. 
Seen on the harbour of Cura(^ao. 

IV, Birds of Bonaire. 

Bonaire, the most oceanic island of the three, is generally 
more wooded than the other two, although some parts of it 
are very bare. 

Nothing has yet been published on the birds of Bonaire. 
Professor Martin, who stayed on the island for five days 
only, mentions that he saw Colmnbigallina passerina and a 
Conurus different from that of Aruba, as also from C. per- 
tinax, and it will be seen that his surmise on this point 
was correct. We also know that Dr. A. A. Julien informed 
Mr. Lawrence that the Chrysotis of Aruba, which was de- 
scribed by the latter as C. canifrons, was common on Bonaire. 
It will be seen, however, that it is not the same, but an 
allied species. 

I am obliged to several residents of Bonaire, above all to 
our kind host Mijnheer van den Brandhof, the Dutch Official 
of Bonaire, to Mijnheer Boye, and Mijnheer Hachett, for 
much assistance durinar our visit to this island. 



Aruba, Curaqao, and Bonaire. 327 

1, Margarops fuscatus (Vieill.). 

This typical West-Indian bird was common in the gardens 
near Fontein, on the north-east coast of Bonaire^ but T saw 
it nowhere else. I have compared my skins with specimens 
from the Bahamas, Haiti, Porto Rico, and St. Thomas, and 
am not able to distinguish between them. My specimens 
are somewhat pale, but all are in, more or less, worn plumage, 
and there are quite similar ones from the Greater Antilles 
in the British Museum. 

These " Tjutjubis " are peculiar birds, running and hopping 
quickly through the foliage, and sometimes making a great 
noise by chattering, warbling, and whistling together. They 
are, I believe, entirely fruit-eaters, for I did not find any- 
thing else in their stomachs, and are destructive to the fruits 
of the date-palms, of the Carica papaya, and other trees. 
They are so fond of the papaya-fruits that they used to come 
through the lattice of the window into the room when we 
had these fruits on the table and soon made away with them. 
The native name is '' Tjutjubi spagnol." 

Iris yellowish white in adult birds, brown in the young 
ones; bill brownish horn-colour; feet light brown. 

The occurrence of this species here is remarkable, especially 
as another subspecies, Margarops fuscatus densirostris 
(Vieill.), is found on the Lesser Antilles. 

-^3. MiMUS GILVUS ROSTRATUS, RidgW. 

Common. 

3. Dendrceca rufopileata, Ridgw. 
Very common. 

4. Certhiola uropygialis (Berl.). 
Extremely common. 

•^t 5. Ammodromus savaxnarum (Grm.). 

Common in grassy places on " Aruba-Estate,^' near 
Kralendijk, on Bonaire. It is called "Raton de cero," or 
" Para de cero." A series of skins of this species agree best 
with specimens from Jamaica, which are typical A. saimn- 
narum, and cannot be separated from them. The wings of 
the Aruban specimens measure 2'05 to 22 inches, tarsus \'7. 



328 Mr. E. Hartert on the Birds of 

The occurrence of this species here is very remarkable. 
Cory (Cat. W. Lid. B. p. 112, 1892) only gives Jamaica, 
Cuba, and Porto Rico as its habitats. 

i 6. EuETHEiA sHARPBi, Hartert. 
Very common. See above, p. 314. 

7. Icterus xanthornus curacaoensis (Ridgw.). 
Rather scarce on Bonaire. 

-f 8, Myiarchus brevipennis, Hartert. 
Not rare. See above, p. 818. 

4-9. SUBLEGATUS GLABER, Scl. et Salv, 

Not rare. Called on Bona'ire "Para stranjeroJ" 

-PIO. TyRANNUS DOMINICENSIS (Gm.) . 

Not rare, but perhaps less numerous than on Curasao. 
Native name "PiVirri.'' 

f 11. Chrysolampis mosqditus (Linn.). 

Common. In the middle of July most of the specimens, 
but not all, had passed through their moult. 

12. Chlorostilbon caribous, Lawr. 

Common. Most of the specimens were still in moult, but 
a few very fine ones were shot. 

-4 13. Stenopsis cayennensis (Gm.). 

Rare. Native name "Para denoche." See above, p. 319. 

,-|-14. Chrysotis rothschildi. (Plate IX.) 

Chrysotis rothschildi, Hartert, Bull. B. O. C. iii. p. xii; id. 
Ibis, 1893, p. 123. 

The Amazon of Bonaire is allied to Chrysotis ochroptera 
from Venezuela and Aruba, but may be distinguished from 
it by the following characters : — 

(1) Instead of the entire sides of the head being yellow (as 
in the adult C. ochroptera) , only the anterior part of the 
crown, the space round the eyes, and the ear-coverts are 
yellow, and the green colour reaches up to, or nearly to, the 
lower mandible right and left of the chin. 

(2) While in adult specimens of C. ochroptera the chin 
and entire throat are rich golden yellow, in C. rothschildi 



Aruba, Curaqao, and Bonaire. 329 

no yellow feathers are to be seen on the throat, and only 
a few scanty feathers on the upper chin are of a pale yellow. 
In nearly all my specimens these feathers are of a more or less 
reddish-brown colour, but this, I believe, is due only to the 
juice of some fruit, as in one rather clean specimen they are 
pale yellow. 

(3) While the whole of the band of the wing is yellow in 
C. ochroptera, and only a few scanty red feathers are some- 
times to be seen next the body, the cubital edge in C. roth- 
schildi is bright scarlet^ more or less mixed with yellow 
outwards, but not to a great extent. 

(4) The 3'ellow shoulder-patch is very much smaller, and 
often quite restricted and mixed with red. The outer bend 
of the wing is not pure yellow, but yellowish green. 

(5) The rump and abdomen show less or no blackish edges 
to the feathers, and the abdomen is less distinctly tinged 
with blue. 

I may add that the skulls of C. rothschihli appear to be 
decidedly smaller, and that the bills are generally thinner 
and the wings somewhat shorter ; but these are not very 
decisive characters for distinguishing this species, as they are 
not quite constant. In other respects C. rothscJtildi re- 
sembles C. ochroptera. Were it not for the red cubital edge 
and the less bluish tinge of the abdomen, C. rothschildi m.\^h.t 
be said to resemble a young stage of C. ochroptera. 

The amount of scarlet at the base of the outer rectrices 
varies, and is sometimes spread over both webs of the second 
and third pairs of the outer rectrices. 

In one quite adult female (No. 202 of my collection) some 
bluish feathers are visible on the forehead ; they are perhaps 
the remains of the immature plumage, which I do not 
know. 

Both Aruba and Bonaire must have received their Amazons 
from the continent. On Aruba, which is so close to the 
mainland, they have not become specialized, and very likely 
fresh immigrants might from time to time fly over to that 
island. Bonaire, however, is remote enough to produce a 
new insular form. 



330 



Mr. E. Hartert on the Birds of 



This Amazon is commou near Fontein, on the N.E. coast 
of Bonaire_, and is said to breed on rocks as well as in hollow 
trees. I am told that it also occurs on Mt. Brandaris, and 
that it straggles occasionally to different parts of the island. 

These birds roost in the rocks of Fontein and fly out at day- 
break, returning to their roosting-places between 8 and 9 a.m. 
They leave again in search of food in the afternoon, and 
return just before sunset. They were easily shot when 
sitting on high trees or on the rocks, their harsh cries indi- 
cating their presence, although climbing, creeping, and 
shooting in the tropical heat and among those wild rocks is 
rather trying work. When feeding in the plains they ap- 
peared to be much more shy than when at home. Their 
food consists of fruits of the Melocactus, Cereus, Morinda, 
Guava, and other trees. 

I shot nine specimens, but two were injured by shot and 
in moult, so that I brought home with me only seven skins. 
All are fully adult, and some more or less in moult. The 
sexes are alike. 

The measurements are as follows : — 



No. 


Sex. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Oulmen. 


Height of 
upper mandible at base. 


188 


cJ ad. sect. 


in. 

8-5 


in. 
5-4 


in. 
1-4 


in. 
0-65 


189 


5 ad. sect. 


7-85 


5-1 


pa 


0-6 


191 


J sect. 


8-5 


5-1 


l-3o 


0-59 


198 


2 sect. 


7-8 


51 


1-27 


0-55 


199 


(^ sect. 


80 


4-9 


1-26 


0-6 


200 


J sect. 


8-4 


5-3 


1-36 


0-6 


202 


5 ad. sect. 


8-3 


5-3 


1-27 


0-6 



* Not measuraMe ; tip wanting. 

The eyes, bill, and feet are of the same colour as those of 
C. ochroptei-a. See above, p. 301. 



Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire. 331 

'/"15. CONURUS XANTHOGENIUS^ Bp. 

Bonaparte (Consp. i. p. 1) described Conurus xanthogenius 
from a single sj)ecimen^ without locality, in the Leyden 
Museum. He gave Brazil as its habitat, but this, of course, 
was wrong. The careful description of the type specimen 
and notes on it in Finsch's work left me little doubt that 
C. xanthogenius was the same as my Conurus from Bonaire. 
To make sure I sent two of my specimens to my friend Biitti- 
kofer, who kindly compared them, and found them identical 
with the type of C. xanthogenius. 

C. xanthogenius is similar to C. pertinax, except that in 
adult specimens the entire top of the head is of a beautiful 
golden-yellow colour, somewhat more orange on the forehead, 
while in C. pertinax the forehead only is orange-yellow. One 
specimen only having been known until lately, it was, in my 
opinion, quite reasonable to consider this form merely as an 
individual variety, as has been done by Finsch, Schlegel, 
Salvadori, and others. Since, however, all the adult speci- 
mens from Bonaire have the entire top of the head golden 
yellow, or at least strongly intermixed with golden yellow 
(all the new-coming feathers being of this colour), there can 
be no doubt that C. xanthogenius must stand as a distinct 
insular form. There is among the series of C. pertinax in 
the British and Leyden Museums, and among those collected 
by Herr Peters and myself on Cura9ao, not one specimen 
with the top of the head yellow, although occasionally, but 
very rarely, a yellow feather appears there, chiefly in caged 
birds, as is common in Parrots^ which are so much inclined 
to xanthochroism. 

The young of C. xanthogenius are similar to the young of 
C. pertinax, but begin to show yellow feathers on the head 
at an early age. While the young examples of C. pertinax 
from Curacao have the upper mandible always whitish, this 
part is brown (as in adult birds) in three immature speci- 
mens from Bonaire, but in one from the same locality it is 
more whitish. 

It seems that the culmen in the Bonaire species is some- 
what longer, as a rule. The measurements of twelve speci- 



332 Mr. E. Hartert on the Birds of 

mens from Bonaire are — total length about 10 inclies, 
wicg 5"5 to 5*8 (average 5*6), tail 5 to 5*5, culmen 09 to 
1*06 ; while those of C. pertinax from Cura(jao are — total 
length about 10 inches, wing 5-4! to 5'7, tail 4*7 to 5*6, 
culmen 083 to 0-95. 

Having said so much about the Parrakeet of Bonaire, I 
must add that it is extremely common and numerous in almost 
every place in the island where the country is not quite bare. 
The screaming of these lovely birds is about the commonest 
noise that is heard in the bush on Bonaire, but they are often 
rather shy. The yellow head of the adult is so clearly 
visible that even a geological traveller like Professor Martin 
noticed it, and has distinctly said that the bird is of a species 
different from C. pertinax. 

Whether ornithologists are inclined to call it a species or 
a subspecies matters little, but it is certainly different from 
the Conurus of Cura9ao. 

-|-16. BUTEO ALBICAUDATUS COLONUS, Bcrl. 

See above, p. 321. Rare on Bonaire. 

4-17. TiNNUNCULUS SPARVERIUS BREVIPENNIS, Berl. 

See above, p. 321. Very rare on Bonaire. 

-f- 18. POLYBORUS CHERIWAY (Jacq.). 

Occurs everywhere, but not in large numbers. These birds 
are often killed because they are supposed to destroy the 
chickens. Besides the preceding species, I conclude from the, 
reports of the inhabitants that several other birds of prey, 
and among these Falco peregrinus and Pandion haliaetus, 
visit this island, as well as Aruba and Curacao, in the 
winter. 

There appear to be no Owls in Bonaire. 

-f-19. COLUMBA GYMNOPHTHALMA, Tcmm. 

Very common. 

-1-20. CoLUMBA PORTORicENsis, Tcmm. 

Columba portoricensis , Temm. in Knip^s ' Les Pigeons,' 
pi. XV. p. 41. 

Columba corensis, auctorum. 



Aruba, Curasao, and Bonaire. 333 

My friend Hans von Berlepsch has called my attention to 
the original description of Jacquin's Columba corensis (Beytr. 
z. Gescbichte d. Vogel, 1784, p. 31). The author there says, 
" Columba {corensis) cauda aquali, orbitis denudatis atro- 
punctatis, corpore griseo." 

" Near Koro, in Venezuela, occurs a fine Pigeon, which 
agrees in size with the common domesticated Pigeon. It 
is entirely of a beautiful grey colour, and the feathers of the 
hind neck are scale-like, which, although of the same colour 
as the others, appear different in different lights. The red 
eyes stand in a bare space, which is beset with black spots. 
The feet are red. The Indians take the young from their 
nests, feed them up, and eat them." [Translated from the 
German.) Gmeliu's diagnosis is merely based on Jacquin^s 
description, and I quite agree with Berlepsch that the 
description is so uncertain — the more so when considering 
that the West-Indian Columba corensis of recent authors 
has not yet been found on the continent — that the name 
of Temminck, who gives a good figure and description of it, 
should stand for this species. I am very glad to learn that 
Count Salvadori agrees with us in this conclusion. 

Examples from Bonaire are absolutely identical with speci- 
mens from Cuba. 

I met with this Pigeon only among the rocks on Bonaire, 
where it is fairly common near Fontein. 

Its note is a very loud and strong cooing, consisting of 
three sounds, somewhat like coo-roo-coo, and repeated very 
frequently. 

I did not see this Pigeon on the ground, and it appears to 
get most of its food from the trees. 

The bill is of a dark blood -red colour, horn- white at the 
tip. The iris consists of two rings, the outer one crimson, 
the inner one yellow. The naked papillose space round the 
eye is yellow, not red. 

There is said to be a Pigeon on the Christoffel in Curac^ao, 
of which neither Herr Peters nor I have been able to get 
specimens. It is called " Paloma preto" which means 
" Black Pigeon." A native of Cura9ao told me it was the 



334 Mr. E. Hartert on the Birds of 

same as the Rock Pigeon {" Paloma di barranca " or " Paloma 
blauiv ") of Bonaire, and Herr Ludwig, of Curasao, wrote me 
to the same effect. 

4-21. ZeNAIDA. VINACEO-RUFA, Ridgw. 

Very common. Large numbers are shot in dry weather 
at the water-tanks, and they make an excellent dish, as does 
also the Columbigallina. 

-/-22. Leptoptila verreauxi, Bp. 

More common than on Aruba and Cura(^ao. 

They are tamer than the other Pigeons and very easily 
shot. The natives call it " Toewiri " on Bonaire, and some- 
times '^ Pecho bianco." 

-f- 23. Columbigallina passerina perpallida, Hartert. 

Extremely common everywhere. In diy weather they 
assemble at the edge of the water-tanks in such numbers 
that sometimes 50 or 60, or even more, can be killed with 
one shot. The islanders use specially loaded cartridges, 
containing little powder and much of the smallest shot, for 
these slaughters. 

-L 24. Ardea tricolor, Miill. 
Seen once or twice on Bonaire. 

-f-25. Ardea candidissima, Gm. 

Not rare near the " salt-pans '' in the south of the island. 

-{- 26. BuTORiDES viREscENs (Linn.). 

Seen once or twice in the south of Bonaire. 

4- 27. HiMANTOPUS MEXICANUS (Miill.). 

I saw a flock of these birds in the south of the island. 

-^28. TOTANUS melanoleucus. 

On the 21st July, when on the island of Bonaire, three of 
these birds passed overhead. I was able to fire only one shot, 
which brought down one of them. This is an adult male, 
and agrees perfectly with specimens from other localities, 
except that its wings are shorter, measuring only 6 "95 inches, 
and the tarsi only 2 2. The bill is of the same length as 



Aruha, Curasao, and Bonaire. 335 

that of other examples, measuring 2*2 inches. If this should 
prove to be a resident bird, it is not unlikely to be a short- 
winged insular form. 

Iris deep brown ; bill black, dark greyish horn-colour at 
the base ; legs yellowish. 

29. Tringa mtnutilla, Vieill. 

A single male of this bird was noticed and shot on the 
23rd July at Laguna, on Bonaire. It agrees with specimens 
from other localities. 

-/■30. j3^gialites collauis (Vieill.). 

Small flocks of this bird were seen on Bonaire, and two 
young specimens in moult Avere procured. It seems to me 
that the wings and bills are rather short, but examination of 
a series of adult specimens would be necessary to guarantee 
the constancy of these characters. The culmens measure 
0-53 and 0-57 inch. 

-4- 31. ^GIALITIS RUriNUCHA, Ridgw. 

Bather common at Laguna and at the '^ salt-pans," where 
they undoubtedly breed. Bonaire specimens are like those 
from Aruba. 

See above, p. 307. 

32. Ph(enicopterus sp. inc. 

A great number of Flamingoes breed on Bonaire. They 
are locally called " Chogogo." On the 12th June I went to 
the " salt-pans,^^ where I saw several hundreds of Flamingoes 
standing in the middle of the vast shallow water-basin on 
their nests. Unfortunately I had no rifle with me, and the 
locality not producing a single bush nor anything to hide 
anyone approaching, it was impossible to get within gunshot- 
distance. The aspect of hundreds of these wonderful birds 
was even more picturesque than that of the Indian Flamingo. 
In spite of the assurances of the men, who told me there 
were no eggs, I walked, along with my guide, knee-deep 
through water (which was, in fact, like a solution of salt and 
saltpetre) to the nests. The travelling was very unpleasant. 



336 Mr. E. Hartert on the Birds of 

not to say dangerous. The water was deep in places and the 
bottom very rough, consisting of very sharp corals, and 
often of a deceitful crust of salt or saltpetre, under which 
the water was black and very deep. It required much care 
to avoid these bad places, and it took us, I think, nearly an 
hour to reach the nests. Our shoes being cut by the corals, 
our feet began to bleed, and the salt water caused an un- 
pleasant tingling in the little wouuds. The nests themselves 
were flat plateaus, standing out of the water from three to six 
inches, the water round them being apparently very shallow, 
but it was often the fatal crust that caused this appearance, 
not the proper bottom. Many of the nests were close together 
and sometimes connected by dry ground. They were quite 
hard, so that one could stand on them, and almost the only 
way of getting along was to jump from one nest to the other. 
The nests consisted of clay, hardened by the sun and pene- 
trated and overcrusted with salt, and of pieces of coral, with a 
distinct concavity in the centre. On some of the nests we 
found freslily-broken eggs of some species of Tern, and 
lying in the water I found two eggs of the Flamingo, which 
turned out to be quite fresh and eatable, although they must 
have been in the water for some time. After the breeding- 
place of the " Chogogo " had been thus disturbed, these shy 
birds left the spot and flew to the other side of the island. 
I am told that they change their breeding-places very often. 
The two eggs measure 3*35 and 3'45 inches by 2' 13 and 
216. 

Except leaving them of a colour like that of a boiled lobster, , 
this pleasant trip had no evil result on my legs, but my guide, 
the faithful policeman of Mijnheer van den Brandhof, lost 
the entire skin of his, and could not go out for some days 
afterwards. 

33. Pelecanus fuscus, Linn. 

I saw flocks of this Pelican at sea close to the shore. 

34. Fregata AQuiLA (Linn.). 

I did not see the Frigate-bird on the island myself, but I 
am assured that it not rarely occurs there. 



Aruba, Caraqao, and Bonaire. 337 

f 35. Sterna maxima, Bodd. 
See above, p. 32G. 

-f 36. Sterna hirundo, Linn. 

I have already mentioned that I found the broken eggs of 
some Terns on the nests of the Flamingoes ; but I regret 
that I was so much occupied and excited by the Flamin- 
goes and their breeding-place that I did not pay suffi- 
cient attention to the Terns to say with certainty whether 
^. dougalU is found here as well as S. hirundo. Two Terns 
that came near to me and were shot were of the latter 
species, and therefore I am quite sure that they breed here 
and that the broken eggs belonged to them. 

•f 37. Sterna antillarum. Less. 

These Terns were common, and had both nearly and quite 
full-grown young ones. 

38. Larus atricilla, Linn, 

This Gull was seen several times on the coast. 

V. General Conclusions. 

(1) The three islands of Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire 
have received the greater number of their birds from the 
South-American continent, but some also from the West 
Indies, for there are many pure West-Indian forms amongst 
them besides the continental ones. 

(2) There are striking affinities between the avifauna of 
these islands and that of the islands of St. Thomas and 
St. Croix (Virgin Islands), but no similarity to that of the 
Windward Islands; for example, Conurus pertinax, Elainea 
martinica I'iisii, Icterus icterus^, Tyr annus dominicensisf, 
and Margarops fuscatus occur in both localities. Moreover, 
we have in this avifauna Certhiola uropygialis (of which the 
nearest allies are found on St. Croix and St. Thomas), ^mmo- 

* It lias been suggested tliat Icterus icterus has been introduced into 
St. Tbomas, but this seems to be doubtful. 

t T. dominicensis is replaced by T. rostratus, Scl., on most of the Lesser 
Antilles. 

SER. VI. VOL. v. 2 15 



338 Mr, J. H. Gurney on Raptorial 

dromus savannarum^ , and Eupsychortyx cristatus-\. These 
facts are very interesting and should be studied more 
thoroughly : they seem to point to the theory that the 
Virgin Islands and the islands of Bonaire and Curasao J were 
formerly connected in some way^ or that they are of the 
same geological age_, and not of the same age as the Wind- 
ward Islands. Perhaps there was once a line of islands 
(similar to that of the Lesser Antilles) reaching from 
St. Thomas through " Los Aves/' or the Bird Island, by 
way of Blanca, Orchilla, Grand Cay, Los Roques, and 
the second group called " Los Aves/^ to Bonaire and 
Curacao. 

(3) The avifaunas of the three islands are generally very 
similar, but some interesting differences are obvious. Bonaire 
has most species of West-Indian origin, while Aruba has 
most continental forms, as would be expected from their 
situation. 

(4) The facts brought to light through my little collection 
should induce ornithologists to explore the other small 
islands on the Venezuelan coast, such as Grand Cay, Orchilla, 
Blanca, and Margarita. 



XXX. — On the Collection of Eaptorial Birds in the Norwich 
Museum. By J. H. Gurney. 

The Raptorial Collection in the Norfolk and Norwich 
Museum will before long be transferred to Norwich Castle, 
together with the rest of the treasures in the Museum, and 
handed over to the Corporation. In this ancient building, 

* Ammodromus savannarum is not found in the Lesser Antilles, but 
occurs in Porto Rico, very near to St. Thomas. See Cory, Cat. W. Tnd. B. 
p. 112. 

t It is said that, although E, sonninii occurs on St. Thomas, it has been 
introduced from Venezuela {cf. Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1860, 
p. 378 ; Newton, Ibis, 1860, p. 308 ; and Berl. J. f. O. 1892, p. 100). If 
this is correct, no weight should be attached to the occm-rence of a 
different species {E. cristatus) in the Curafao group. 

X To Aruba these species may have been brought by the trade-wind 
from the other two islands. 



Birds in the Norwich Museum. 339 

which has been prepared for the reception of the Museum at 
a cost of .€17,000, there will be plenty of room. There the 
Hawks and Owls will be arranged according to my father's 
method, and in accordance also with the scheme submitted 
by Mr. Sclater to the Trustees in June 1891 *. 

At present the specimens are, as has been pointed out by * 
Mr. Sclater, a good deal crowded, and it is not easy for the eye 
to follow the arrangement (commencing in the lobby with 
the Secretary-bird and ending in the " Owl Room " with 
the Harriers) adopted for the 390 species represented in the 
Museum, especially as in many cases there are seven or 
eight mounted specimens of the same species. My father's 
principal object was to illustrate geographical distribution, 
and he attached more importance to this than to the modern 
minute subdivision of species. This is well shown in the 
series of Peregrine Falcons, Barn Owls, and Scops Owls. 

Among the additions to the Raptorial Collection at 
Norwich since my father's death, four represent species 
new to the collection — namely. Baza bismarcki, Leucopternis 
semiplimibea, Scelospizias cenchroides , and Scops elegans, — all 
of which would have been very acceptable to him, more 
particularly the second and the fourth. Perhaps a few words 
about these additions will not be out of place. 

Dr. A. B. Meyer, of Dresden, sent us the specimen of Baza 
bismarcki, from New Britain. It is an adult, killed April lOtli, 
1891, on Gazelle Island (lat. 4°, long. 152°). On comparing 
it with our B. gurneyi, from Russell Island in the Solomon 
group (P. Z, S. 1888, p. 188), presented by Canon Tristram, 
it will be seen that it is not so white under the wing, 
neither has it the white thighs and underparts of B. gurneyi. 
Count Salvadori considers B. bismarcki to be intermediate 
between B. reinivardti, the form found in New Guinea, and 
B. gurneyi (Orn. Pap., App. 1889, p. 13). He says: — 
"This is a form of B. reinivardti which, like B. gurneyi 

* Report to the Trustees of the Norwich Castle Museum and to the 
Committee of the Norfolk and Norwich Museums on the Collections of 
the Museum, and on the best mode of arranging them in the new 
buildings. By P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. Norwich, June 1891. 

2b 2 



340 Mr. J. H. Gurney on Rnptorial 

of the Solomon Islands, is distinguished by the clear under- 
parts/' The subject has been further discussed in ray father's 
'List of the Diurnal Birds of Prey/ p. 154, and by Dr. 
Bowdler Sharpe in Gould's ' Birds of New Guinea/ where 
the specific name of bismarcH was first proposed. 

Of Baza reinwardti (Miill. & Schleg.) we have seventeen 
specimens, collected by Beccari^ Linden, Fahn, Bruijn, 
Wallace, and others, — -from Salawati, Ceram, Dorey, Am- 
berbaki, and Waigiou. Of these localities three are in Dutch 
New Guinea, and Ceram and Waigiou are close by"^. 

Dr. Meyer holds out hopes of sending us Megatriorchis 
doria (referred by Dr. Sharpe to the Australian genus 
Ey'ythrotiHorchis) , of which he has recently obtained one for 
Dresden. I believe my father was in communication with 
SirWm. Macgregor about M. f/ori<p shortly before his death, 
and I have since made application through Mr. H. Anson to 
obtain this very desirable acquisition. 

We have received from Mr. G. K. Cherrie, of Costa Rica, 
a skin of Leucopternis semiplumbea, labelled " January the 
3rd, 1890," and apparently adult, as it has only one caudal 
band. It agrees well with the description in the ' British 
Museum Catalogue' (i. p. 220), except that it falls short of 
the measurements there given, particularly in the length of 
the tail, which is 4*8 instead of 7'8 inches. This specimen, 

* Since the above was written I have received from Mr. T. A. Hauxwell, 
Conservator of Forests in Burma, a small box of Accipitres, and among 
them one new to the Museum — Baza siimatrensis (Lafr.). It is marked 
as shot at Meple, Thaungyin Valley, January 1891, and is in immature 
plumage. As the stripe on the chin is just apparent, it is probably a little 
older than the one figured by Dr. Sharpe (Cat. of Birds, i. pi. xi.), and 
though marked a " female," would, from the following measurements, 
seem to be a male — crest 2'4 inches, wing 11-5, tarsus 1'3, culmen 1*4, 
tail 8. The tail has four dark bands. My father notes that an example 
from Malacca, sent to him from Brussels for examination, measured — 
crest 2'5 inches, wing 14, tarsus 1"8. The range of £. sumatrensis ex- 
tends from Sikhim to Sumatra. Its nearest ally is B. ceylonensis, Legge, 
which is decidedly smaller. Judging from our three specimens, and this 
Mr. Hume confirms (' Stray Feathers,' 1876, p. 247, note). 

The series at Norwich now includes all the Bazas except B. leucopais 
and B. magniro^trh of the Philippines. 



Birds in the Norwich Museum. 341 

which was shot in Costa Rica, had, when killed, yellow legs 
and a pale orange eye, and its stomach contained the remains 
of a bird. Its back is not so brown as that o£ L. super - 
ciliaris. Mr. Lawrence, the describer of this rare bird, writes 
me that he has seen only three specimens. 

We have still to get Leucopiernis princeps (figured by 
Sclater, P. Z. S. 1865, pi. xxiv.), L. plumbea (figured. Ibis, 
1872, p, 239), and L. occidentalism described by Mr. Salvin, 
to complete the series. Mr. Cherrie has promised to obtain 
for us the first and last, if possible. 

The Museum has skins of L. albicollis (Latham) from 
Mexico, Quito {Jameson), Trinidad, and British Guiana, and 
examples of L. schistacea from Bolivia, the Upper Amazons 
(two collected by Bates), Yquitos (three), Panama (two), and 
Samiria in Peru. Of L. schistacea my father remarks that 
Taczanowski, in his ' Orn. du Perou^ (i, p. 109), gives the iris 
as dark brown, but that three collectors have marked ex- 
amples in the Norwich Museum as having yellow eyes — 
J. H. G. [MS.). 

Shortly after my father's death Professor Menzbier sent 
the Museum a pair of Severtzoff'^'s Scelospizias cenchroides 
from Turkestan. In ' The Ibis ' for 1875 (p. 480, note) it is 
stated that before he died Dr. Severtzoft' admitted that 
*S^. cenchroides was only a large form of S. badius, but in 
1884 my father allowed it as a subspecies in his 'List.' 
S. cenchroides is figured in Menzbier's ' Ornithology of 
Turkestan,' plate iii., where the profusion of cross-bars is 
shown. We already had Indian specimens of S. badius 
which in size and tint correspond with Severtzoff's 
S. cenchroides, but it is interesting to have got others 
guaranteed by Prof. Menzbier, whose two skins are labelled 
" Gjarman " and '' Sandych-Kagan." 

My father limited the genus Scelospizias to eight species 
and five subspecies. Perhaps an enumeration of the specimens 
in the Norwich Museum may not be out of place, as between 
1884 and 1890 he added many, but struck out S. castanilius 
(Bp.) as being doubtfully distinct from S. unduliventer 
(Hupp.). 



342 



Mr. J. H. Gurney on Raptorial 



List of Specimens of Scelospizias in the Norwich Museum. 

S.francesi 

S. pusillus 

S. brutus 

S. polyzonoides 

^S". badius 

*S'. poliopsis 

S. cenchroides 

S. sphenurus 

S. brevipes 

S. tachiro 

aS'. undtdiventer 

S. toussenelii 



Madagascar. 


16 


Comoro Islands. 


5 


» 


1 


South Africa. 


17 


India 


27 


Siam. 


7 


Turkestan. 


2 


Africa. 


15 


Asia Minor. 


12 


Africa. 


14 


Abyssinia. 


11 


Gaboon. 


3 



More specimens of S. brutus are wanted. Our example, 
which in the lapse of years appears to have faded, is labelled 
" Yeux jaunes, bee bleuatre d^indigo, pattes jaunes. ? tuee 
ce 6 Juin, 1864." 

To the liberality of Mr. Henry Seebohm the Museum is 
indebted for an addition to the collection of Owls in the 
shape of an example of >Scoj95 e/f^faws (Cassin), the S. semi- 
torques of Seebohm, from the Loo-Choo Islands, between 
Formosa and Japan (but not the ^S. semitorques of Temminck 
and Sclilegel, of which we already possessed a large series). 
It was obtained by the late Mr. Pryer in January 1887, 
and is the same as was described by my father in ' The Ibis,' 
1889 (p. 303). Only five examples are known to Mr. See- 
bohm (P. Z. S. 1890, p. 345), including the two which 
Stejneger described. We still require examples of several 
new subspecies of Scops and of S. insidaris (Tristr.) . 

Other additions have been made, such as Ninox di- 
morpha (Salvadori) from Jobie Island, north of New 
Guinea, which we already had under the generic name of 
Hieroglaux, and ^salon suckleyi, from British Columbia, 
presented by Mr. A, C. Brooks as a companion to one he gave 
before. jE. suckleyi (Ridgway) is a dark race and yE. richard- 
soni a pale race of ^. columbarius. My father says he had 
not seen jE. richardsoni (when writing his " Notes on the 
Merlins," Ibis, 1882, p. 161), though the Museum con- 
tained two young birdsffrom Monterey which he afterwards 



Bii'ds in the Norwich Museum. 343 

decided to belong to this form. We have now five, and 
sixteen of yE. columburiiis. 

We have also had the gift of a nestling Buteo swainsoni 
obtained at Assiniboia in Canada by Mr. D. L. Thorpe. 
Its stomach contained grasshoppers and mice. It was taken 
with two others from a nest in a large prickly bush 12 feet 
from the ground, and presented by Mr. Thorpe {cf. ' Zoolo- 
gist/ 1893, p. 53). 

The Buzzards of the New World seem to be still in rather 
an unsettled state as to what are species and what are 
varieties. I believe I am right in saying that Buteo poecilo- 
chrous from Ecuador, coming most closely to B. erythronotus 
(Ibis, 1879, p. 176), stands good at present, and that there are 
two geographical races of B. borealis, viz. : B. socorroensis, 
Ridgway (which takes its name from the island to which it 
is peculiar), and the light-coloured B. krideri, Hoopes, in- 
habiting that part of North America which extends from 
Texas to Minnesota. If examples of either of these are to 
be found in any collection in England, it is probably only 
in the National Collection, for apparently we have none at 
Norwich, though my father's series of American Buzzards is 
not a small one. 

A skin of B. lucasanus with a very light tail was lately 
offered, but not purchased, as Mr. Ridgway, who named it, 
writes to say the species is untenable. My father, up to 
1884, had never seen this North- American form. The Mu- 
seum has only one example of B. borealis harlani {cf. 'Auk,^ 
1890, p. 205), one of B. costaricensis, and two of B. abbre- 
viatus. Of B. alleni, a subspecies of B. lineatus found in 
Florida, we have a good series of ten, and want no more. 

We have the genus Falco, restricted in my father's 'List^ 
to seven species and six subspecies, well represented, including 
a pair of very dark F.pealeij Ridgway, from the Kurile Islands, 
in the North Pacific. These birds, which he obtained in 
June 1884, immediately after his ' List ' was published, are 
darkest on the breast and belly and under the wings. They 
are both immature and are labelled as shot in September 
1881. 



344 Mr, J. H. Gurney on Raptorial 

The great Condor from Chili and the Straits of Magellan, 
Sai-corhamjjhus magellanicus (Shaw), must, if possible, be 
obtained some day. My father was doubtful about S. magel- 
lanicus, and was still less of a believer in the permanently 
brown Condor which has received the name S. cequatorialis. 
Of one alluded to in his ' List ' (which is figured in the 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1883, pi. xxxv.) he notes : — '' The specimen 
figured was, I think, certainly a young female of the common 
s^jecies ; it died about June 1885, before which time the 
ruff had begun to show puffs of white down. Dark grey 
feathers began to appear on the mantle, and two light grey 
feathers appeared amongst the greater wing-coverts. The 
irides were beginning to assume a tinge of garnet-red." — 
J. H. G. {MS.) . After examining this Condor on the 14th of 
February, 1885, he writes : — " The irides are now decidedly 
garnet-coloured, though not as brightly so as in the adult 
female Condor, and all the parts which are white in the latter 
have become sensibly paler^ many of the feathers being tinged 
with yellowish white disposed more or less in patches.'^ 
A description of the same bird was given him by Mr. J. G. 
Goodchild the following April, and soon after it died. A 
sketch by Mr. Goodchild sent by him to my father in 
July 1884 shows the white down of the ruff, but not the 
grey feathers in the wing, which must have been assumed 
later. It was nine years old or more when it died, and that 
was the same age to which the one in the Central Park 
Menagerie, New York, lived ('Auk,' 1885, p. 170). 

Of the Common Condor the Museum has a fine adult pair, 
two young birds, and an egg. 

Turning again to the Old World, there is, perhaps, nothing 
our Committee would be better pleased to obtain than a skin 
of Tinnunculus alopew of Sennaar, Kordofan, and the Blue 
Nile. Other African birds which the Museum requires from 
the Dark Continent, now being opened up by so many ex- 
plorers, are Melierax poliopterus, Cabanis, from Somaliland, 
and Machcem-hamphus revoili, Oustalet, from the same country. 
The latter is stated by the French naturalist who described it 
to resemble M. anderssoni in its wings and tail, and M. alcimis 



Birds in the Norwich Museum. 345 

in its crest and throat, but only tlie type is at present known. 
It is scarcely probable that such a very distinct genus as 
Machaerirhamphus {Siringonyx) should consist of only two 
species, and those two found in different parts of tlic 
world. 

The Museum requires Melierax mechowi, Cabanis, if it is 
distinct. My father includes it in his ' List ' with a query, 
and a star indicating that he had not seen it. In a MS. note 
he adds : — " ]Mr. Sharpe thinks not distinct from M. poly- 
zonus (Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. xvii. p. 437), but see as to 
its distinctness Bocage, J. Sci. Lisboa, xxxiv. pp. 65, (i7J' 
Dr. Sharpe's remark is that in twelve examples in the British 
Museum " every gradation between a uniform and a closely- 
barred wing can be found." 

The other species of Melierax — M. canorus, M. polyzonus, 
M. gabar, and M. niger — arc largely represented in the 
Museum by specimens from Ayres and other African collec- 
tors, and of M. canorus { = M. musicus (Daiulin)) we have 
three eggs taken by Lucas at Rustenburg in the Transvaal. 

As supplementary to his remarks on the colour of the eye 
in Melierax {cf. Ibis, 1875, p. 235), my father records 
(MS. notes) that in July 1884 an adult M. musicus at the 
Zoological Societj^'s Gardens had '' dull cherry iridcs,'Hhat two 
years later they were " reddish orange," and that an adult 
M. poly zonus at the Gardens had the irides of " a rich but 
not dark hazel." 

Accipiter buettikoferi has been described by l)r. Sharpe 
from three adult Sparrow-Hawks obtained in Liberia, on 
the coast of Guinea, assigned at first to A. hartlaabi, from 
which they diff'cr in not having white marks on the centre 
tail-feathers and in having the thighs grey. Subsequently 
two others presented the same coloration (Biittikofer, Notes 
Leyden Mus. xi. p. 115, 1889). It does not appear that 
the Norwich Museum has got A. buettikoferi, but it has two 
adults of A. hartlaubi (from Bissao and Gaboon) which have 
grey thighs, and their tails when spread show some white 
spots. Nearly allied to Accipiter hartlaubi (as to the possible 
identitv of which with A. niinullus mv father refers to 



346 Mr. J. H. Guriiey on Raptorial 

' Notes Leyden Mus/ vii. p. 153), but larger, is the A. rufi- 
venti'is, Smith, at present standing iu the Museum under 
the name of A. exilis (Temm.). A. exilis my father held 
to be a synonym of A. hartlauhi in immature plumage, but 
A. hartlauhi, A. minullus, and A. erythropus (Hartlaub) stand 
separated in the Museum. Of the little A. minullus we 
have 23 specimens, but only one of A. erythropus, obtained 
through Carfrae in 1858. 

Of A. rufiventris we have twelve specimens from Natal, 
Lydenburg, King William-'s Town, Shoa, Transvaal, &c. In 
confirmation of a theory advanced in *The Ibis' for 1889 
(p. 572), that species will sometimes throw out a " sport ^' 
resembling other species, it may be mentioned that adult 
males of our British Sparrow-Hawk {A. 7iisus) occasionally 
vary, so as to resemble A. rufiventris, in having the breast 
and underparts a clear rufous without any transverse bands 
at all. Such a bird, shot in Norfolk, I saw some years ago 
at Mr. Gunn's shop, and another was obtained by Mr. Henry 
Doubleday ('Zoologist,' 1875, p. 4429). But the best 
example of this plain-chested variety was shot in Northum- 
berland and is in the Newcastle Museum. 

When my father published his ' List ' he had not seen 
Microhierax sinensis, Sharpe, figured by David and Oustalet 
under the name of M. chinensis, and he never got one 
for the Museum ; but he was shown one in 1887 by 
Mr. Styan killed at Foochow [cf. Ibis, 1887, pp. 234, 470), 
and he notes that " it seemed the largest of the genus, in 
coloration very like M. melanoleucus." The localities given 
for it by David are the province of Kiangsi, in the centre of 
Southern China, and Nankin. This species differs from 
M. melanoleucus in having a white spot at the back of the 
neck, but Mr. Seebohm doubts this being a specific diff'erence 
(P. Z. S. 1890, p. 345). Besides M. sinensis we require also 
M. melanoleucus. 

Of Microhierax fringillarius (Drap.) the Museum has a 
large series from Singapore, Banjarmassing, Baram, Batavia^ 
and Sumatra. 

Of M. erythrogenys (Vigors) we have four from Mindanao 



Birds in the Norivich Museum. 347 

and other islands in the Philippines. Of M. latifrotis, Sharpe, 
first discriminated by my father, we have one said to have 
been killed in the Nicobar Islands, and two from Lawas 
and Sandakan in Borneo. 

Henicopernis infuscata, Gurney, ought not to find a place 
among the desiderata at Norwich, for the type collected by 
Lieut. Richards in New Britain, July 9th, 1879, was given to 
the Museum by Canon Tristram in 1890. It was, however, 
unaccountably lost. It is believed that it was sent by mistake 
along with some of my father's birds from Natal to the Natural 
History Museum at South Kensington, and that it is some- 
where among the thousands of bird-skins in the National 
Collection. It is much darker than H. longicauda (Garnot) 
of New Guinea, of which the Museum has five specimens, 
two of them obtained by Mr. Wallace, in Mysol and Dorey. 
The fellow-specimen of H. infuscata, which Mr. Layard gave 
to Canon Tristram afterwards, is at Durham still. 

In 'The Ibis' for 1891, p. 305, Dr. Steere has described, 
or restated the description of, a new Harrier to be called 
Circus phiUjypensis, but does not say wherein it differs from 
C melanoleucuSj the plumages of which are given at length 
by my father (Ibis, 1875, pp. 225-8) . If C.philippensis stands^ 
a specimen is desirable ; but Mr. Everett doubts its validity. 
To Mr. Everett my father was indebted for eight examples 
of Circus spilonotus from Borneo collected at Papar and 
Labuan, and there is in the Museum an adult male^ which 
he obtained from Gould, killed near Manilla in the Philip- 
pines. We have four specimens of Swinhoe's from Amoy and 
Formosa, a young male collected by Severtzoff in Turkestan, 
and a female nearly adult from Japan. The sexes are alike 
(Ibis, 1889, p. 256). 

Other species of the genus Circus are well represented in 
the Museum, but of C. maillardi (Verreaux), the Bourbon 
Harrier, we have no adult. The series of C. macrosceles, 
Newton, having been considerably increased since the ' List ' 
was published, it may be worth giving an enumeration of 
them. 



348 



Mr. J. H. Gurney on Raptorial 



List of Specimens of Circus macrosceles in the Norwich 
Museum. 



Type specimen. 
(^ immature 

c? adult 

2 adult 

d? „ 

? „ 



cJ neariy adult . 

d" adult 

6 „ 

(^ nearly adult. 

6 



Madagascar, Sept. 22, 1862. 
Lake Hasy, Madagascar, 
do. do. 

do. do. 

Joanna, Comoro Islands {cf. Ibis, 
1876, p. 278). 
do. 
do. 
do. 
Madagascar (Ibis, 1880, p. 397). 
do. 



Sir E. Newton. 
Rev. J. Wills. 

do. 

do 

Per G. A. Frank. 

do. 
Dr. Dickinson. 
Sir E. Newton. 
Rev. J. Wills. 

do. 



My father was of opinion that Circus humbloti is a synonym 
of C. macrosceles, but later researches have decided that it 
is a good species (A. Milne-Edwards and E. Oustalet, N. 
Arch. Mus. x. p. 234). 

Spilornis panayensis, another discovery of Dr. Steere, in- 
habits Panay and Negros in the Philippine Islands (Ibis, 1891, 
p. 305), and is distinguished from S. holospilus by its small 
size and pale colouring. Of the latter there are two skins 
in the Museum obtained by Mr, A. H. Everett at Zamboanga, 
in Mindanao, and South Leyte, which are in the south part of 
the Philippine group, and these are an inch less in the wing 
than four other specimens of S. holospilus at Norwich, but 
as they are not any paler I conclude they cannot be referred 
to Dr. Steere's new species. Of Spilornis minimus, Hume, 
considered a well-marked species {cf. Ibis, 1878, p. 101), 
we have only one, from Trinket, in the Nicobar Islands. Of 
S. sulaensis we have two, a male and a female, collected by 
Mr. Wallace in Sula Island, and recently lent to Dr. Meyer 
for his forthcoming work on the birds of Celebes. Of 
S. davisuni, Hume, and S. bido (Horsfield) the Museum has 
only two apiece, the former from Penang, the latter from Java. 
Of the remaining seven species which compose the genus we 
have plenty, but should value additional specimens if in 
plumages not at present represented. 

Mv father was of opinion that Astur cruentm, (iould, is a 



Birds in the Norivich Museum. 349 

synonym of Urospizias approximans (' List of D. B. of Prey/ 
p. 38), though GoukFs plate is more like U. torquata, but 
Mr. Ramsay tells me the colouring of the plate is misleading, 
Mr. W, Burton, who obtained what he considers to be Astiir 
cruentus in North-west Australia, says it is much larger than 
U. torquata, in support of which statement he has favoured me 
with a series of measurements taken by the late Mr, Bower. 
Mr. Ramsay has received authentic specimens from Derby 
(Tab. List, 1888, p. 1). Mr. Ramsay gives ''Port Essington 
to Derby and inland to Kimberley " as the habitat in the 
supplement to 'The Australian Accipitres,^ 1890, p. 5. He 
also refers to the subject in the Proceedings of Linn. Soc. 
ofN. S. W. (iii. p. 174). As recently as August 1892 he 
writes that he is convinced that A. cruentus is a distinct 
species, but adds that it should be compared closely with the 
Timor bird. We have in the Museum an example from the 
Swan River of a Urospizias which, from the redness of its 
underparts, my father thought might be Gould's U. cruenta, 
but until we get more specimens Astur cruentus must rank 
among our desiderata. 

Seven new species of Urospizias have been described since 
my father's ' List ' was published, not counting U. sharpii, 
Ramsay, making this the largest genus of the subfamily 
Accipitrince, which in his arrangement includes fourteen 
genera and two subgenera. 

Of Astur hensti, Schlegel, we have a very good example, 
obtained in Madagascar by Mr. Wills, but none of ^. moreli, 
Pollen, and none of A. candidissimus, which is a pale race of 
A. palumbarius existing in Kamtschatka. Its describer, 
Dybowski, calls it " une forme particulifere.'' The following 
are mentioned in Menzbier's * Orn. Geogr. of Russia ' as 
subspecies of the Goshawk : Astur palumbarius albidus, A. 
palumbarius schevedoivi, and A. palumbarius buteoides. The 
first of these my father considered equal to A. candidissimus, 
concerning which he remarks that a specimen in the Natural 
History Museum " seemed only to be a very old male A. pa- 
lumbarius," while to A. palumbarius schevedoivi he would 
assign the specimens from the Ural Mountains recorded by 
him in ' The Ibis ' for 1875, p. 354. 



350 Mr. E. W. H. Blagg 07i the 

Oi Astur striatulus, Ridgway [A. henshfnvi, Nelson), the 
Museum has a young male procured from California through 
Mr. Bridges, and another young bird from Sir William 
Jardine\s Collection labelled " Vancouver Island, N.A. 
(Brown). ^' My father was not a believer in A. striatulus, 
audits describer wavered about it (c/. ' Auk,M884, p. 252). 
It is a western form of A. atricapillus, from which it differs 
in " having the markings of the underparts so fine as to 
present a nearly uniform bluish ashy nebulation.^' 



XXXI. — Notes on the Nesting of some Shetland Birds. 
By Ernest W. H. Blagg, M.B.O.U. 

I VENTURE to hope that the following notes, comprising the 
observations made by my friend Dr. Percy Kendall and myself 
during a visit paid to the Shetlands in the summer of 1892, 
may not be devoid of interest to readers of "^The Ibis/ 
inasmuch as there is already a considerable difference in 
the Avifauna of the district now as compared with the time 
when Dr. Saxby wTote his "well-known work. We visited 
the Shetlands in the height of the breeding-season, namely, 
the latter part of May and the early part of June, 
with the especial object of seeing, in their nesting-haunts, 
birds of several species which it is either impossible or 
difficult to meet with further south ; and I may say that on 
the whole we had every reason to be satisfied with our visit. 
Its success was in no small degree due to the kindness of my 
friend Mrs. Cameron, of Garth, who most obligingly furnished 
us with letters of introduction to landowners and other 
persons of influence in the district. To Mr. George Bruce, of 
Sand Lodge, and Captain MacFarlane, of Guendale House, 
we are also especially grateful, for their extreme kindness and 
courtesy in acting, as they did, as our hosts and guides in an 
unknown land. 

I shall not waste time in describing the position of the 
various islands we visited, and, for reasons which will be 
sufficiently obvious to my readers, I shall not minutely 



Nesting of some Shetland Birds. 351 

describe the whereabouts of some of the breeding-haunts 
referred to. In addition to nesting birds T shall also mention 
a few species which, according to Dr. Saxby's work, are of 
rare occurrence in the Shetlands, or are not usually met 
with there in the breeding-season. 

Fieldfare [Turdus pilaris). One bird noticed on the 
island of Noss on the 26th of May, another seen on Balta 
Isle on the 2nd of June, unless, indeed, it was the same bird 
gradually working its way north ! 

— Wheatear [Saxicola oenanfhc). Local name " Stinkle.^' 
Very abundant and breeding everywhere. 

Common Wren {Troglodytes parvulus). Not by any means 
abundant, but met with in several places. We were struck 
with the difference in appearance between these Wrens 
and the Wren of the South, the Shetland Wrens being larger 
and more barred. ]\Iight not these Shetland birds be 
T. borealis? 

Pied Wagtail {Motacilla luguhris). Seen in Unst, 
May 31st. 

Rock Pipit {Antlnis ohscurus). Very abundant, but the 
nest very difficult to find ; however, we managed to discover 
three nests. The first, found on the 2Gth of May, was only 
half built ; this was situated in rather a damp and dark spot 
in a fissure between two large rocks. Another nest, dis- 
covered on the 31st of May, contained four eggs very 
slightly incubated. The nest was situated under a clod of 
turf at the side of a drain running down to the sea-coast, 
and was made of dried grass and lined with horse-hair or 
probably pony's hair ! The mother bird was very tame, and 
remained close by the nest for some time after being put off 
her eggs. On June 1st we found the third nest ; this was dis- 
covered by my friend only after turning over some hundred 
or so of boulders in a spot where the birds were particularly 
numerous ; it contained recently-hatched young and one 
addled egg. The Rock Pipits' eggs that we took in the 
Shetlands are larger than any Meadow Pipits' eggs that I 



352 Mr. E. W. H. Blagg on the 

have ever seen, but very similar in coloration, though perhaps 
they have a browner tint. 

Swallow [Hirundo rustica). Observed on Bressay, 
May 27th, also at Sand Lodge, June 6th. 

House Martin {Hirundo urUca). Several pairs flying 
about the cliffs in the north of Unst, May 31st; several 
birds at Sand Lodge, June 6th. 

Twite [Linota flavirostris) . Local name " Lintie.^' 
Generally distributed. It was a novel experience to find 
'' Linnets' " nests in such situations as the Wagtails build 
in, though of course w'e were quite prepared for it. The 
nests we found were built either in crevices of rocks or 
amongst the heath and rough grass on the banks of streams, 
and were composed of such materials as one would expect to 
find in a Linnet's nest, being generally lined with sheep's wool 
of several colours, brown, white, &c. One nest we found 
contained newly-hatched young, and in several cases the eggs 
were in an advanced state of incubation. The eggs are 
beautiful objects when fresh, being much bluer than an 
ordinary Linnet's egg, but are spotted and streaked in the 
same varied way. The yellow beak of the male bird is very 
noticeable at some distance away. 

■^ Starling {Sturnus vulgaris). Found nesting abundantly 
in the heaps of stones piled up in different places, and fre- 
quently in holes close to the ground. 

B/AVEN [Corvus corax). Breeds in many places still. On 
Noss, on the 27th of May, we surprised two birds on the 
cliffs that appeared to be birds of the year ; in Unst we saw 
a lot of Bavens, five together at one place. On an island in 
the south we saw a well-preserved nest from which the young 
had been taken a few years ago. 

Hooded Crow {Corvus comix). " Hoodie.^' Very gene- 
rally distributed, and nest frequently easy of access. We 
were too late to find eggs ; we discovered several nests with 
young 10 days or so old in them. Some eggs given to us 
by Mr. George Bruce, and others we obtained elsewhere, are 



Nesting of some Shetland Birds. 353 

lighter in coloration than the generality of the eggs of the 
Carrion Crow of the south. 

Sky-Lark [Alanda amensis) . Very abundant everywhere, 
and very welcome in a land where song-birds are few and 
far between. 

Snowy Owl [Surnia nyctea) . A specimen m as shot in Unst 
a few weeks before our arrival there. 

~ White-tailed Eagle [Haliaetus albicilla). This Eagle is 
said to breed still, amongst other places, at Fitful Head ; 
but an intelligent fisherman there, who appeared to know 
something of the local birds, informed us that he had not 
seen anything of the Eagles for some years, and did not 
believe they nested there now. 

-/- Merlin (Falco (Esalon). We saw Merlins several times, 
and once found the nest with two eggs ; these were placed 
on a bare spot on the side of a heath-clad bank. The old 
birds, as is their wont under such circumstances, were very 
vociferous. The INIerlin here, as elsewhere on the sea-coast, 
appears to feed much on the Rock-Pipits. 

■f- Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo). The '^ Big Scarf" is 
not nearly so abundant as its smaller relative the Shag. 
It nests earlier than the Shag. 

Shag {Phalacrocorax graculus) . " Scarf." Very abundant 
and generally distributed as a breeding species. I shall 
never forget a visit I paid to a large breeding colony down 
the cliffs of Noss on the 28th of May. The jilace where 
I managed to eft'ect a landing amongst them was where 
there had been a large landslip some years previously, and 
the broken cliffs abounded Avith caverns, and huge boulders 
were piled one upon the top of another. Inside these 
caverns, and under these boulders, the Shags had placed 
their untidy nests. As I approached them they generally 
retreated to the end of their cave, and there set up such a 
hideous noise as must be heard to be duly appreciated, all the 
while opening their mouths wide and exposing the peculiar 
yellow throat, or snapping their beaks. Occasionally they 

SER. VI. VOL. V. 2 c 



354 Mr. E. W. H. Blagg on the 

would vary the proceedings by charging out, and then one liad 
to hold firm to avoid being sent down the cliff by them ! The 
number of nests containing eggs about equalled those con- 
taining young : the young were in all stages of growth, and 
the eggs in some nests were quite fresh ; five was not at all 
an unusual number to find in a nest. Shags appear, like 
many other birds, to keep on adding to the fabric of their 
nests during incubation, for I found many nests, containing 
well-grown young, with green vegetation round the edges. 
The ground all round was honeycombed with the nesting- 
holes of Puffins, and on the lower ledges below the Kitti- 
Avakes were building their nests. It was an interesting 
scene of bird-life, but not pleasant to the olfactory nerves; 
and the worst of that " Shaggery^^ was that the birds, their 
nests and eggs, the caves, the rocks, the very ground, were 
all swarming with Shag-lice, and it took my friend and 
myself, and some sympathizing fellow-passengers in the 
ferry-boat, all our time to pick these lice off my clothes 
and consign them to a watery grave. To give them their 
due, they did not bite, but they tickled one most uncomfort- 
ably, and I shall think twice before I explore a crowded 
" Shaggery " again. 

-f-HERON {Ardea cinerea). One seen on Noss, May 26th. 

Wild Duck [Anas boscas). Noticed pretty generally. 

Common Eider {Somateria mollissima). '^'Dunter.^' 
Noticed pretty generally, especially the male birds, which are 
very handsome and conspicuous objects. We found several 
nests, the parent duck sitting very close on her large dark- 
green eggs. The natives consider these eggs a great 
delicacy. 

RiNG-DovE [Colmnba palumbus) . One seen close to Guen- 
dale Bay, June 8th. 

'RoQ^-T>o\^ [Columba livia). Abundant. The old^Broch" 
or Picts^ Castle on Mousa has been fairly taken possession 
of by the Rock -Doves, which have turned its circular galleries 
into a dove-cot. Exploring these with the aid of candles we 



Nesting of some Shetland Birds, 355 

discovered several eggs, but most of the first nests had 
already produced young birds which had flown. One of these 
we found on the outside of the building and inspected closely, 
besides the remains of several more which appeared to have 
afforded, meals to the Peregrines of the neighbourhood. 

TuRTLE-DovE {Turtur communis). One remained about 
the garden at Sand. Lodge for several days during the first 
week of June. 

^ Land-Rail {Crex pratensis) . One heard near Balta Sound, 
June 4th. 

— Coot (Fulica atra). Found nesting on several of the lochs 
in the south of Mainland. 

-f- Golden Plover (Charadrius pluvialis). Apparently 
breeding in most places, but not abundant, in Unst, where 
we found two nests containing four eggs each, the old bird in 
each case sitting till nearly trodden upon and then flying 
away with legs hanging down, and trying to decoy us away 
from the nest with all sorts of antics. The nests were 
moderately deep depressions in the moss, formed in such a 
way that the bird would be well sheltered from o1:)servation 
when sitting on her eggs. 

— Ringed Plover {^gialitis hiaticnla). Very abundant 
and breeding in all sorts of situations, from the sea-shore to 
the tops of the hills. 

■^ Lapwing {Vanellus vulgaris). Breeding on Noss and 
abundantly in Unst. 

-^' Oyster-catcher {Hamatopus ostralegus). We generally 
found this handsome bird nesting on all the islands we visited. 
This species is frequently to be seen contending with the 
Hooded Crow, which is probably trying to rifle it of its eggs 
or young. 

- Common Ssive {Gallinago cfBlestis). Generally distributed. 
We twice met with the young in down, and most charming 
little objects they are. When once discovered, and after 
you turn them down again, they seem to be aware that it is 

o ,. •> 



356 Mr. E. W. H. Blagg on the 

of no use to try to assimilate themselves to their surroundings 
while actually under your eye. In a listless sort of way they 
move off till they are some distance from you^ and then they 
lose no time in making themselves invisible. I have noticed 
this with other species, e. g. the Lapwing and Ringed Plover. 

-f- Dvaiam {Tringa alpina). A few examples were noticed in 
Unst. 

— Eed-necked Phalarope {Phalaropus hyperbor-eus). A 
few pairs of this bird nest in Unst, where they are strictly 
protected. 

— Arctic Tern {Sterna macrura). Only just returning to 
its breeding-ground at the beginning of June. 

Black-headed Gull (Lai-us ridibundus). We found about 
20 pairs nesting on the marsh between Lochs Spiggie and 
Brow, where, as we were informed by Captain MacFarlane, 
this species has nested only for the last three years. We 
saw no nests containing young, but in the few eggs which 
we took incubation was much advanced. This was on the 
9th of June. 

— Common Gull [Larus canus). Breeding pretty generally 
on most of the islands, usually in small colonies, the nest 
being built indifferently on rocks or on the ground close to 
the sea. The eggs vary considerably in size, even in the 
same nest. 

^ Great Black-backed Gull [Larus maximus) . Generally 
distributed, usually selecting an isolated rock on wliich to 
place its nest, but on the Holm of Noss, which is quite 
inaccessible, there is a large colony, numbering some scores 
of pairs, of great Black-backs. 

Lesser Black-backed Gull {Larus f us cus) . Very abun- 
dant, nesting on all the islands, sometimes in colonies away 
from the coast, but as a rule on the low rocks or shingle close 
to the sea-shore. This species does not place its nests in lofty 
situations like the Herring GulL From the many hundreds 
of eggs which we saw " in nido " we selected a series of 



Nesting of some Shetland Birds. 357 

beautiful varieties^ some having the ground tint of a lovely 
bluish-green colour^ others being straw-coloured. The second 
layings of this bird show a marked deterioration in size, and 
more variation in colouring than the eggs of the first set. 
As this species takes no pains to place its eggs in inacces- 
sible situations, it probably comes in for more rifling by the 
natives than any other species. I think the Shetland natives 
are more diligent in collecting and eating the eggs of sea- 
fowl than even the natives of Wales. We managed to per- 
suade some of our boatmen that they gave themselves useless 
trouble when they gathered eggs which rose to the surface 
immediately on being placed in water. 

1- Herring Gull {Larus argentatus). Very abundant, 
nesting as a rule on lofty clifi"s, but not nearly so invariably 
as is the case on the coasts of England and Wales. In 
Shetland you frequently find the Herring GulFs nest *' on 
the flat " at the top of a cliff. 

-^ KiTTiWAKE {Rissa tridactyla). There are very large 
colonies of this elegant Gull at the foot of many of the loftier 
cliff's, notably at the Noup of Noss and in the northern parts 
of Unst. Most of these birds were only building their nests 
at the end of the first week in June. 

-f- KicHARDsoN^s Skua [Stercoravius crepidatus). There is 
a large colony of this very interesting bird in the north 
of Unst, and several smaller colonies on other islands, 
" Scoutie Allan " being the name by which it is known to 
the natives. The peculiar half cat-, half peacock-like cry of 
this bird, its mysterious dark and light phases of plumage, 
and the rapidity of its evolutions when on wing, combine to 
render it one of the most fascinating birds I know. The 
birds were only just beginning to lay in the first week of 
June; one nest we found contained an egg of a beautiful blue 
undertint, the other egg in the nest being of the normal 
coloration. 

-/- Great Skua {Stercorarius catarrliactes). We saw one of 
these fine birds circling high up in the air, like some bird of 



358 On the Nesting of some Shetland Birds. 

prey, when we were some distance from the nesting-ground in 
Unst. The man in charge informed us that seven pairs nested 
on Hermanness Hill in 1891, and nine pairs in 1892 ; one of 
these pairs had been robbed of their eggs by the natives a few 
weeks before our visit, but at that time they were sitting 
ag-ain, and from what I have since heard I believe that the 
nine pairs of Skuas all hatched off their eggs in 1892. 

Razorbill [Alca tarda). Abundant. 

- Common Guillemot {Uria troile). Abundant. 

Black Guillemot {Uria grylle). "Tystie.^^ This is Me 
Guillemot of the Shetlauds, and is a noticeable feature in the 
'' seascape " everywhere, with its black plumage and con- 
spicuous white wing-patches. It is a difficult thing to 
discover the nesting-hole of this species, as the bird seldom 
betrays its secret by flying either to or from its eggs whilst 
anyone is looking on. We obtained eggs in the first week of 
June. 

H- Puffin [Fratercula ardica) . Abundant, nesting in many 
places. The Puffin is said to be able to hurt oner's hand 
severely with its beak. I can only say that a great many 
Puffins have had hold of my hand, and that they have never 
yet hurt me. I suppose I have been more lucky than others. 

In conclusion I may say that a visitor to the Shetlands 
must be at once struck with the great tameness of the Gulls. 
They may be seen, especially in the early morning, standing 
on the roofs of the houses in large flocks, and perching on 
the boats in the harbour, while people are passing within a 
few feet of them. Another noticeable feature is that the 
breeding-season of one species of bird is not so far before or 
behind another as is the case further south ; e. g. the Herring 
Gull is not nearly so much earlier in nesting than the Kitti- 
wake as it is in the south. 



Variation in Shape of the Eggs of Birds. 359 

XXXII. — On the Cause of Variation in the Shape of the 
Eggs of Birds. By Henry Seebohm. 

An article on the shape of the eggs of birds by Dr. Nicolsky, 
Professor of Zoology in the University of St. Petersburg, has 
recently been published in the ' Revue des Sciences natu- 
relles ' of that city *. 

Roughly speaking, it may be said that birds^ eggs in shape 
are of one of three forms : — 

1st. Round or apple-shaped, such as those of Falcons, 
Owls, and Kingfishers. 

2nd. Oval or plum-shaped, as are those of Pigeons, Night- 
jars, Cormorants, and others. 

3rd. Pyriform or pear-shaped, as those of Waders. 

Dr. Nicolsky has invented a formula by which the shape 
of each egg may be broadly expressed. This formula consists 
of a fraction, the numerator of which represents the greatest 
breadth of the egg, assuming 1000 to be the greatest 
length, and the denominator of which is the distance of the 
centre of the egg at its greatest breadth from the obtuse end, 
on the same assumption. The formula of a perfectly 
spherical egg, according to this plan, would be \^\f;*^)^ ; that of 
an oval egg, in "which the breadth was only half its length, 
would be ^00 J whilst that of a very pear-shaped egg might 

"*= 3 33* 

Dr. Nicolsky has also invented a hypothesis to account for 
the variation in the shape of birds' eggs. He suggests that 
the normal shape of the egg is spherical, and that it becomes 
elongated by the pressure on it of the wall of the ovary 
before the calcai'cous shell is deposited. 

He suggests that birds which lay round eggs usually keep 
to a vertical position, in which the weight of the egg counter- 
acts the pressure of the ovary, and that those which lay oval 
eggs usually maintain a horizontal position, during Avhich 
the weight of the egg assists the pressure of the ovary. He 
further suggests that pyriform eggs are laid by birds which 
frequently change their position, like the Guillemot, which 
* Si>e 'Cosmos, Eovue des Sciences,' no. 411, p. 32 (Dec. 10, 1801) ; 
also ' Nature,' vol. xlvii. y. 253 (1893). 



360 Variation in Shape of the Eggs of Birds. 

is vertical when it perches and horizontal when it flies or 
swims. 

How far these hypotheses are consistent with facts it is 
difficult to say, hut the alternative theory that the shape of the 
egg-shell is determined by its internal rather than by its 
external environment is supported by a considerable amount 
of evidence. 

The eggs of the Charadriidoi are remarkable for their 
pyriform character, in marked contrast to those of the 
Meropid(B or Alcedinida, which are round, or to those of the 
Columbidce or Caprimulgidcs, which are oval. It can scarcely 
be asserted that the birds composing these five families differ 
much in the positions which they usually assume. The 
CharadriidcB differ from the birds contained in the other four 
families above mentioned in having longer legs. The Hero- 
diones have, however, still longer legs than the Lhnicolm, but 
lay eggs of a much less pyriform shape. It can scarcely be 
asserted that the birds of these two suborders differ mate- 
rially in the positions which they ordinarily assume, but they 
do differ remarkably in the condition of the young at birth. 
The Limicolce are " prsecoces," and are born with long stiff 
legs, so that they can walk at once, whilst the Herodiones are 
" altrices," and are born with comparatively short flexible 
legs, so that they are helpless for many days. 

It may perhaps be premature to generalize so far as to say 
that long-legged " prsecoces " {Limicolce, &c.) lay pyriform 
eggs, and short-legged " altrices" [CaprimidgidcB , Alcedinidce , 
Strigidce, Meropidce, &c,) lay round eggs, whilst the birds 
possessing either of the other two possible combinations, 
long-legged " altrices '' [Herodiones, &c.) and short-legged 
" prsecoces " [Anseres, &c,), lay oval eggs. This hypothesis, 
however, appears to be quite as tenable as that propounded 
by Dr, Nicolsky. But the subject is a new one and requires 
patient investigation. It cannot, nevertheless, be doubted 
that there are good reasons for the diversities in the shape 
of birds^ eggs, as well as for their variation in colour, and 
there is probably more than one cause operating in this 
direction. 



Mechanism of the Bill in Birds. 361 

XXXIII. — On a Point in the Mechanism of the Bill in Birds. 
By W. P. Pycraft, Anatomical Department, University 
Museum, Oxford. 

It is a well-known fact that very many birds possess the 
power of raising" the upper jaw, though in varying degrees of 
freedom, depending upon its general conformation and upon 
the nature of the articulation with the frontal bones. Thus 
in the Parrots, Avhich are remarkable for the facility with 
which the upper jaw is raised, we have a fronto-nasal hinge, 
whilst, more generally, the same end is obtained by slender 
and flexible preraaxillary nasal processes, which overlap 
the frontal bones. 

In every case w^iich has been recorded up till now, how- 
ever, the upper jaw has been moved bodily, but in the case 
I am about to describe the distal extremity only is raised. 

Some two years ago, a live Dunlin [Tringa alpina, Linn.) 
was given me, which I endeavoured to keep as long as possible, 
in the hope of learning something of its life-history. In 
this I was only partially successful, for the bird lived but a 
few days — during which time, however, I imagined, on two 
or three occasions, that I detected an upward turning of the 
tip of the upper jaw, apparently accompanied by a very 
human-like gape; nevertheless, owing to the speed and 
unexpectedness of the action, I failed to satisfy myself that 
I was not mistaken. 

During the Christmas holidays I paid a short visit with 
my brother to Breydon Water, Great Yarmouth, for the 
purpose of obtaining specimens. Dunlins were exceedingly^ 
numerous and we bagged several ; amongst these were two 
wounded birds, which I undertook to kill, hoping that I 
might now set at rest my suspicions of other days. 

In both cases, in the spasmodic contractions preceding 
death, the tip of the beak was distinctly curved upwards ; 
but, in the anxiety of watching for this particular movement, 
I quite forgot to notice whether it was correlated with the 
opening of the mouth or not, although in all probability 
it was. 



362 



Mr. W. P. Pycraft on the Mechanism 



Ou my return to Oxford, I dissected the head of one of 
these birds and found, as I expected, that the movement 
was due — and I think mainly — to the action of the muscles 
attached to the quadrate and pterygoid bones. 1 have no 
doubt that the majority of the readers of 'The Ibis' will 
readily call to mind the muscles to which I refer, but for the 
sake of those who may not — for we are not all ornitho- 
tomists — I may perhaps be excused if I briefly describe 
them. 

P.m. 




View of the right side of the head of a Dunlin {Tringa alpina, L.), showing, 
by the dotted lines, how the bill curves upwards as a result of the 
contraction of the muscles described on p. 363. Only one of these 
muscles is seen, the other being concealed by the quadrate bone and 
the entotympanicus. 

E. Entotympanicus ; Q. Quadrate ; M. Mandible cut short ; P.m. Pre- 
maxilla ; PI. Palatine. 

These muscles are two in number. The one (E.) arises 
from the basisphenoid below the optic foramen, and is inserted 
into the upper border of the orbital process of the quadrate 
bone (Q.) ; the other (which is not shown in the figure) 
arises from the inferior border of the orbital septum and the 
rostrum of the basisphenoid, and, its fibres converging, 
is inserted, as a slender tendon, into the upper border of 
the proximal end of the pterygoid. 

These two muscles are described by Dr. Gadow * as a part 
of the musculus temporalis, which, according to this author, 
is composed of five parts, to the fifth of which the muscles in 
question belong ; further than this, however, they are not 

* See works of reference cited at the end of this paper. 



of the Bill in Birds. 363 

specially distinguished. They have nevertheless been named 
independently and by several writers, each of whom has 
bestowed a difterent name upon them. This fact tends to 
confuse the subject not a little. As a case in point I may 
mention that both Owen and Dr. Shufeldt have given the 
name of entotympanic to each of the muscles now under 
discussion, yet neither had the same muscle in view. Owen^s 
entotympanic (or entotympanicus, to be quite correct) is 
that which runs from the basisphenoid to the quadrate, or 
" tympanic " as he calls it, whilst that of Dr. Shufeldt runs 
from the orbital septum to the pterygoid *. 

In order to understand how this particular movement is 
brought about, it is necessary to bear in mind that the distal 
end of the quadrate articulates on its outer side with the 
quadrato-jugal bar, on its inner with the pterygoid, and that 
this in turn (the pterygoid) articulates with the palatine (PL), 
the distal end of which, together with that of the quadrato- 
jugal, joins the premaxillary bones. Now, on the contraction 
of the muscles in question, the quadrate and pterygoid bones 
are thrust forwards, and with them all the bones opposed to 
them in front ; at the trif urcation of the premaxilla the 
weakest point is reached, and the remainder of the beak 
curves upwards. In ordinary birds under similar conditions 
this point (the weakest) would be at the frontonasal articu- 
lation, and consequently the whole jaw would be raised, 
instead of the tip only. Perhaps a reference to the figure 
given herewith (p. 362) will assist in making these details 
clearer. 

Prof. Huxley attributes the raising of the upper jaw to 
the contraction of the digastric muscle f, considering that 
on the opening of the mouth the quadrate would be thrust 
forwards, and thus it will be noted the same movements will be 
set up as those which I have described. I cannot but think, 
though, that this muscle plays a secondary part in the system. 

♦ Dr. Shufeldt is describing the myology of the head of the Raven, 
where this muscle gives off a tendinous slip to the distal end of the 
quadrate. 

t This is apparently equivalent to the human digastric, and the biventer 
maxilUe of <,iadow, Shufeldt, and Owen. 



364 Mechanism of the Bill in Birds. 

At first sight, perhaps, the reasons for this interesting 
arrangement may seem rather obscure, but it has struck me 
that really it may be of importance to birds which gain the 
greater part of their food by probing in soft mud. I 
imagine that the beak is thrust down into the soil closed, and 
that, in all probability, unless some special provision were 
made, the slender bill would be powerless to force away the 
surrounding earth sufficiently to enable it to grasp the food 
it was in search of. Whether or not this is the correct 
explanation is a subject for further observation. 

It may be interesting to know that if the head of a freshly- 
killed bird, or one preserved in spirit, be gently squeezed in 
the region of the angle of the mandible, the movements 
described will be set up. 

I hope to be enabled to extend my observations to the 
other members of the ScolopacidjB, amongst which I expect 
to find some noteworthy modifications of this interesting 
feature ; should anything of sufficient importance be dis- 
covered, I shall be pleased to communicate particulars in 
these pages. Those having access to the Zoological Gardens 
have, I imagine, a splendid opportunity for verifying my 
statements, and 1 hope this will be done. 

In conclusion, let me say that I by no means profess to 
have exhausted the literature of this subject or to have gone 
deeply into the inquiry ; time must show whether it is worth 
further attention. All that I have done now is to bring the 
fact under the notice of those who have time and oppor- 
tunity, trusting that it will be of sufficient interest to tempt 
them to add it to their list of things " when found to be 
made a note of." 

References. 

1. Owen. Anatomy of Vertebrates, ii. p. 94 (1866). 

2. Huxley. Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals, p. 246 (1871). 

3. WiEDEKSHEiii. Elements of Comparative Anatomy (English tran.*- 

lation), p. 80 (1886). 

4. Shufeldt. Myology of the Raven, p. 19 (1890). 

5. Gadow. Bronn's Klassen und Orduungen des Thier-Reichs, IV. 

Abtheilung, Aves, Theil i. p. 323 (1886). 

6. MiVART. Element.^ of Drnitholngy, p. 187 (1892). 



Swifts and Humming-birds. 365 

XXXIV. — Sivifts and Humming-birds. 
By Frederic A. Lucas. 

Dr. Shufeldt's recent paper on the Swifts and Humming- 
birds * is the argument of an Advocate rather than the 
careful summing-up of an unbiased Judge^ and I for one 
must protest^ not only at much of the matter contained in the 
article, but also at the manner of its presentation. Note- 
worthy in this latter connection is the continued reiteration 
that nowadays none, save a few benighted ornithologists, 
consider that the Swifts have aught to do with the Humming;- 
birds, this idea, we are told^ having been long ago exploded. 
Even while Dr. Shufeldt's paper was in the printer's hands 
there have ajjpeared two important contributions to orni- 
thological literature, — the British Museum Catalogue of 
Trochilidce ,hj Mr. Salvin, and a paper on Avian Classification, 
by Dr. Gadow. Neither of these gentlemen seems to have 
been aware of the " explosion," nor have Dr. Fiirbringer, 
Dr. Sharpe, or Professor Huxley (whom Dr. Shufeldt 
persistently misquotes t) recanted their previously expressed 
opinions, so that in justice to his readers Dr. Shufeldt should 
tell us precisely who, among ornithologists, have accepted his 
conclusions that the Swifts are practically Swallows and have 
no relations with the Humming-birds. 

Let me say here that it is not the separation of Swifts and 
Humming-birds, provided they are kept near one another, 
that is to be objected to, so much as the constant statement 
that they have no characters in common, while the Swifts 
and Swallow^s are so near akin. My own views at present 
are that through Macropteryx the Swifts touch the Goat- 
suckers closely ; that through Chcetura they have relations 
with the Humming-birds, although in certain structural 
points the generalized Macropteryx shows Trochiline relations 
also ; and that, unless we can take the Goatsuckers into the 
great Passerine circle, the Swifts too must stay outside. 

* 'The Ibis,' January 1893, pp. 84-100. 

t Not that Professor Huxley's words have been changed, but that they 
have been so used as to convey a false impression ; and this, to my mind, 
is the most unfair kind of misquotation: 



366 Mr. F. A. Lucas on 

In reply to the query '' How is it that Humming-birds 
are restricted to America ? "' I would say, for much the same 
reason that torpedo-boats do not cross the Atlantic — lack of 
power and fuel-capacity. The Humming-birds, from their 
great local multiplicity of species, probably originated in 
South America and spread northward *, Since their excessive 
activity calls for great expenditure of muscular tissue, they 
need a liberal supply of food, and this food consists prin- 
cipally of minute insects which are to be had only in proper 
localities. Migration by way of the north is out of the 
question ; there are no way-stations on the ocean ferry, and 
even were the Humming-bird sufficiently powerful in flight 
to cross, it would starve to death on the way. 

We are told that, as to plumage. Swifts have no sexual 
colour-distinctions, nor plumes, nor ornamental feathers, while 
Humming-birds have all three. Now in Chcetura rutila and 
C. rufitorques, and in all the species of Macropteryx, the males 
and females are different, while in about one-third of the 
known species of Humming-birds the sexes are robed alike. 
The long tail-feathers of some of the Swifts might well be 
considered ornamental, and all species of Macropteryx, 
notably M. mystacea, have local plumes or crests. 

As to pterylosis, the Humming-bird has a spindle-shaped 
apterium on the crown, and the Swift an inverted, crescent- 

* Birds of restricted range seem to have a tendency to split up into 
species and subspecies, as in the well-known case of the birds of the 
Galapagos Islands. In the American genus Harporhynchus one species, 
H. rufus, is migratory and widespread, the eight other species and sub- 
species are non-migratory and of restricted and contiguous habitats, and 
we see the same thing repeated in the genus Pipilo. There would seem 
to be good reason for this. As a non-migratory bird spread outward 
from its original centre, it would meet in different localities with 
different conditions of food, climate, and physical surroundings. Genera- 
tion after generation would be subjected to the same conditions as their 
ancestors, and any forces that might cause variation would be continuously 
at work, while any variation, whether arising from external or internal 
causes, would stand a better chance of pei-petuation by in-breeding among 
birds living and breeding in one locality than among migratory species, 
where the chance of destruction or separation of individuals during their 
journeys would naturally be greater. 



Swifts and Ilumming-hii'ds. 367 

shaped apterium over each eye, these being, so far as material 
has been examined, peculiar to the respective groups and not 
found in the Swallows. 

The dorsal tract of the Swallow is an inverted, short- 
armed Y ; the dorsal tracts of the Swift and Humming-bird 
are continuous from neck to rump, with a spindle-shaped 
apterium in its centre. Both Swift and Humming-bird have 
apteria on the nape and on the inferior surface of the neck, and 
although Dr. Shufeldt says these are " never present in the 
Swifts or Swallows," he might, had he examined such genera 
as Macropteryx and Collocalia, have Avritten otherwise. The 
statement that the black pigment spaces, so apparent on the 
brachia of Swifts, are entirely absent in Humming-birds is 
equally erroneous, for they are present in such forms as 
Campylopterus and Florisiiga. On the whole, the ptery loses of 
Swift and Humming-bird are more alike than those of Swift 
and Swallow, as a glance at the figures of Nitzsch will show. 

The pterylosis of the Humming-bird is one of the prettiest 
instances of adaptation imaginable : the nuchal apteria come 
where the neck touches the back and breast, the lateral 
apteria receive the folded wings, and the ventral apterium 
allows the warm body to come in contact with the eggs. 

It seems almost superfluous to refer to the sternum, this 
bone having been so often .discussed; but as it is implied that 
undue stress has been laid upon the un-notched character of 
the posterior border of the Swift^s sternum, it may be well 
to say that the value of this portion of the sternum is small 
when compared with that of its other portions, and in the 
present instance may well be omitted. 

The Swallow, in common with all Passerine birds, has a 
large Y-shaped manubrium, grooves for the coracoids, and 
large costal processes to which the ribs are attached. The 
sternum of the Humming-bird has a rudimentary manubrium 
and costal processes, elliptical facets for the coracoids, and the 
ribs are joined to its sides, all of this being equally true of 
the sternum of the Swift, except that the costal processes 
are a shade larger and may bear one, or, as in Macropteryx, 
even two ri))s. 



368 



Mr. F. A. Lucas on 



Coming to the skull, we find that Professor Stewart 
considers the palate of the Humming-bird as a modification 
of the ffigithognathous type * ; and if this he so f^ Swift, 
Swallow, and Humming-bird would in this particular be 
alike. 

Fi-. I. 




Right coracoids of : — 6. Progne suhis, X 1 ; 7. ChcBtura j'^^ogif^a^ X 2, 
f, liue to foramen ; 8. Macropteri/.v coronnta, X 2 ; 9. Camjiylopterus 
hemileucunis, X 3. 

We read that in the Swifts the coracoids are '^'^mucli as 
we find them in Swallows,^' while those of the Humming- 
bird are " totally unlike this bone in Cypseli." The 
miqueness of the Humming-bird^s coracoid consists largely 
in having the " tendinal canal closed by bone and the shaft 
perforated by a large foramen below it." Now all the Swifts 
that I have seen possess the lower perforation mentioned, while 
the ossification of the ligament which holds in place the great 
levator tendon would give the closed canal. How little 
change in the existing state of things is needed to bring 
about this result, especially in Macropteryx, can be seen at 
a glance. Also the coracoids of Swifts and Humming-birds 
agree in lacking the epicoracoid of the Swallow, as well as in 
the vastly more important feature of being supported on 
facets instead of being, like those of the majority of birds, 

* Cf. Sharpe, '■ A Eeview of the Recent Attempts to Classify Birds,' 
p. 81, footnote. 

t Professor Stewart will, I trust, pardon this quotation, as I have not seen 
any publication of his views other than the note alluded to, and know not 
whether subsequent dissections have confirmed his opinions. The Hum- 
ming-bird's palatp rortriinly siijrpests a case of arrested development. 



Swifts and Humming-birds. 



:3G9 



implanted in "frooves. The coracoid of the Swallow is 
slender, imperforate, has a well-developed epicoracoid, and is 
implanted in a groove. From these notes and from the 
accompanying figures (6-9) the reader may draw his own 
conclusions. 



Fi- II. 




Right humeri of: — 1. Campyloj)teniii hemileucurus, X 4 ; 2. Cypselus 
apiis, X 2| ; 3. Macrojden/.i- Medio, X 2 ; 4. Chordeiles viryinianus, 
X 1 ; 5. Progne subis, X 2. 

It would require careful dissections, much close study, 
and a lengthy article to do justice to the wing of the 
Humming-t)ird, and I have contented myself with offering a 
series of figures (1-5) showing what appear to me various steps 

SER. VI. VOL. v. 2 1) 



370 Swifts and Humming-birds. 

in the transition from the humerus of the Goatsucker to that 
of the Huraming-birdj and I fail^ in any of them^ to see any 
striking morphological resemblance to the humerus of a 
Swallow. It must be steadily borne in mind that^ as the 
Humming-bird is without a rival in its power of aerial 
evolution^ we must expect to find such mechanical and 
adaptive modifications in its mechanism as exist in no other 
bird, and we must not confound physiological modifications 
with morphological resemblances. 

The comparison of the furcula of the Humming-bird to 
that of the Albatross, coupled with the remark that these 
birds, as well as the Swifts, are great fliers, would lead one 
to infer that the similarity was due to physiological 
adaption. This, however, can scarcely be the case, since 
there are no two birds whose mode of flight is more at 
variance than those named above. In the case of the 
Humming-bird, too, the furcula is not functional ; the bird 
could get along without it, while in the Albatross its power 
to brace the wings apart is but trifling. The resemblance is 
apparently due to the fact that in many points these birds 
are both generalized and the furcula morphologically low, 
its pattern being in fact suggestive of what we see in many 
lizards. 

There are some points in the Humming-bird^s wing that 
are structurally more Passerine than what we find in similar 
portions of the wing of the Swift, and this, in conjunction 
with Professor Stewart^s observations on the palate, will bring 
the Trochili a step or two nearer the great Passerine 
assemblage than they have usually been placed. 

There are other points that I would like to discuss, but 
this paper is already rather long. I would like to acknowledge 
my indebtedness to Dr. Sclater for specimens of Cypseli, and 
to express my regret that untoward circumstances have 
prevented me from completing my examination of them. 

In conclusion, I wish to say that these remarks are not put 
forward in any spirit of captious criticism. No one admires 
Dr. Shufeldt^s enthusiasm, or envies him his power of 
continued application, more than myself, nor do many better 



Wliite's Thrush hi European Russia. 371 

appreciate the amount of information that he is rendering 
available. What I do object to in the present connection is 
the utterance of sweeping generalizations based on the 
examination and comparison of a limited number of local 
forms, and the assumption that certain questions have been 
definitely answered when we are really just beginning to gather 
in the facts that shall make such answer possible. 

Festhia lente is a good motto. When we know the 
anatomy (using the term in its broadest sense) of every well- 
marked form among the Swifts and Humming-birds, when 
the embryology of the two groups has been thoroughly 
worked out, when Ave are agreed as to what are morphological 
and what purely adaptive characters, then, and only then, 
can we with some degree of certainty say what are the exact 
relations between these two highly specialized forms, 



XXXV. — On the Occurrence of White's Thrush in European 
Russia. By Dr. M. Menzbier, Professor in the Uni- 
versity of Moscow. 

The life -history and geographical distribution of White's 
Ground-Thrush {Tardus varius) being so insufficiently known, 
I have endeavoured to procure some facts for the elucidation 
of this question. Contrary to the opinion of Mr. Seebohm 
that the western range of this species in summer is probably 
limited to the watershed of the Yenisei and the Lena, I 
have always been of opinion that White's Ground-Thrush 
is distributed in the summer throughout the whole wooded 
districts of Siberia. My conviction was based on the fact 
that this species is much too common in Western Europe 
to be only an accidental straggler from Eastern Siberia. 
Moreover, it is very remarkable that not a single occur- 
rence of White's Ground-Thrush from any part of Russia 
has been recorded, though it without doubt migrates to 
Western Europe through our country. For many years I 
have sought for White's Ground-Thrush among skins of 
the Missel-Thrush {Turdus viscivorus) from various parts 
of Russia, but in vain. At last, during my visit to Siberia 

2d 2 



372 White's Thrush in European Russia. 

in 1890j I was told by Prof. Kovtzov, of Tiumen^ that 
White's Ground-Thrush is a rare straggler to the southern 
portion of the Government of Tobolsk, and is common 
in the northern part of the Province of Admalinsk, 
whence a skin was presented to me for identification. 
I have now the pleasure of making known the fact that 
Turdus varius probably breeds in the Ural Mountains. 
In the year 1891 a young zoologist^ Mr. Sushkin, was 
sent by the Imperial Society of Naturalists of Moscow to 
collect birds in the Government of Ufa. A large series 
of about 900 skins and many skeletons were brought 
home by this gentleman from his expedition, and the 
greatest prize of this collection was a beautiful skin of 
White's Ground-Thrush received by Mr. Sushkin from a 
sportsman who had the good fortune to secure it in July of 
1887 in the vicinity of the town of Zlatoust. Unfortunately 
the sex of this specimen, which was regarded by the sports- 
man as nothing more than a pretty skin of the Missel- 
Thrush, was undetermined. A second specimen of White's 
Ground-Thrush obtained in Russia is a female, procured in 
August 1891 near Perm. The fortunate possessor of this 
skin, a well-known explorer of the Government of Perm, 
Mr. Teplouchov, has sent it to me for identification. A third 
specimen of this Thrush was obtained in August 1892 in the 
fir-forests, at a distance of twenty versts from Krasno-Ufimsk 
(Government of Perm), by a Tartar, and was purchased in 
the flesh by Mr. Kniipfer, a teacher in the Industrial School 
in that town. Thanks to ISIr. Kniipfer, this skin is now in 
my possession. Judj^ing from the dates of the occurrences of 
the first and third specimens, I think that White's Ground- 
Thrush probably breeds in the woods of the Ural Mountains. 
But, however this may be, we have now at any rate a right 
to include Turdus varius in the list of Russian birds. 



Nest and Egijs 0/ Gerygoue magiiirostris. 373 

XXXVI. — On the Nest and Eggs of Gerygone maguirostris, 
Gould. By Alfred J. North, F.L.S. 

'^ Of Gerygone magnirostris I regret to say but little infor- 
mation has as yet been received. The two examples in 
my collection are all that have come under my notice ; 
and these were shot by Gilbert, on Greenhill Island, near 
Port Essington, Avhile hovering over the blossoms of the 
mangroves and engaged in capturing the smaller kinds of 
insects, during which occupation they gave utterance to an 
extremely weak twittering song.'^ 

Since this passage was written by Gould (B. Austral, ii. 
pi. 100),nearly half a century ago, no additional information 
has been recorded respecting the Great-billed Gerygone. 
It is still a very rare bird in collections, the British INIuseum 
not possessing a single specimen at the time (1879) when 
Dr. Sharpe prepared the fourth volume of the Catalogue of 
Birds (p. 222), in which the members of the genus Gerygone 
are included. I am now able to give some fresh facts 
about it. 

Mr. J. A. Boyd, of the Herbert Biver, North-eastern 
Queensland, who has devoted a large amount of his time 
during the last twenty years to Australian ornithology, in- 
forms me that Gerygone magnirostris is a common species in 
that neighbourhood, arriving in the latter part of September 
for the purposes of breeding, and departing again about the 
end of February or the middle of INIarch, and that he has 
frequently obtained its nest, eggs, and young. With one ex- 
ception, all the nests of this species found by Mr. Boyd were 
built in low trees overhanging a river or the bed of a creek. 
Early on the morning of the 25th of November, 1892, 
Mr. Boyd was successful in capturing a female sitting on 
her own two eggs, also one of a Bronze Cuckoo. The nest 
was built in a shaddock-tree in the garden, a most unusual 
place, this being the first occasion on which he has ever found 
the nest not overhanging a bank or stream. Subsequently 
Mr. Boyd obtained a nest with two fresh eggs on the 9th 
of December, and another on the 17th with three fresh eggs 



374 Nest and Eyys of Gerygone magnirostris. 

in it. Occasionally three eggs are laid for a sitting, but two 
is the usual number. 

From Mr. Boyd I have obtained several nests and sets of 
eggs for description, also the female that was captured on 
the nest. The nests of Gerygone magnirostris are long 
pendent structures varying from sixteen to twenty-four 
inches in length, the drooping end of a nearly leafless twig 
being covered with an irregular layer of nest-material 
about 24 inches in diameter and from 9 to 13 inches in 
length before the nest proper is commenced. This is 
of a domed form, with a protecting hood well concealing 
the narrow entrance, and terminating at the lower ex- 
tremity of the dome in a beard or tail which is typical of 
the nests of this genus. They are composed of shreds of 
bark, cocoanut fibre, dried grasses and weeds, skeletons of 
leaves, and the silky covering of spiders' nests, all matted 
together, and resembling more a hanging mass of debris 
left by the floods than a nest. The interior cavities of the 
nests are small and are warmly lined with feathers. A typical 
nest measures as follows : — total length 22 inches ; from the 
top of the covered portion of the stem on which it is 
built to the swelling of the dome 10 inches ; domed portion 
or nest proper, length 7 inches, breadth 5 inches ; beard 
or tail underneath dome 5 inches ; entrance to nest 
1 inch in diameter ; interior cavity, height 3 inches and a 
quarter, breadth 2 inches and a quarter; base of interior 
portion of protecting hood over entrance, 2 inches. The 
eggs vary in shape from oval to elongate-oval, and are of 
a rich pinkish white, which is almost obscured by exceedingly 
minute freckles and dots of pinkish red, becoming thicker 
towards the larger end, where, in some instances inter- 
mingled with a few spots of dull purplish grey, an indistinct 
zone is formed. Others have their markings equally distri- 
buted over the shell, with one or two fine hair-lines or small 
coalesced patches on the larger end. The set of two on 
which the female was captured measure alike 0-7 x 0*46 
inch; a set of three taken on the 1st of January, 1892, 
(A) 0-69 X 0-5 inch, (B) 0-G7 x 0-47 inch, (C) 0-67 x 0*49 



Synonymy of some Palcearctic Birds. 375 

inch ; a set of two taken on the 10th of October, 1892, 
(Al 0-65 X 0-48 inch, (B) 0-65 x 0-47 inch. 

Gould describes this species as having all the under 
surface white, tinged with brownish buff, and the base of the 
lower mandible pearl-white. In the specimen forwarded the 
throat is comparatively white, and the^ bill is of a uniform 
deep olive-black. This species is often the foster-parent of 
one of the Bronze Cuckoos, the eggs of which are of a deep 
olivaceous brown, minutely marked with small black dots on 
the larger end, and not unlike the eggs of Lamprococcyx 
2)lagosus, but larger, darker, and the surface of the shell 
smooth and glossy. Three Cuckoo's eggs taken from dif- 
ferent nests of Gerygone magnirostris measure as follows : — 
(A) 0-83 X 0-55 inch, (B) 0-78 x 0-53 inch, (C) 0-8 x 0-53 inch. 
The average measurement of six eggs of L. plagosus taken 
from nests in the neighbourhood of Sydney is ()"72 inch in 
length by 0*51 inch in breadth. 



XXXVII. — Notes on the Synonymy of some Palaarctic Birds. 
By H. E. Dresser, F.Z.S., F.L.S. 

I. EmBERIZA SAHARA. 

Having recently been busy with the synonymy of some of 
the Palsearctic birds, I have had occasion investigate the 
original description of Emberiza saharce. Dr. Sharpe (Cat. 
B. Brit. Mus. xii. p. 563) gives it as '^ Tristram, Ibis, 
1859, p. 295 ; " but this is clearly an error, for the species 
was known by that name several years before 1859, and 
Canon Tristram certainly did not there describe it, or claim 
to do so — he merely included it in his list of Algerian 
birds as " Fringillaria saharae of Bonaparte," and remarked 
on the differences between it and Emberiza striolata. The 
earliest reference to the bird that I can find is that of Mal- 
herbe, who in his list of the birds of Algeria (1855) attributed 
the name to Levaillant, jr., as ^'Emberiza safiari, Levaill., jr., 
Expl. sc. Alg., Ois. pi. ix. bis, fig. 2," and in his preface, 
referring to this work, writes : " ' L'Exploration scientifique 



376 Mr. H. E. Dresser on the Synonymy 

de PAlgerie/ dont il n'a paru, pour rornithologie^ que quinze 
plancheSj sans aucun texte, parait raalheureusement ne pas 
devoir se continuer." This shows clearly that the plate 
of this Bunting, but not the letterpress, had been issued 
some time previous to 1855, and therefore it became neces- 
sary to ascertain the date when this plate was published. 
For this purpose I commenced a systematic search amongst 
the French booksellers' trade-catalogues, and notices of 
works published, between 1848 (when the first portion of the 
Nat. Hist, of the ' Expl. scient. de FAJgerie ' was issued) and 
1855, without any result beyond ascertaining that the first 
instalment of the Vertebrates (" Reptiles et Poissons,"" par 
A. Guichenot) was issued, in one fasciculus, in 1850. My 
next step was to hunt amongst the libraries, in order to 
ascertain if any copy of this fasciculus existed with the 
original covers. The result was that I fortunately dis- 
covered a copy of this fasciculus, or volume, at the British 
Museum, bound in the original paper cover in which it was 
issued. I thus ascertained that this fasciculus contained the 
letterpress of the " Reptiles et Poissons," together with the 
whole of the plates of Vertebrates, Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, 
and Fishes, and was dated on the cover 1850. Thus the 
synonymy of the Bunting in question will stand as follow^s : — 

Ember'iza saliari, Levaillant, jr., Exploration scientifique 
de I'Algerie, Atlas, Oiseaux, pi. ix. bis, fig. 2 (1850). 

" Emberiza sahari, Levaill., jr.," Malherbe, Faune Orn. 
de I'Algerie, in Bull. Soc. d'Hist. Nat. de la Moselle, 
No. 7, p. 26, sep. cop. p. 21 (1855). 

" FringiUaria Sahara (Levaill. jr.)," Bp. Cat. des Ois. 
d'Eur. (Parzudaki), p. 18 (1856). 

" FringiUaria sahari, Levaill. jr.," Loche, Cat. des Mamm. 
et Ois. observes en Algerie, &c., p. 61 (1858). 

'' FringiUaria sahari, Bp.," Cat. des Produits de I'Algerie, 
p. 85 (1858). 

Emberiza saharce, Tristram, Ibis, 1859, p. 34. 

*' FringiUaria saharce, Bp.," Tristram, Ibis, 1859, j). 295. 

FringiUaria Sahara, Loche, Expl. scient. de I'Alg., Hist. 
Nat. des Ois. i. p. 182 (1867). 



of some Pakearctic Birds. ^77 

No formal description of this Bunting appears to have 
been published previous to that by Loche in 1867, There 
appears to be no doubt that Levailkmt was selected to write 
the Mammals and Birds for the Expl. scient. de TAlgerie^ 
and Caras and Engelmann in their ' Bibliotheca Zoologica/ 
which appeared in 18G1, referring to that work, cite Levail- 
hint as the author of the " Mammiferes et Oiseaux." But 
Levaillant seems to have ceased to be a member of the Com- 
mission in 1851, as on the titlepage of a pamphlet"^ issued 
by him in that year (for the loan of which I am indebted to 
Professor Newton) he designates himself as ex-member of 
the Commission. 

In order to save future workers the trouble of reference 
to Levaillant's work, I append herewith a list of the plates of 
birds contained in it, 15 in number, together with the corre- 
sponding names as they now stand, added where they dift'er 
from those which he gives : — 

Plate 1. Falco imnmis, Levaill. 

Ibis. Le Sucre, Belon. = Falco feldeyc/i, Schlegel. 

2. Falco belisarms, Levaill. = Aquila rapax (Temm.). 

3. Falco cirtensis, Levaill. = Bideo desertonim (Daiicl.). 

4. StriiV numida, Levaill. = Carine glaux (Savigny). 

5. Picus alffinis, Levaill. = Gecimis vaillanti (Malh.). 

0. Garruhis atn'capillus, Is. Geoff r. = Garnilus cervicalis, Bp. 

7. figs. 1, Iff. Fi-inyilla africana, Levaill. = Frinyilla spodioi/t?ia, Bp. 
fig. 2. Pariis caruleanns, Malh. = Parus ultramurinus, Bp. 

8. Pica mmiritanica, Malh, 
y. Pictts numidicus, Malh. 

9 bis. lig. 1. Malurus numidiciis = Argya fulva (Desf.). 

fig. 2. Emberiza sahari, Levaill. = Emhenza saharce, Levaill. 
10. Otis arahs, Linn. 
IL Otis tarda, Linn. 

12. Ibis callus, Smith = Ibis cumata (Iliipp.). 

13. Larus aiidouini, Peyr. 

II. MONTIFRINGILLA ALTAICA. 

In the Catalogue of Birds in the Brit. Mus. (xii. p. 266), 

* ' Introduction a rilistoire des Mammiferes et des Oiseaux du Nord 
de I'Afrique, etc., par Levaillant, chef de bataillon, ex-membre de la 
Commission de I'exploration du Nord de I'Afrique.' Philippeville, ISol. 
8vo. pp. 69. 



378 Mr. H. E. Dresser on the Synonymy 

Dr. Sharpe gives Eversmann's Mountain-Finch under the 
name of " Montifringilla sordida (Stoliczka) " (J. As. Soc. 
Beng. xxxvii. p. 63, 1868), and, speaking of Eversmann's 
name " Fringillauda altaica''' says : — " This name is quoted 
by Severtzoff (Ibis, 1883, p. 60), but I have not been able to 
find where it was published. I have very little doubt that the 
oldest name of the present species is M. murrayi (Blyth, 
J. As. Soc. Beng. xxxii. p. 458, 1863) ; but, as Mr. Hume 
is a little uncertain on the subject, I have adopted the one 
by which it is best known to ornithologists." 

As a matter of fact, Eversmann's description was published 
in 1848 {Fi'ingilla altaica, Eversmann, Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. 
Mosc. Bd. xxi. p. 223), and consequently antedates both 
Blyth's and Stoliczka's names by many years. The correct 
name of this bird is therefore Mo7itifringilla altaica (Eversm.), 
if it is to be placed in the genus Montifringilla. In the 
same volume (p. 219) Eversmann describes Alauda longi- 
pennis, and in this instance Dr. Sharpe (Cat. B. Brit. Mus. 
xiii. p. 581) gives the reference correctly. 

I observe that Dr. Sharpe (/om. cit. p. 258) cites the genus 
Fringalauda as " Fringillauda, Hodgs., in Gray's Zool. Misc. 
p. 84 (184i) ;" but this is incorrect. Hodgson defined the 
genus most fully in 1836 (As. Res. xix. p. 158), and at the 
same time described Fringalauda nemoi'icola, this being his 
type of the genus, but writes it " Fringalanda," which was 
evidently a misprint for '^ Fringalauda." Blyth in 1844 
(Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xiii. part 2, p. 954) noticed this mis- 
print, and proposed to alter the name to Fringillauda. In 
Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 84, the reference is in a bare list of 
birds, without any definition of the genus, as " Fringilauda 
nemoricola." I may add that Mr. Waterhouse, in his recently- 
published list of the Genera of Birds, gives all these references 
quite correctly. 

III. Lanius bogdanowi. 

In the ''Bericht liber die Februar-Sitzung der allgemeinen 
deutschen ornithologischeu Gesellschaft zu Berlin, No. 2 
(1893)," just received, I observe that Hcrr Schalow makes 



of some Palcearctic Birds. 379 

some remarks on Lanlus raddti, milil, and considers it pro- 
bably identical witb Otomela bogdanowi, Bianchi, Mel. 
biolog. du Bull, de FAcad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersbourg, 
tome xii. p. 581 (1886). In this he is quite correct, for 
Mr. Pleske, of St. Petersburg, who was at my house not 
long ago, examined my specimen, and told me that it was 
identical with Biauchi's bird, of which I was not previously 
aware, not having seen Bianchi^s description. The correct 
name of this Shrike is consequently Lanius bogdanowi 
(Bianchi). 

IV. BUTEO MENETRIESI, 

In the same " Bericht " Mr. Ehmcke describes as new a 
Buzzard from the Gumbinnen Kreis, under the name Buteo 
zimmermannce, respecting which Mr. Matschie expresses 
the opinion that this form has been already referred to, 
and believes it to be Buteo minor of Ludw. Brehm 
(Naumannia, 1855, p. 268, descr. nulla). This I doubt, but 
it may possibly be Buteo minor, Heugl., Syst. Uebers. p. 5 
(1856), which von Heuglin describes as follows : — ^' Gleicht 
dem F. buteo in Farbung vollkommen ; ist aber schlanker 
und wenigstens um ^ kleiner.^ There is, however, I think, 
no doubt that it is the species described by Bogdanow in 
his work on the Birds of the Caucasus (' Ptitsui Kavkaza,' 
p. 45, 1879) under the name Buteo menetriesi. This form 
is said to be tolerably common in Russia, and I have received 
several specimens of it from Archangel. It is a dark rufes- 
cent form of Buteo desertorum, and in my article on that 
species (B. of Eur. v. pp. 457-461, 1875) I referred to it a 
specimen from Archangel, from tvliich indeed I cannot 
think Buteo menetriesi should be separated, even subspeci- 
fically. 

As Professor Bogdanow 's description is in Russian the 
following translation will probably be welcome to most non- 
Russian ornithologists: — ''Female rather larger than the 
male; upper parts with the feathers dark brown, broadly 
margined with rufous, thus giving the back the appearance of 
being rufous with dark brown blotches ; throat and sides of the 



380 Synonyinij of some Palaarctic Birds. 

head whitish red, striped with dark brown ; feathers on the 
nnderparts generally with a long and large central chestnut- 
red blotch, oti which the black shaft of the feather shows 
prominently ; some feathers have two blotches — a basal one, 
brown, and a terminal one of a chestnut-red or reddish brown ; 
portion of the feather bordering and between the blotches 
light red or sandy yellowish red, becoming paler as the 
feather gets worn ; feathers on the abdomen with the rufous- 
white portion more extensive, the spots assuming a diagonal 
direction, forming two or three bars on each feather ; under 
tail-coverts pale rufous, with pale chestnut stripes ; wings 
blackish brow^n, the outer web of the primaries tinged with 
grey, the inner broad portion of the web white ; secondaries 
brown on the outer web, the inner web also white, with broad 
diagonal bars, the innermost light rufous ; scapulars brown, 
with broad rufous margins ; thigh-feathers dark rufous, with 
black shafts ; tail rich foxy-red ; central rectrices clear 
rufous edged with whitish, with a broad terminal and two, 
three, or four narrower bars ; external rectrices with the 
outer web blackish brown, tinged with grey or reddish brown; 
the inner web rufous, with here and there brownish-black 
transverse bars all along the feather, the terminal bar much 
wider ; shafts of the feathers white ; seen from below the 
tail is light brown with a whitish tinge, only one or two 
terminal bars being apparent, the others not being visible. 
The coloration of the tail is the most characteristic distinc- 
tion, by which it may also be distinguished on the wing. 
Beak black, cere yellowy iris yellow, legs yellow, claws black." 
The habitat given by Bogdanow is " near Lake Azen-am ; 
valley of the White River (Bela), Psekoups and Tybinsk ; 
according to Nordmann, in Abkhasia and Mingrelia; and 
according to Michaloffsky, in Transcaucasia.'^ 



Avifauna of Mount Dulit and the Baram District. 381 

XXXVIII. — On the Avifauna of Mount Dulit and the Baram 
District in the Territory/ of Saratvak. By Charles Hose^ 
F.Z.S. 

(Plates X., XI.) 

I FIRST began to collect animals in Borneo in 1887, being 
stimnlated to do so by my friend Mr. A. H. Everett, and as 
I was stationed far in the interior of the island I had oppor- 
tunities of exploring several portions of the highlands which 
had previously been unvisited by Europeans. From the very 
first I received the kindest encouragement from His Highness 
the Rajah, and it has been a double pleasure to me to occupy 
my spare time in the exploration of some of the outlying- 
mountains of the Baram District, knowing that the Rajah 
was as interested as myself in the results of my expeditions. 
So far the visit I made to Mount Dulit has turned out very 
satisfactorily^ and the novelties have proved to be of remark- 
able interest ; but of course much still remains to be done 
upon that mountain^ and I expect to add considerably to the 
present list of birds which I have found inhabiting it. 1 
have added some notes upon the low-country birds also^ and 
I hope that the few remarks made on the distribution of 
some of the species will be of interest. 

I should like to acknowledge in the warmest manner the 
assistance and encouragement I have received from my 
friends at the British Museum, from Dr. Giinther^ Dr. 
Bowdler Sliarpe, and Mr. Ogilvie Grant, who have helped 
me with the birds and have determined the species for me. 
The mammals have also been named for me by Mr. Oldfield 
Thomas. 

For the position of Mount Dulit and the neighbouring- 
portions of Sarawak territory, I must refer my readers to 
the 'Geographical Journal^ for March 1893, where a full 
account of my trip to the mountain is given. As will be 
seen by the accompanying map (p. 382), which is taken 
from that in the * Geographical Journal,' Dulit is situated 
in Lat. N. 3° 15' and Long. E. 1 14°. 

I do not consider mv work on Dulit to be vet nearly 



382 



Mr. C. Hose on the Avifauna of 




Xl'alker <Sr Botitall sc. 



Part of Northern Sarawak. 



Mount Dulit and the Baram District. 383 

finished, and I hope on my return to explore the other parts 
of tlie mountain. For that reason I have not at present 
attempted a comparison of the avifauna of Dulit with that 
of Kina Balu, as given by Di'. Bowdler Sharpe in 'The Ibis' 
for July 1890. All one can say at present is that many 
species appear to range higher on Dulit than they do on 
Kina Balu, tlie avifauna of vrhich was so thoroughly studied 
by my friend Mr. Whitehead. 

I have given references to Dr. Sharpens papers on the birds 
of Dulit, and in the order of classification I have followed 
Mr. Everett's useful list of Bornean birds in the ' Journal of 
the Straits Branch of the Asiatic Society ' for 1889. 

Family Turdid.e. 

1. Geocichla everetti. 

Geocichla everetti, Sharpe, Ibis, 1892, pp. 323, 431. 
Discovered on my first expedition to the mountain. It 
lives in the damp moss-covered top of Dulit. 

2. Ekithacus cyane. 

Erythacus cyaneus (Pall.) ; Everett, t. c. p. 98 ; Sharpe, 
Ibis, 1892, p. 432. 

This is a bird of the low country, and is not found at any 
great height on the mountain. 

3. Myiophoneus borneensis. 

Myiophoneus borneensis, Slater ; Everett, t. c. p. 98 ; 
Sharpe, Ibis, 1892, p. 432. 

This Whistling Thrush occurs from 3000 to 5000 feet 
on Dulit. I also found it breeding, the nest being placed 
on a stump; there were two young birds in the nest, one of 
which my Dyak hunter ate, and the other is now in the 
British Museum. It is one of the few Bornean birds which 
are good whistlers. Native name '^Blankin." 

4. COPSYCHUS MUSICUS. 

Copsychus musicus (Raffl.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. vii. p. 65; 
Everett, t. c. p. 99. 

Found on the lower portions of the mountain and on 



38i Mr. C. IIoso on the Avifauna of 

clearings only throughout the disti-ict. Also a good songster. 
Makes a nest like a Robin in a stump or iii a bank. 

5. TlllCniXUS PYRRHOPYGUS. 

Trlddxus pij7'rhopygus, Less.; Siiarpe, Cat. B. vii. p. 32; 
Everett, t. c. p. 99. 

Occurs on Dulit u]) to 2000 feet, 

0. ClTTOCINL'LA SUAVIS. 

Cittocmcia saavis, Scl. ; Siiarpe, Cat. B. vii. p. 87 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 100. 

Extends all through the low country, and I have found it 
as high as 3000 feet on Dulit, and again on Batu Song to 
2000 feet. The native name is " Nandak," and the species 
is an important "omen" bird. 

7. ClTTOClNCLA STRICKLANDI. 

Cittoc'uicla stricklandi (Motl. & Dillw.) ; Sharpc, Cat. B. 
vii. p. 88; Everett, t, c. p. 100. 

Ascends Dulit to 2000 feet, uj) to which elevation it is 
tolerably common. A great frequenter of mountain-streams. 
So far as I know this bird never occurs south of Bintulu. 

8. Hydrocichla frontalis. 

Hy drocichla frontalis (Blyth) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. vii. p. 321 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 101. 

Up to 1000 feet on Dulit. Native name ''Ensing Batu." 

9. IlYDROCICnLA RUFICAPILLA. 

Hydrocichla rnficapilla (T.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. vii. p. 319 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 101. 

Also found UJ) to 1000 feet, but common throughout the 
low country. 

10. Orthotomus ruficeps. 

Orthotomus ruficeps (Less.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. vii. p. 224 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 101. 

This red-headed Tailor-bird does not ascend beyond 1000 
feet. The nest is a pretty structure placed below a leaf, 
which is di'awu over it. 



Mount Dulit and the Bar am District. 385 

11. Ortiiotomus cineraceus. 

Orthotomus cineraceus, Blyth; Sharpe, Cat. B. vii. p. 325; 
Everett, t. c. p. 102. 

Very common in the low country, particularly in cleared 
land and young jungle. Only occurs within the 1000-feet 
limit of the base of the mountain. 

12. BURNESIA SUPERCILIARIS. 

Burnesia superciliaris (Salvad.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. vii. p. 20G; 
Everett, t. c. p. 102. 

Native name '^Enkaririk." Common everywhere below 
the 1000-feet limit. 

Family Timeliid^. 

13. Garrulax schistochlamys. 

Garrulax schistochlamys, Sharpe; Everett, t. c. p. 103. 

Occurs between 3000 and 4000 feet. On my second 
ascent I got the young of this species. There were three of 
them in the nest. Native name '^ Empulu arang." 

14. Rhinocichla treacheri. 

Rhinocichla treacheri, Sharpe; id. Cat. B. vii. p. 453; 
Everett, t. c. p. 103. 

From 3000 to 5000 feet. Very common. This species 
feeds on some kind of berry, which passes into the intestines, 
and there forms a kind of blue dye, which pervades the whole 
abdomen and dyes the fingers blue when the bird is being 
skinned. On account of this disagreeable peculiarity the 
natives will not eat the bird. 

15. Allocotops calvus. 

Allocotops calvus, Sharpe ; Everett, t. c. p. 104. 
$ juv. Dulit, 5000 feet, May 1892. 

As in the typical specimens obtained by Mr. Whitehead, 
the young bird sent differs from the adult in its feathered 
crown. This bird is met with from 4000 to 5000 feet. It 
has a peculiar kind of note, resembling a hoot. Three or 
four are generally found in company. 

ser. VI. — vol. v. 2e 



386 Mr. C. Hose on the Avifauna of 

16. POMATORHINUS BORNEENSIS. 

Pomatorhiniis borneensis, Cab. ; Sharpe^ Cat. B. vii. p. 411 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 104. 

Ascends the mountain to 2000 feet, and is fairly common 
in the low country. 

17. Stachyris borneensis. 

Stachyris borneensis, Sharpe, Ibis, 1887, p. 449 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 105. 

Fairly common about 4000 feet. 

18. Cyanoderma bicolor. 

Cyanoderma bicolor (Blyth) ; Everett, t. c. p. 105. 
Mixornis bicolor, Sharpe, Cat. B. vii. p. 581. 
Common all through the low country and at the foot of 
Dulit. 

19. Chlorocharis emili-e. 

Chlorocharis emilia, Sharpe, Ibis, 1888, p. 392, pi. xi. 
fig. 1; Everett, t. c. p. 105. 

Very rare on Mount Dulit, and met with only between 4000 
and 5000 feet. Only two specimens, as yet, have been 
procured. 

20. Alcippe cinerea. 

Alcippe cinerea, Blyth ; Sharpe, Cat. B. vii. p. 622 ; 
Everett, t. c, p. 106. 

Found on Dulit at about 3500 feet. This bird is usually 
seen about pools and waterfalls, and was named by our party 
'' the Bather,^' because it came every day with the utmost 
regularity about 3 o'clock to bathe in a little pool near 
our camp. 

21. Staphidia everetti, 

Staphidia everetti, Sharpe, Ibis, 1887, p. 447 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 107. 

Tolerably common on Dulit at 2000 feet. Whenever a 
clearing was made round a hut in the dense forest this little 
Jungle-Tit would immediately make its appearance and fre- 
quent the neighbourhood in the most inquisitive manner. 



Mount Dulit and the Baram District. 387 

22. Macronus ptilosus. 

Macronus ptilosus, T. & S. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. vii. p. 583 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 108. 

Common up to 1000 feet. It is called by the natives 
"Enkeririk Landak'^ (porcupine), because of tbe bristly 
plumage on the back, which really has a resemblance to the 
quills of a tiny porcupine. It has likewise a very curious 
note, like "^p'wish,^^ which it utters with every movement, 
accompanying the notes by raising its feathers in a jerky 
manner, 

23. TURDINUS CANICAPILLUS. 

Turdinus canicapillus, Sharpe, Ibis, 1887, p. 450; id. Ibis, 
1892, p. 433 ; Everett, t. c. p. 108. 

High up on Dulit, occurring at about 5000 feet. 

24. Turdinus atrigularis. 

Turdinus atrigidaris (Bp.), Sharpe, Cat. B. vii. p. 549 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 109. 

A low-country bird, but found up to 4000 feet on Dulit. 
It creeps about beneath the roots of trees, and is a thorough 
ground-bird in its mode of life. The native name is 
"Gendang plandok.'' This sjjecies has a pleasant whistling 
note, which is not usual among the Timeliidse of Borneo. 

25. Drymocataphus capistratoides. 
Drymocataphus capistratoides (T.), Sharpe, Cat. B. vii. 

p. 555 ; Everett, t. c. p. 109. 

Foot of the mountain, ranging to about 1000 feet. 

26. Trichostoma rostratum. 

Trichostoma rostratum, Blyth; Sharpe, Cat. B. vii. p. 562; 
Everett, t. c. p. 109. 

Low-counti'y bird, ranging about 1000 feet on Dulit. 

27. Kenopia striata. 

Kenopia striata (Blyth) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. vii. p. 573 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 109. 

Found in the Baram district and extends up Dulit to a 
low elevation. 

2e 2 



388 Mr. C. Hose on the Avifauna of 

28. Ptilopyga rufiven'tris. 

Ptllopyga rufiventris (Salvad.) ; Sliarpc, Cat. B. vii. p. 585 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 110. 

Common in the low country, not extending above 1000 feet. 

29. Ptilopyga leucogramiMica. 

PtUopyga leucogrammica (Bp.) ; Sliarpe, Cat. B. vii. p. 586; 
Everett, t. c. p. 110. 

By no means common. Found on Dulit up to 2000 feet. 
Its habits are similar to those of Turdinus atrignlaris. 

30. AXUROPSIS MALACCENSIS. 

Anuropsis malaccensis (Hartl.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. vii. p. 588; 
Everett, t. c. p. 110. 

Common in the low country. 

31. EUPETES MACROCERCUS. 

Eupetes macrocercus, Temm. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. vii. p. 338. 

Mr. Everett first found this species in Borneo on Mount 
Penrisen {cf. Sharpe, Ibis, 1890, p. 367). It occurs on 
Mount Dulit at 4000 feet, and is always found on the peaks 
of the mountains, living an isolated life iu these places. My 
native collectors met with it on Batu Song, where it evidently 
breeds, as they got the young birds. Their elevations are 
given as from 4000 to 7000 feet, and though these figures 
must be received with caution, it may be taken for certain 
that the species inhabits the highest peaks on Batu Song. 

The young birds differ considerably from the adults. 
They are much duller and browner in colour, and the crown 
is reddish brown instead of bright chestnut. The throat is 
white and the under surface is slaty black. The sexes 
appear to be alike in colour, and a young female is gaining 
the adult plumage by a moulr. 

32. TURDIXULUS EXSUL. 

Turdimdus exsuJ, Sharpe, Ibis, 1888, p. 479; Everett, 
t, c. p. 111. 

Discovered on Kiua Balu by Mr. Whitehead, at 4000 feet. 
I foxmd it on Dulit at the same elevation. It is exceedingly 
rare, and is very hard to find in the jungle, owing to its 
small size, dull coloration, and creeping habits. 



Mount Dulit and the Baram District. 38U 

Family BRACHYPODiDiE. 

33. loLE OLIVACEA. 

lole olivacea, Blytli ; Sliarpe_, Cat. B. \\. p. 55 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 111. 

Common everywhere, and ascends Dulit to about 3000 
feet. 

3i. Hemixus malaccensis. 

Hemixus malaccensis (Blyth) ; Sliarpe, Cat. B. vi. p. 52; 
Everett, t. c. p. 111. 

A lovr-country species, common up to 2000 feet. 

35. Hemixus coxnectens. 

Hemixus connectens, Sharpe, Ibis, 1887, p. 446 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 111. 

Found on Dulit at 3000 feet, and met with also on Batu 
Song. It has a curious habit of puffing out its throat- 
feathers every time it utters its note, which is a kind of 
" sh-sfi." 

36. PiXAROCICHLA EUPTILOSA. 

Pinarocichla euptilosa, Sharpe, Cat. B. vi. p. 62 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 112. 

Found in the low country and ascending Dulit up to 
1000 feet. 

37. MlCROPUS MELAXOCEPHALUS. 

Micropus melanocephalus (Gm.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. vi. p. 65 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 112. 

Common in low country and ascending Dulit up to 
1000 feet. 

38. ]SIlCROPUS MELAXOLEUCUS. 

Micropus melanoleucus (Eyton) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. vi, p. 69 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 112. 

Common everywhere through the low country. It 
whistles at night, and is one of the species which always 
come to clearings and round about the houses. Native 
name "Tiup api.'' 



390 Mr. C. Hose on the Avifauna of 

39. Criniger ph^ocephalus. 

Criniger phceocephalus , Hartl. ; Sharpc^ Cat. B. vi. p. 74; 
Everett, t. c. p. 112. 

Common in the low country. Native name " Empulloh 
lilin.^' 

40. Criniger diardi. 

Criniger diardi (T.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. vi. p. 76; Everett, 
t. c. p. 113. 

Similar to C. phaocephahis, but having a yellow-tipped 
tail. It has the same distribution as that speeies, being also 
one of the low country birds. 

41. Criniger gutturalis. 

Criniger gutturalis (Bp.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. vi. p. 80; 
Everett, t. c. p. 113. 

This is a low-country bird, and common everywhere. 
Native name " EmpuUoh,''^ It is fond of inflating its throat 
and puffing out the feathers, 

43. Criniger ruficrissus. 

Criniger ruficrissus, Sharpe; id. Cat. B, vi. p. 81 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 113. 

This species represents the preceding bird on the mountain 
above 1000 feet. 

43. Criniger finschi. 

Criniger finschi, Salvad. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. vi. p. 84; 
Everett, t. c. p. 113. 

Found on Dulit and Batu Song at 3000 feet. 

44. Trichophoropsis typus. 

Trichophoropsis typus, Bp. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. vi. p. 88 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 113. 

Common everywhere in low country, but does not ascend 
the mountains beyond the base. 

45. Tricholestes criniger. 

Tricholestes criniger (Blyth); Sharpe, Cat. B. vi. p. 80 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 113. 

Found on Dulit and Batu Song up to a moderate height. 



Mount Dulit and the Barcmi District. 391 

46. Trachycomus ochrocephalus. 

Trachycomus ochrocephalus (Gm.) ; Sliarpe, Cat. B. vi. 
p. 93; Everett, t. c. p. 114. 

This bird is common along the rivers and is called by the 
natives ' Maki Boyah ' or ' Alligator Bird/ a name given to 
it from its supposed habit of annoying the alligator. 

47. Pycnonotus analis. 

Pycnonotus analis (Horsf.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. vi. p. 140; 
Everett, t. c. p. 114. 

Common all through the low country, but does not 
ascend the mountains. 

48. Pycnonotus plumosus. 

Pycnonotus plumosus, Blyth; Sharpe, Cat. B. vi. p. 152; 
Everett, t. c. p. 115. 

Common in low country. 

49. Pycnonotus simplex. 

Pycnonotus simplex, Less.; Sharpe, Cat. B. vi. p. 153; 
Everett, t. c. p. 115. 

Also inhabits the low country. 

50. Pycnonotus salvadorii. 

Pycnonotus salvadorii, Sharpe, Cat. B. vi. p. 401 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 115. 

This little Bulbul ascends the mountain to about 2000 
feet. Like its congeners, it is a somewhat uninteresting 
bird. One of my specimens from Batu Song has the throat 
pale yellow instead of grey ; it seems to be adult. 

51. Bubigula webberi. 

Rubigula webberi (Hume) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. vi. p. 171 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 115. 

This bird occurs on Dulit and Batu Song up to 4000 feet. 
It is a fruit-eating bird, and we got several on one occasion 
on a berry-bearing tree. 

52. Rubigula paroticalis. 

Rubigula parulicalis (Sharpe); id. Cat. B. vi. p. 170; 
Everett, t. c. p. 115. 



392 Mr. C. Hose on the Avifauna of 

This grey-breasted Bulbul is found up to 3000 feet on 
Mount Dulit. 

53. RUBIGULA MONTIS. 

Otocompsa montis (Sliarpe) ; id. Cat. B. vi. p. 162. 

Rubigula montis, Everett, t. c. p. 115. 

A mountain bird, occurring on Dulit at 5000 feet. 

54. ./EgITHINA VIRIDISSIMA. 

^githina viridissima (Bp.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. vi. p. 6 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 116. 

A low-country bird, not very common. 

55. Chloropsis zosterops. 

Chloropsis zosterops (Vig.) ; Sbarpe, Cat. B. vi. p. 24; 
Everett, t. c. p. 116. 

Common all over the low country and on Dulit up to 3000 
feet. Native name " Cunchit." 

56. Chloropsis cyanopogon. 

Chloropsis cyanopogon (T.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. vi. p. 32; 
Everett, t. c. p. 116. 

Found in the low country, not ascending Dulit beyond 
1000 feet. 

57. Chloropsis viridinucha. 

Chloropsis viridinucha, Sharpe; id. Cat. B. vi. p. 31, pi. i.; 
Everett, t. c. p. 117. 

This little Green Bulbul is fairly common everywhere. 
It reaches 3000 feet on Dulit. 

58. Chloropsis kinabaluensis. 

Chloropsis kinabaluensis, Sharpe, Ibis, 1887, p. 445 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 117. 

I met with this bird on Dulit from 4000 to 5000 feet, and 
found it only in old jungle, which the bird evidently prefers. 

59. Irena crinigera. 

Trena criniger, Sharpe, Cat. B. iii. p. 267 ; Everett, t. c. 
p. 117. 

Ascends Dulit to 2000 feet. It is a very plentiful bird in 
the low country, and one of the most beautiful species we 
have. The young males take two years to get the full 



Mount Dulit and the Baram District. 393 

brilliant plumage^ and after the first moult they have more 
or less blue and black plumes. These generally appear 
first on the vent and under tail-coverts^ afterwards being 
sprinkled over the back, and at the second moult the 
perfect plumage is assumed. 

Family Oriolid^e. 

60. Oriolus xanthonotus. 

Oriolus xanthonotus, Horsf. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. iii. p. 213 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 119. 

This little Oriole is common all through the low country, 
and on Dulit up to 2000 feet. It has rather a pretty whistle, 
and by imitating its note it is possible to decoy it quite close 
to one. 

61. Oriolus hosii. (Plate X.) 

Oriolus hosii, Sliarpe, Bull. B. O. C. no. ii. p. iv; Ibis, 
1893, p. 117. 

This new and remarkable species was found by me on the 
top of Mount Dulit at 5000 feet, living in the damp moss- 
covered stunted jungle. I had not much opportunity for 
watching its habits. 

Family Sittid^. 

62. Dkndroph[la corallipes. 

Dendrophila corallipes, Sharpe, Ibis, 1888, p. 479 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 120. 

This pretty Nuthatch is a low -country bird, ascending 
Dulit to 3000 feet. 

Family Laniid^. 

63. Lanius lucionensis. 

Lanius lucionensis, L. ; Everett, t. c. p 121. 

This Shrike is a monsoon visitor, and is found all through 
the low country, where it is by no means rare. Its habits 
resemble those of the ordinary English Butcher-bird. 

64. Pityriasis gymnocephala. 

Pityriasis gymnocephala (T.) ; Everett, t. c. p. 121. 

Dr. Sharpe thinks that this bird is a Shrike, but Count 



394 Mr. C. Hose on the Jvifaunn of 

Salvadori considers that it is a Starling, akin to Gracula. 
"When I go back I intend to investigate the life- history of 
this cnrious species more closely; bnt meanwhile my notes on 
its habits may be interesting, and at present I am inclined 
to agree ■with the idea thrown ont by Count Salvadori. 
First of all it selects a hole in a tree for its nesting-place. I 
once felled a tree in which was a nest, but in falling all the 
eggs were hopelessly smashed, and I am only speaking from 
recollection as to what they were like. I did not know at 
the time of the interest attaching to the species, and so did 
not take particnliu* notice of the colour of the eggs, but, to 
the best of my recollection, they were of a creamy or bluish 
white. 

This bird is particularly fond of a small berry, which is 
bluish black in coloiu- and about the size of a pea. It shells 
the fruit off the stone with its bill and devours the pulp. In 
habits it is decidedly gregarious, and I found that when one 
was shot, the others very foolishly Hew down to their dead 
comrade. Il has a very harsh note, but at times it utters a 
whistle like that of a ^ly nab. The native name is '"^ Tiong 
balli,'' which means " False ]Mynah,^' " Tiong " being the 
native name for the Myuah. 

I procured several young birds just able to tly, and they 
presented some very curious differences from the adults. 
When quite young the head is bald, but after leaving the 
nest some scanty red feathers, or red-and- black ones, make 
their appearance on the crown, which is otherwise quite 
smooth. The red on the hind neck is interspersed with 
black spots. The eyelid in the young bii'd is black, with 
small red feathers round the rim : none of this is seen in 
the old bird. Instead of being black, the ear-coverts are 
red like the cheeks, the plumage is soft, not stiffened, and 
the feathei's of the fore neck likewise are not stiff'ened as 
in the old bird. The whole of the centre of the breast is 
red : but the thigh-feathers are black instead of being red. 

65. Tephrodorxis gularis. 

Tephrodornis gularis (Rafli.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. iii. p. 278; 
Everett, t. c. p. V2\. 



Mount Dulit and the Baram District. 395 

Common in gardens in any of the cleared parts of the low 
country, especially along the coast. 

66. Hyloterpe grisola. 

Hyloterpe yrisola (Blyth) ; Everett, t. c. p. 122. 
Found in the low country only. 

67. Hyloterpe hypoxantha. 

Hyloterpe hypoxantha, Sharpe, Ibis, 1887, p. 451 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 122. 

Occurs on Dulit at 3000 feet. 

68. HeMIPUS CAPITALIS. 

Heniipus picatus, Sykes; Everett, t. c. p. 123. 
Hemipus capitalis (M^Clell.) ; Gates, Faun. Brit. Ind., 
Birds, i. p. 472. 

Occurs on Dulit at 4000 feet. 

Family Dicrurid^. 

69. Chibia borneensis. 

Chibia borneensis, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 246 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 123. 

Found on Mount Dulit from 3000 to 4000 feet. 

70. Chaptia malayensis. 

Chaptia malayensis, Blyth ; Sharpe, Cat. B. iii. p. 244 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 124. 

Inhabits only the low country. 

71. BUCHANGA STIGMATOPS. 

Buchanya stirjniatops, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 247. 
Found on Dulit at 5000 feet and very rare. 

72. DiSSEMURUS PLATURUS. 

Dissemurus platurus (V.) ; Everett, t. c. p. 124. 
All over the low country, ascending Dulit to 2000 feet and 
Mount Batu Song to 3000 feet. 

Family Campophagid^. 

73. Artamides normaxi. 

Artamides normani, Sharpe, Ibis, 1889, p. 190. 
The young bird has a good deal of white speckling on the 
breast. Found on Dulit at 4000 feet. 



396 Mr. C. Hose on the Avifauna of 

74. Artamides sumatrensis. 

Artamides sumatrensis (S. Miill.) ; Sharpe^ Cat. B. iv. 
p. 12 ; Everett, t. c. p. 125. 

A low-country species^ which occurs on Dulit uj) to 2000 
feet. 

75. Pericrocotus xanthogaster. 

Pericrocotus xanthogaster (Raffl.); Sharpe, Cat. B.iv. p. 74. 
A low-country bird, not yet met with on Dulit. 

7Q. Pericrocotus montanus. 

Pericrocotus montanus, Salvad.; Sharpe, Ibi*, 1887, p. 439 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 125. 

This Minivet is found on Mount Dulit at 5000 feet. 

77 . Lalage terat. 

Lalage terat (Bodd.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. iv. p. 95 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 126. 

Common in the low country, but I have not yet seen it on 
Dulit. 

78. Lalage culm in at a. 

Lalage culminata (A. Hay) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. iv. p. 104 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 126. 

This Cuckoo-Shrike is found at the foot of Dulit up to 
about 1000 feet. It is spread over the low country. 

Family Muscicapid^. 

79. Erythromyias muelleri. 

Erythromyias muelleri (Blytb) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. iv. p. 200, 
pi. iv. fig. 2. 

I found this pretty Flycatcher at 5000 feet. It was also 
met with on Penrisen by Mr. Everett. 

80. MUSCICAPULA hyperythra. 

Muscicapula hyperythra (Blyth) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. iv. 
p. 206 ; Everett, t. c. p. 127. 

I found this little Flycatcher on Dulit at 3000 feet. 

81. Xanthopy'gia narcissina. 

Xanthopygia narcissina (T.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. iv. p. 249; 
Everett, t. c. p. 128. 



Mount Dulrt aud the Baram District. 397 

Found in the low country and also on Mount Dulit at 
3000 feet. 

82. Tarsiger hodgsoni. 

Tarsiger liodgsoni (Moore) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. iv. p. 275 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 128. 

This tiny Blue Flycatcher was met with only on Mount 
Dulit at 4000 feet. 

83. HypoTHyMis occipitalis. 

Hypothymis occipitalis (Vig.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. iv. p. 275 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 128. 

Only a low-country bird ; not very common. 

84. RhIPIDURA ALBICOLLIS. 

Rhipidura albicollis (V.); Sharpe, Cat. B. iv. p. 317; 
Everett, t. c. p. 129. 

A mountain bird, occurring on Dulit at about 3000 feet. 

85. Rhipidura javanica. 

Rhipidura javanica, Sparrm. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. iv. p. 332; 
Everett, t. c. p. 129. 

Common all through the low country, especially among 
the young undergrowth. 

86. Rhipidura perlata. 

Rhipidura per lata, S. Miill. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. iv. p. 328 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 129. 

This Fan-tailed Flycatcher occurs on Dulit up to 4000 feet, 
and at about the same height on Batu Song. Native name 
*' Burong Kanji." 

87. Terpsiphone affjnis. 

Terpsiphone affinis (Blyth) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. iv. p. 349 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 130. 

Only in the low country and on Dulit up to 1000 feet. 
Native name "Lemujan.^^ 

88 Philentoma velatum. 

Philentoma velatum (T.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. iv. p. 365 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 130. 

This Flycatcher is a low-country species, known to the 
natives as " Burong Kubok.^^ 



398 Mr. C. Hose on the Avifauna of 

89. Philentoma pyrrhopterum. 

Philentoma pyrrhopterum (T.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. iv. p. 366 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 130. 

Also a Flycatcher of the low country. 

90. Uhinomyias pectoralis. 

Rhinomyias pectoraUs (Salvad.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. iv. p. 68; 
Everett, t. c. p. 130. 

In the low country round the foot of the mountain. 

91. Rhinomyias ruficrissa. 

Rhinomyias ruficrissa, Sharpe, Ibis, 1887, p. 441 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 131. 

Found at 5000 feet on Mount Dulit. 

92. Culicicapa ceylonensis. 

Culicicapa ceylonensis (Sw.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. iv. p. 369 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 131. 

This little Flycatcher is found on Dulit, and also in the 
low country round about. 

93. Cryptolopha schwaneri. 

Crypiolopha schwaneri (T.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. iv, p. 403; 
Everett, t. c. p. 131. 

Procured on Mount Dulit at 5000 feet. 

94. SiPHIA BANYUMAS. 

Siphia banyumas (Horsf.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. iv. p. 449 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 132. 

Occurs on Dulit, where I met with it only at 2000 feet. 

95. Siphia nigrigularis. 

Siphia nigrigularis, Everett, Ibis, 1891, p. 45. 
This is the usual low-country form of Blue Flycatcher. 
It occurs only at the foot of Mount Dulit. 

96. Siphia beccariana. 

Siphia beccariana (Salvad.) ; Sharpe, Cat. iv. p. 452 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 133. 

A young male from Batu Song is interesting as showing 
the first blue feathers appearing on the back ; otherwise it 
resembles the adult red-tailed female. The species also 
occurs on Dulit up to 2000 feet. None of these Blue Fly- 
catchers can be called common. 



Mount Dulit and the Baram District. 399 

97. SlPHlA EVERETTI. 

Siphia everetti, Sliarpe, Ibis, 1890, p. 3G6. 
Found on Mount Dulit at 4000 feet, where, however, it is 
very rare. 

Family Hirundinid^. 

98. HiRUNDO JAVANICA. 

Hirundo javanica, Sparrm.; Sharpe, Cat. B. x, p. 91; 
Everett, t. c. p. 134. 

This is the common Swallow of the district, building 
under the eaves and floors of the bungalows, which, I must 
remind the reader, are raised off the ground. 

Family Nectariniid.e. 

99. tEthopyga temmincki. 

Mthopyga temmincki (S. Miill.) ; Everett, t. c. p. 135. 
I found this red Sun-bird on the top of Dulit at 5000 feet 
on the small low bushes in the moss. 

100. tEthopyga siparaja. 

^tliopyga siparaja (Raffl.) ; Everett, t. c. p. 135. 
This is the low- country Red Sun-bird, and is common in 
gardens and cleared land. 

101. Chalcostetha insignis. 

Chalcostetha insignis (Jard.) ; Everett, t. c. p. 135. 
Found only in the low country. 

102. CiNNYRIS PECTORALIS. 

Cinngris pectoralis (Horsf.) ; Everett, t. c. p. 136. 
Common in low country. Also on Dulit up to 1000 feet. 

103. Anthothreptes hypogrammica. 

Anthreptes hypogrammica (S. Miill.) ; Everett, t. c.p. 136. 
Goes to 3000 feet on Mount Dulit. 

104. Anthothreptes simplex. 

Anthreptes simplex (S. Miill.) ; Everett, t. c. p. 136. 
Only found in the low country. 

105. Anthothreptes malaccensis. 

' Anthreptes malaccensis (Scop.) ; Everett, t. c. p. 137. 



400 Mr. C. Hose on the Avifauna of 

This bird is called '' Cimchit Malacca/^ It is a low-country 
species and goes up Dalit to 1000 feet. 

106. Anthothreptes rhodol^ma. 

Anthreptes 7'hoclol<jema, Shelley ; Everett, t. c. p. 137. 
On Dulit at 2000 feet. 

107. Arachnothera modesta. 

Arachnothera modesta (Eyton) ; Everett, t. c. p. 137. 
This Spider-hunter is found on Dulit at 2000 feet. 

108. Arachnothera longirostris. 
Arachnothera longirostris (V.); Everett, t. c. p. 137. 
Found on Dulit at 3000 feet. Native name " Enkrasak.^' 

109. Arachnothera julIjE. 

Arachnothera juli(B, Sharpe, Ibis, 1887, p. 451, pi. xiv. 
Found on Dulit at 5000 feet. It is very rare. 

110. Arachnorhaphis robusta. 

ArachnorhapJiis robusta (M. & S.) ; Everett, t. c. p. 138. 
This Spider-hunter is a low-country bird, and occurs on 
Dulit up to 2000 feet. 

111. Arachnorhaphis crassirostris. 
Arachnorhaphis crassirostris (Reichenb.) ; Everett, t. c. 

p. 138. 

Also a low-country bird. Native name " Enkrasak." 

112. Arachnorhaphis flaviventris. 
Arachnorhaphis flaviventris (Eyton) ; Everett, t. c. p. 138. 
Arachnothera flaviventris, Gadow, Cat. B. ix. p. 109. 
Found only in the low country. 

Family Dic^id^b. 

113. Dictum nigrimentum. 

Dicceum nigrimentum, Salvad ; Everett, t. c. p. 139. 
This is the ordinary little Flower-pecker of the low coun- 
tries, and I have seen it on Dulit up to 1000 feet. 

114. DiCiEUM MONTICOLA. 

DiccBum monticola, Sharpe ; Everett, t. c. p. 139. 

I procured only three specimens of this little bird on 



Mount Dulit and the Barani District. 401 

Mt. Dulit at 5000 feet. These are one young male and two 
females, and of course without the fully adult male it is 
difficult to say whether the Dulit bird is identical with the 
Kina Balu species or not : at present the surmise is that they 
are the same, but further strict comparison is necessary. 

115. Dictum chrysorrhceum. 

Dicaum chrijsorrhoewn, T. ; Everett^ t. c. p. 139. 
Ascends Dulit to 1000 feet. 

116. Prionochilus xanthopygius. 

Pi'ionochilus xanthopygius, Salvad. ; Everett, t. c. p. 140. 
Procured on Dulit at 4000 feet. 

117. Prionochilus maculatus. 
Prionochilus maculatus (T.) ; Everett, t. c. p. 140. 
Also procured on Dulit at 4000 feet. 

Family Zosteropid^. 

118. ZOSTEROPS SQUAMIFRONS. 

Zosterops squamifrons, Sharpe, Ibis, 1892, p. 323. 

Found on Mount Dulit at a height of 3500 feet. Only 
one example was seen, and that was shot just outside my hut 
at the camp. 

Family Ploceid/E. 

119. MUNIA BRUNNEICEPS. 

Munia brunneiceps, Wald.; Sliarpe, Cat. B. xiii. p. 338 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 14.2. 

Very common throughout the low country. 

120. UrOLONCHA TUSCANS. 

Munia fuscans (Cass.) ; Everett, t. c. p. 142. 
Uruloncha fuscans, Sharpe, Cat. B. xiii. p. 3G4. 
The little Black Rice-bird is fairly common in the paddy- 
fields over the low country. 

121. TJroloncha leucogastra. 

Uroloncha leucogastra (Blyth); Sharpe, Cat. B. xiii. 
p. 362 ; Everett, t. c. p. 142. 

The White-bellied Rice-bird is the rarest of our species. 
I have met Avith it only at Niah. 

SER. VI. VOL. A . 2 F 



402 Mr. C. Hose on the Avifauna of 

Family Sturnid^. 

122. Calornis chalybea, 

Calornis chalybea (Horsf.); Sharpe, Cat. B. xiii. p. 143; 
Everett, t. c. p. 143. 

This is the common Glossy Starling of the country, filling 
the Casuarina trees. In habits very like our common English 
bird. Native name " Empialing." 

123. Gracula javanensis. 

Eulabes javanensis (Osbeck) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. xiii. p. 102 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 144. 

Gracula javanensis, Blyth [cf. Scl. Ibis, 1892, p. 102). 

Common everywhere, in pairs. A good whistler and 
talker, and often trained by the Malays and Chinese. Native 
name "Tiong.^' 

Family Artamid^e. 

124. Artamus leucogaster. 

Artamus leucorhynchus (L.) ; Everett, t. c. p. 144. 

Artamus leucogaster (Val.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. xiii. p. 4. 

This Wood-Swallow nests at a good height, generally about 
twenty-five or thirty feet from the ground, and the nest is 
placed on the summit of a stub, where the tree has been 
broken off. The habits of the bird are peculiar. It is fond 
of perching on the dead bough of a tree, whence it sails off 
with a swallow-like flight. It is essentially a bird of the 
clearings, and does not affect the jungle. 

Family Corvid^e. 

125. CORVUS TENUIROSTRIS. 

Corvus tenuirostris, Moore; Everett, t. c. p. 145. 

Native name "Burong Kak.'^ These Crows are common 
all through the low country, but do not ascend the moun- 
tains to any great height. 

126. Dendrocitta cinerascens. 

Dendrocitta cinerascens, Sharpe, Ibis, 1879, p. 250, pi. viii. ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 147. 

This pretty Magpie was one of the features of Mount 
Dulit between 8000 and 5000 feet, where its anvil-sounding 



Mount Dulit and the Baram District. 403 

note was heard everywhere. The bird coilkl, notwithstanding, 
not be called plentiful. 

127. CiSSA JEFFERYI. 

Cissa jejferyi, Sharpe, Ibis, 1888, p. 383; Everett, t. c. 
p. 146. 

I found this Green Magpie on Mount Dulit at 5000 feet. 
It is very rare on the mountain. 

128. Platysmurus aterrimus. 

Platysmurus aterrimus (T.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. iii, p. 91 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 146. 

Fairly common all over the low country, and ascends 
Mount Dulit up to 2000 feet. It has a very harsh ' Jay '- 
like note. 

129. Platylophus coronatus. 

Platylophus corunatus (Raffl.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. iii. p. 318; 
Everett, t. c. p. 147. 

Known as the " Kajampang " or '•' the Rain-bird,^' from 
its unerring faculty of foretelling a storm. Whenever its 
whistle is heard, rain is always to be expected. The long 
crest-feathers are raised erect when the bird utters its note, 
accompanying the whistle with a jerky erection of the crest. 

Family Pittid.e. 

130. Pitta cyanoptera. 

Pitta cyanoptera, T. ; Scl. Cat. B. xiv. p. 420 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 147. 

Common all the year round in rountry and on the 

mountains to about 1000 feet. name " Burong 

Pat.^^ 

131. Pitta granatina. 

Pitta granatina, T. ; Scl. Cat. B. xiv. p. 430 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 148. 

This Pitta is common in the low country and ascends the 
mountain to about 2000 feet. 

132. Pitta arcuata. 

Pitta arcuata, Gould ; Scl. Cat. B. xiii. p. 431 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 148. 

2f2 



404 Mr. C. Hose on the Avifauna of 

Occurs on Dulit from 2000 to 4000 feet, breeding on the 
mountain in September. I procured the young birds, which 
are very different from the adults. 

133. Pitta muelleri. 

Pitta muelleri, Bp. ; Scl. Cat. B. xiv. p. 439 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 149. 

This is a low-country bird, and occurs at the foot of the 
mountain. 

134. Pitta baudi. 

Pitta baudi, Miill. & Schl. ; Scl. Cat. B. xiv. p. 444 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 149. 

This beautiful Pitta occurs in the low country and ranges 
up to 2000 feet on the mountain. It is an old-jungle bird, 
preferring the forests, and not visiting clearings like P. 
granatina. The female is very difficult to procure, being 
probably concealed by its duller coloration. 

135. Pitta schwaneri. 

Pitta schwaneri, Bp. ; Scl. Cat. B. xiv. p. 445 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 149. 

Found only on the mountains, and occurs on Dulit from 
3000 to 4000 feet. 

Family Euryl^mid^. 

136. Calyptomena viridis. 

Calyptomena viridis, Raffl. ; Scl. Cat. B. xiv. p. 456 ; 
Everett, t, c. p. 150. 

This is the little Green Broadbill of the low country, but 
it extends up the mountain to 3000 feet. Native name 
" Pantap daun.'^ 

137. Calyptomena whiteheadi. 

Calyptomena whiteheadi, Sharpe ; Scl. Cat. B. xiv. p. 457; 
Everett, t. c. p. 150. 

I was pleased to find this splendid bird on Mount Dulit, 
where it occurs at 5000 feet. 

138. Calyptomena hosii. 

Calyptomena hosii, Sharpe, Ibis, 1892, p. 438, pi. x. 

The first specimen of this bird was shot by one of my men 



Mount Dulit and the Baram District. 405 

in a ravine on Mount Dulit, at an elevation of 3000 feet, I 
was with him at the time^ and we were attracted by the 
curious note, not unlike the subdued cooing of a Dove. It 
is a bird of the dark forests, and builds a- hanging nest at 
the end of a bough, similar to that of C. ivhiteheadi. 

139. PsAKISOMUS PSITTACINUS. 

Psarisomus psittacinus, S. Miill. ; Everett, t. c. p. 150. 

This pretty Broadbill occurs on Mount Dulit at 4000 feet. 
It must evidently nest there, as I procured four young birds 
together. 

140. EURYL^MUS OCHROMELAS. 

Eurylamus ochromelas (RafR.) ; Scl. Cat. B. xiv. p. 465 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 150. 

A low-country Broadbill, ascending to 2000 feet on Dulit. 
Native name " Kong kong madi."" 

141. EuRYLjEMUS javanicus. 

Eurylamus jav aniens, Horsf. j Scl. Cat. B. xiv. p. 463 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 150. 

This is also a low-country Broadbill, and extends up the 
slope of Dulit to about 1000 feet. 

142. Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchus. 
Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchus (Gm.) ; Scl. Cat. B. xiv. 

p. 468; Everett, t. c. p. 151. 

Common along the banks of the rivers. It is fond of 
placing its nest over the water, suspending it from the up- 
standing boughs of some tree which has fallen in. 

143. CORYDON SUMATRANUS. 

Corydon sumatranus (Raffl.) ; Scl. Cat. B. xiv. p. 466; 
Everett, t. c. p. 151. 

This large Broadbill is an inhabitant of the low country 
and ascends Dulit to about 2000 feet. 

Family Cypselid^. 

144. COLLOCALIA FUCIPHAGA. 

Collocalia fuciphaga (Thunb.) ; Hartert, Cat. B. xvi. p. 498. 



406 Mr. C. Hose on the Avifauna of 

145. COLLOCALIA LOWI. 

Collocalia luwi (Sharpe) ; Hartert, Cat. B. xvi. p. 498. 

146. Collocalia linchi. 

Collocalia linchi, Horsf. & Moore ; Hartert, Cat. B. xvi. 
p. 508. 

All these three Swiftlets occur in the district, but I will 
defer my remarks on them to a future occasion. 

147. Ch^etura gigantea. 

ChcBtura gigantea (T.) ; Hartert, Cat. B. xvi. p. 475; 
Everett, t. c. p. 151. 

This big Swift i-^ found sitting on the top of dead trees 
and is very rare. 

148. Ch^tura leucofygialis. 

Cheetura leucopygialis (Blyth) ; Hartert, Cat. B. xvi. p. 490. 

ChcBtura coracina, Scl. ; Everett, t. c. p. 152. 

Is found in the low country, frequenting the clearings. 

149. Macropteryx longipennis. 

Macropteryx longipennis (Rafin.) ; Hartert, Cat. B. xvi. 
p. 514; Everett, t. c. p. 152. 

This Crested Swift is only found in the low country, and 
I have not met with it on the mountain. It is very fond of 
sitting on the boughs of dead trees. 

150. Macropteryx comatus. 

Macropteryx comatus (Tick.); Hartert, Cat. B. xvi. p. 512; 
Everett, t. c. p. 152. 

Generally seen on the banks of the rivers and ascends the 
mountain to about 1000 feet. 

Family Caprimulgid.*:. 

151. Caprimulgus macrurus. 

Caprimnlgus macrurus, Horsf. ; Hartert, Cat. B. xvi. 
p. 537 ; Everett, t. c. p. 153. 

This is the common Goatsucker of the low country, and 
occurs ou the mountain up to 1000 feet. 



Mount Dalit and the Barani District. 407 

152. Caprimulgus concretus. 

Caprimulgus concretus, Bp. ; Hartert, Cat. B. xvi. p. 576 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 153. 

Found ou the plains and cleared land of the low country. 
Has a monotonous note, " tok-tok-ta-thar/' which it keeps 
up all night long. It comes out about six in the evening, as 
the sun goes down. 

Family Picid^e. 

153. Sasia abnormis. 

Sasia abnormis (T.) ; Hargitt, Cat. B. xix. p. 557 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 154. 

This little Piculet occurs all through the low country, 
where it is fairly common ; it ascends Dulit to 1000 feet. 

154. Chrysocolaptes validus. 

Chrysocolaptes validus (T.) ; Hargitt, Cat. B. xviii. p. 458. 
Xylolepes validus, Everett, t. c. p. 154. 
This is a low-country Woodpecker. 

155. Hemicercus sordidus, 

Hemicercus sordidus (Eyton); Hargitt, Cat. B. xviii. p. 483; 
Everett, t. c. p. 155. 

In the low country, reaching to the foot of Dulit. Native 
name " Entagris." 

156. Lepocestes porphyromelas. 

Lepocestes porphyromelas (Boie) ; Hargitt, Cat. B. xviii. 
p. 383 J Everett, t. c. p. 155. 

This is a low-country Woodpecker, which ascends Dulit 
to about 3000 feet. It is an " omen " bird, called by the 
natives " Kotok.'' 

157. Chrysophlegma malaccense. 

Chrysophlegma malaccense (Lath.) ; Hargitt, Cat. B. xviii. 
p. 126 ; Everett, t. c. p. 155. 

Chrysophlegma. humii, Hargitt; id. Cat. B. xviii. p. 126; 
Everett, t. c. p. 155. 

A low-country species. 



408 Mr. C. Hose on the Avifauna of 

158. Hemilophus pulverulentus. 

Hemilophus pulverulentus (T.) ; Hargitt, Cat. B. xviii. 
p. 494. 

Muelleripicus pulverulentus, Everett, t. c. p. 156. 

This large "Woodpecker is found only in the low country, 
and is not at all common. 

159. Thriponax javensis. 

Thriponax javensis (Horsf.); Hargitt, Cat. B. xviii. p. 498 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 157. 

Native name " Blatok Tauong." A very noisy bird in the 
low country, and it ascends Dulit to about 2000 feet. 

160. TiGA javanensis. 

Tiga javanensis (Ljung.) ; Hargitt, Cat. B. xviii. p. 412; 
Everett, t. c. p. 157. 

Only one specimen, obtained at Niah. 

161. Gauropicoides rafflesi. 

Gauropicoides rafflesii (Vig.) ; Hargitt, Cat. B. xix. p. 132. 
In the low country. 

Family ALCEDiNiDiE. 

162. Alcedo bengalensis. 

Alcedo ispida, pt. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. xvii. p. 143. 
Alcedo bengalensis (Gm.) ; Everett, t. c. p. 158. 
I found this Kingfisher at the mouth of the Baram River 
on several occasions. 

163. Alcedo asiatica. 

Alcedo meninting, Horsf. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. xvii. p. 157. 

Alcedo asiatica, Sw. ; Everett, t. c. p. 159. 

This Kingfisher is distributed over the low country. 

164. Pelargopsis leucocephala. 

Pelargopsis leucocephala (Gm.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. xvii. 
p. 98; Everett, t. c. p. 159. 

Usually seen at the mouths of the rivers, frequenting the 
mangrove-swamps, and is occasionally found inland as far as 
100 miles. Native name "Kaka Blengang." 



Mount Dnlit and the Baram District. 409 

165. Ceyx euerythra. 

Ceyx rufidorsa (nee Strickl.) ; Everett, t. c. p. 159. 
Ceyx euerythra, Sharpe, Cat. B. xvii. p. 179. 
This little Kingfisher is found in the low country. 

166. Ceyx dillwynnt. 

Ceyx dillwynni, Sharpe ; id. Cat. B. xvii. p. 177; Everett, 
t. c. p. 160. 

Found on Dulit up to 1000 feet. 

167. Halcyon coromanda. 

Halcyon coromanda (Lath.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. xvii. p. 217; 
Everett, t. c. p. 160. 

Only two or three specimens have occurred to rae in the 
low country. 

168. Halcyon pileata. 

Halcyon pileat a (Bodd.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. xvii. p. 229; 
Everett, t. c. p. 160. 

This Kingfisher is pretty common along the l)anks of the 
rivers. Islative name " Kaka." 

169. Halcyon concreta. 

Halcyon concreta (T.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. xvii. p. 285 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 161. 

This is a species found only in the old jungle, frequenting 
the dense forest and the watercourses high up at 4000 feet 
on Mount Dulit. 

170. Halcyon chloris. 

Halcyon chloris (Bodd.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. xvii. p. 273 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 161. 

The common low-country species, frequenting gardens and 
cleared land by the sides of rivers. 

171. Carcineutes melanops. 

Carcineutes melanops (Bp.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. xvii. p. 200; 
Everett, t. c. p. 161. 

This is a low-country bird, but ascends Dulit to 2000 feet. 
It is an " omen " bird. Native name '' Membuas." 



410 Mr. C. Hose on the Avifauna of 

Family BucEROTiDiii;. 

172. BUCEROS RHINOCEROS. 

Buceros rhinoceros, L. ; Grants Cat. B. xvii. p. 352; 
Everett^ t. c. p. 1G2. 

Fairly common in the low country, but is also fond of 
frequenting hills, ascending Dulit, for instance, to 3000 feet. 
Native name " Kenegalang.^^ 

173. Hhinoplax vigil. 

Rhinoplax vigil (Forst.) ; Grant, Cat. B. xvii. p. 427 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 162. 

Met with on the mountains, up to 3000 feet on Dulit. 
Native name '^Tajak.^' The long tail-feathers are worn by 
the Kayan chiefs in their war-caps and are of considerable 
value. 

174. Ahthracoceros convexus. 

Anthrococeros convexus (T.) ; Grant, Cat. B. xvii. p. 364; 
Everett, t. c. p. 162. 

A low- country bird, whicli I believe docs not ascend the 
mountains. Native name " Burong Bulu." 

175. Anthracoceros malabaricus. 

Anthracoceros malabaricus (Gm.) ; Grant, Cat. B. xvii. 
p. 365 ; Everett, t. c. p. 162. 

A low-country species. This bird is called " Bowin " (a 
pig), because it makes a noise exactly like a pig squealing. 

176. Cranorrhinus corrugatus. 

Cranorrhinus corrugatus (T.) ; Grant, Cat. B. xvii. p. 379; 
Everett, t. c. p. 163. 

Very rare low-country Hornbill. 

177. Rhytidoceros undulatus. 

Rhytidoceros undulatus (Shaw); Grant, Cat. B. xvii. p. 382; 
Everett, t. c. p. 163. 

This chestnut-headed Hornbill is found on Dulit up to 
4000 feet ; it also occurs in the low country, but is rare. 
Native name '' Kuku-kua.'' 



Mount Dulit and tlie Baraui District. 411 

178. Rhytidoceros subruficollis. 

Rhytidoceros subruficollis (Blytli) ; Grant, Cat, B. xvii. 
p. 384; Everett, t. c. p. 163. 

This species also occurs on Dulit at 3000 feet. 

179. Anorrhinus galeritus. 

Anoi'rhinus galeritus {T.) ; Grant, Cat. B. xvii. p. 391; 
Everett, t. c. p. 163. 

A common low-country species. Native name "Tekallau.^^ 

180. Berenicornis comatus. 

Anorrhinus comatus (Raffl.) ; Everett, t. c. p. 165. 
Berenicornis comatus, Grant, Cat. B. xvii. p. 423 
The White-crested Hornbill is a very important " omen " 
bird among the Kayans. 

Family Meropid.e. 

181. Nyctiornis amicta. 

Nyctiornis amicta (T.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. xvii. p. 90; 
Everett, t. c. p. 164. 

This beautiful Bee-eater is a low-country bird, but is found 
on Dulit up to 1000 feet. 

182. Merops sumatranus. 

Merops sumatranus (Raffl.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. xvii. p. 61 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 164. 

This Bee-eater is usually found on the coast, occasionally 
occurring along the banks of the rivers. 

Family Coraciid.e. 

183. EURYSTOMUS ORIENTALIS. 

Eurystomus orientalis (L.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. xvii. p. 33, 
pi. 2. fig. 1 ; Everett, t. c. p. 165. 

This Roller is found only in the low country in the neigh- 
bourhood of clearings. Native name ''Tiong Manang." 

Family Trogonid.e. 

184. HaRPACTES WHITEHEADl. 

Harpactes whiteheadi, Sharpe ; Grant, Cat. B. xvii. p. 488 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 166. 

Found on Mount Dulit at 5000 feet. 



412 Mr. C. Hose on the Avifauna of 

185. Harpactes diardi. 

Harpactes diardi (T.) ; Graut, Cat. B. xvii. p. 482; Everett, 
t. c. p. 166. 

A low-country Trogon, found on Dulit up to 5000 feet. 

186. Harpactes kasumba. 

Harpactes kasumba (Raffl.) ; Grant, Cat. B. xvii. p. 483 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 166. 

This Trogon occurs throughout the low country, and also 
on Mount Dulit up to about 2000 feet. Native name 
•'Papaw.'' 

187. Harpactes duvauceli. 

Harpactes duvauceli (T.) ; Grant, Cat. B. xvii. p. 491 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 166. 

Found all through the low country, and on Mount Dulit 
to 3000 feet. Native name " Baragai.^^ 

188. Harpactes dulitensis. 

Harpactes dulitensis, Grant, Cat. B. xvii. p. 502, pi. xvii. 
This beautiful yellow Trogon was obtained on Mount Dulit 
at 5000 feet. 

188 a. Harpactes vidua. 

Harpactes vidua, Grant, Cat. B. xvii. p. 501. 

Only a single female specimen obtained. 

Family Podargid.e. 

189. Batrachostomus affinis. 

Batrachostomus affinis, Blyth ; Hartert, Cat. B. xvi, p. 643. 
Of this bird I got only a single specimen on Mount Dulit 
at about 2000 feet. 

190. Batrachostomus harterti. 

Batrachostomus harterti, Sharpe, Ibis, 1892, p. 323 ; 
Hartert, Cat. B. xvi. p. 638. 

Discovered at the foot of Mount Dulit at about 1000 feet. 
The specimen was captured in a small jungle-hut, into which 
it had flown in the dusk, evidently attracted by the light. 



Mount Dulit and the Baram District. 413 

191. Batrachostomus mixtus. 

Batrachostomus mixtus, Sharpe, Bull. B. O. C. no. ii. 
p. iv; Ibis, 1893, p. 117. 

Found on Dulit at 5000 feet. 

Family CAPixoNiDyE. 

192. Chotorhea chrysopsis. 

Chotorhea chrysopsis (Goffin) ; Shelley, Cat. B. xix. p. 59. 

Megaloima chryso2)sis, Everett, t. c. p. 167. 

This yellow-eared Barbet was procured on Mount Dulit at 
3000 feet, where it was fairly common. Native name 
" Tegok.'^ 

193. Chotorhea versicolor, 

Chotorhea versicolor (Raffl.) ; Shelley, Cat. B. xix. p. 59. 
Megalcema versicolor, Everett, t. c. p. 167. 
Common all through the low country and ascending 
Mount Dulit to 2000 feet. 

194. Cyanops henricii. 

Cyanops henricii (T.) ; Shelley, Cat. B. xix. p. Q7. 
Megalcema henricii, Everett, t. c. p. 168. 
Found in the low country, but rare ; one specimen was 
obtained on Mount Dulit at 2000 feet. 

195. Cyanops mystacophanes. 

Cyanops mystacophanes (T.) ; Shelley, Cat. B. xix. p. 72. 
Megal(Bma mystacophanos, Everett, t. c. p. 167. 
This pretty little Barbet is found all through the low 
country, and on Mount Dulit up to 2000 feet. 

196. Cyanops monticola. 

Cyanops monticola, Sharpe ; Shelley, Cat. B. xix. p. 74 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 168. 

Found on Dulit at 4000 feet, where it is very common. 

197. Mesobucco duvauceli. 

Mesobucco duvauceli (Less.) ; Shelley, Cat. B. xix. p. 85. 
Xanthol(2ma duvauceli, Everett, t. c. p. 168. 
A common little low-country bird, found on Dulit up to 
2000 feet. Native name " Kara.'' 



414 Mr. C. Hose on the Avifauna of 

198. Mesobucco eximius. 

Mesobucco eximius, Sharpe^ Ibis, 1892, p. 3.24, 1893, pi. xi. 
Found on Mount Dulit at 4000 feet, and also on Mount 
Batu Song at the same elevation. 

199. Calorhamphus fuliginosus, 

Calorhamphus fuliginosus (Teram.) ; Shelley, Cat. B. xix. 
p. 51 ; Everett, t. c. p. 168. 

A low-country species, also occurring on Dulit up to 2000 
feet. 

Family Indicatoridji:. 

200. Indicator archipelagicus. 

Indicator archipelagicus, T. ; Shelley, Cat. B. xix. p. 4; 
Everett, t. c. p. 169. 

The Honey-Guide is a very rare bird indeed. I have met 
with a specimen only on one occasion in the low country. 

Family Cuculid.e. 

201. CUCULUS CANORUS. 

Cuculus canorus, L. ; Shelley, Cat. B. xix. p. 245. 
Cucuhis canorinus, Everett, t. c. p. 169. 
A Cuckoo, which I believe to be the same as the English 
bird, occurs on migration on the coast. 

202. Cuculus sonnerati. 

Cuculus sonnerati, Lath. ; Shelley, Cat. B. xix. p. 262 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 170. 
A low-country bird. 

203. Hierococcyx nanus. 

Hierococcyx nanus, Hume; Shelley, Cat. B. xix. p. 238; 
Everett, t. c. p. 171. 

Occurs at Barara. {Cf. Everett, 1. c.) 

204. Cacomantis merulinus. 

Cacomantis merulinus (Scop.); Shelley, Cat. B. xix. p. 268; 
Everett, t. c. p. 172. 
A low-country species. 



Mount Dulit and the Baram District. 415 

205. SURNICULUS LUGUBRIS. 

Surniculus lugubris (Horsf.) ; Shelley^ Cat. B. xix. p. 227; 
Evcrettj t. c. p. 172, 

A low-country Cuckoo, occurring on Dulit to 2000 feet. 

206. Chalcococcyx xanthorhynchus. 

Chalcococcyx xanthorhynchus, Shelley, Cat. B. xix. p. 289. 
Found on Dulit at 4000 feet, but it is rare there. 

207. CoCCYSTES COROMANDUS. 

Coccystes coromandus (L.) ; Shelley, Cat. B. xix. p. 214 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 173. 

Occurs on the coast on migration. Native name " Entera- 
cup.^' 

208. RlIINORTHA CHLOROPH^A. 

Rhinortha chlorophcea (Raf^ .) ; Shelley, Cat. B. xix. p. 393; 
Everett, t. c. p. 173. 

This small brown Cuckoo is common in the low country. 

209. Rhopodytes diardi. 

Rhopodytes diardi (Less.) ; Shelley, Cat. B. xix. p. 390; 
Everett, t. c. p. 174. 
A low-country species. 

210. Urococcyx erythrognathus. 

Urococcyx erythrognathus (Hartl.) ; Shelley, Cat. B. xix. 
p. 398. 

Rhamphococcyx erythrognathus, Everett, t. c. p. 174. 
Found all over the low country, and on Dulit to 2000 feet. 

211. Zanclostomus javanicus. 

Zanclostomus javanicus (Horsf.) ; Shelley, Cat. B. xix. 
p. 380; Everett, t. c. p. 175. 

All over the low country, and on Dulit to 3000 feet. 
Native name '' Hindoo jugum.^' 

212. Carpococcyx radiatus. 

Carpococcyx radiatus (T.) ; Shelley, Cat. B. xix. p. 415 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 175. 

A very rare bird, only found on the ground. Native name 
" Kruai ]\Ianang.^' 



416 Mr. C. Hose on the Avifauna of 

213. Centrococcyx eurycercus. 

Centrococcyx eurycercus (Hay) ; Everett, t. c. p. 175. 
Centropus sinensis (Steph.) ; Shelley, Cat. B. xix. p. 343. 

214. Centrococcyx javanensis. 

Both these species of Centrococcyx are found all over the 
low country, and on the mountains to 2000 feet. 

Family PsiTTACiDiE. 

215. Pal^ornis longicauda. 

Patceornis longicauda (Bodd.) ; Salvad. Cat. B. xx. p. 475 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 177. 

This is the common Parrot of the district. It nests in my 
garden at Claudetown, the birds selecting a hole in a big 
tree about 60 feet from the ground. Native name " Bayan.^' 

216. PSITTINUS INCERTUS. 

Psittinus incertus (Shaw) ; Salvad. Cat. B. xx. p. 501 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 177. 

Bather rare with us, and found only in the low country. 
Native name " Bayan Kadiman.'^ 

217. LORICULUS GALGULUS. 

Loriculus galgulus (L.) ; Salvad. Cat. B. xx. p. 531; 
Everett, t. c. p. 177. 

This little Lorikeet is found on all cleared land, and 
ascends Mount Dulit to 2000 feet. It is caught by the 
natives in large numbers. Native name " Entalit.^' 

Family BuBONiDiE. 

218. Ketupa javanensis. 

Ketupa javanensis, Less.; Sharpe, Cat. B. ii. p. 8; 
Everett, t. c. p. 177. 
Rare in Baram. 

219. Bubo orientalis. 

Bubo orientalis (Horsf.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. ii. p. 39 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 178. 

Found on Dulit at 3000 feet. 



Mount Didit and the Baran District. 417 

220, Scops lempiji. 

Scops lempiji (Horsf.) ; Sliarpe, Cat. B. ii. p. 91 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 178. 

This is the ordinary Eared Owlet of the low country. 

221. Scops brookii. (Plate XI.) 

Scojjs brookii, Sharpe, Bull. B. O. C. ii. p. iv ; Ibis, 1893, 
p. 117. 

Found on Mount Dulit at 5000 feet. It must be very 
rare, as only one specimen was seen. 

I need not give a detailed description of this new species 
of Scops, for the characters by which it is distinguished are 
very easily stated. It belongs to the group of S. magicus, 
so far as appearance goes, and is wonderfully like S. bour- 
uensis, Sharpe (Cat. B. ii. p. 73), in the colour of the 
under surface ; but on the upper surface it is quite different, 
being much more rufous, more coarsely mottled with black, 
and it differs from S. bouruensis and all its allies in having 
the triple band on the head and hind neck ivhite instead of 
ochraceous, the pattern being the usual one of the group, 
viz., a white occipital spot ; a second, larger one, on the 
nape ; and a third on the hind neck, forming a broad cervical 
collar. The broad band on the side of the crown, extending 
to the ear-tufts, is also white. Another peculiarity of the 
species is in the tibial joint, which has a large patch of 
chestnut barred with black. 

I may add that I have compared the specimen of this 
Owl with examples of Scops everetti, which is the nearest 
species in geographical position to which it could be allied, 
and that there is no connection between them. 

222. Heteroscops luci^e. 

Heteroscops lucia, Sharpe, Ibis, 1879, p. 77, pi. iii.; 
Everett, t. c. p. 178. 

Found on Dulit at 4000 to 5000 feet. 

223. Photodilus badius. 

Phodilus badius (Horsf.); Sharpe, Cat. B. ii. p. 309; 
Everett, t. c. p. 178. 

The Bay Owl is found in the low country. It frequently 

SER. VI. ^ — VOL. V. 2 G 



418 Mr. C. Hose on the Avifauna of 

enters houses at nighty where it is captured by the natives. 
Native name " Burong Pok." In its mode of life this 
species is very like a small Barn Owl. 

224. NiNOX SCUTULATA. 

Ninox scutulata (Raffl.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. ii. p. 156 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 179. 

This Hawk-Owl makes a melancholy cry at night, on 
account of which it is very much disliked by the natives as a 
foreteller of death. Native name " Pongok.^'' 

225. Syrnium leptogrammicum. 

Syrnium leptogrammicum (T.); Sharpe, Cat. B. ii. p. 264; 
Everett, t. c. p. 179. 

This Wood-Owl occurs on Dulit at about 2000 feet. 

Family Falconidje. 

226. Astur trivirgatus. 

Astur trivirgatus (T.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. i. p. 105; Everett, 
t. c. p. 180. 

Found only in low countries, as far as I know. 

227. Accipiter rufotibialis. 

Accipiter rufotibialis, Sharpe, Ibis, 1887, p. 437, 1889, 
p. 68, pi. ii. 

This little Sparrow- Hawk was shot on Mount Dulit at 
4000 feet. 

228. Accipiter virgatus. 

Accipiter virgatus (T.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. i. p. 150 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 180. 

1 procured this species on the Bakong River in the Baram 
district. 

229. Spizaetus alboniger, 

Spizaetus alboniger (Blyth) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. i. p. 271 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 181. 

This small Crested Eagle is found in the low country and 
on Dulit to 1000 feet. 

230. Spizaetus limnaetus. 

Spizaetus limnaetus (Horsf.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. i. p. 272 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 181. 



Mount Dulit and the Baram District. 419 

This large Black Eagle plays havoc Avith the fowls, and 
is found everywhere, ranging on Dulit to 3000 feet, 

231. LOPHOTRIORCHIS KIENERI. 

Loj)hotriorchis kieneri (Geoffr.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. i. p. 255 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 182. 

A very rare bird with us. Only one specimen has been 
obtained by me at Claudetown. 

232. Spilornis pallidus. 

Spilornis pallidus, Wald. ; Sharpe, Cat. B. i. p. 290 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 182. 

This little Serpent-Eagle is found usually along the 
banks of the rivers, perched on stumps of dead trees. Native 
name " Zangburik." 

233. BUTASTUR INDICUS. 

Butastur indicus (Gm.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. i. p. 297 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 183. 

One specimen shot at Baram mouth. 

234. Haliaetus leucogaster. 

Haliaetus leucogaster (Gm.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. i. p. 307 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 183. 

This large Sea-Eagle is fairly common and nests on the 
coast. It makes a big nest on the top of a dead tree. 

235. Haliastur intermedius. 

Haliastur intermedius, Gurney ; Sharpe, Cat. B. i. p. 314; 
Everett, t. c. p. 183. 

Found everywhere all over the low country whenever the 
natives are burning for their farms. Native name " Sing- 
alang Burong.^' 

236. Mach^rirhamphus alcinus. 
Machoirhamphus alcinus, Westerm.; Sharpe, Cat. B. i. 

p. 342 ; Everett, t. c. p. 184. 

Found in the low country, frequenting the Bat-caves. It 
feeds on the Bats, and is by far the quickest-flying Hawk 
that we have. Native name " Rajah Wali.^^ 

2g 2 



420 Mv. C. Mosc on the Avifauna of 

237. MiCROHIERAX FIlINGILLARIirs, 

Microhierax fringillarius (Drap.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. i. 
p. 3G7; Everett, t. c. p. 185. 

This little Hawk is fouud throughout the low country. 
It frequents very high dead trees. 

Family Plotid^. 

238. Plotus melanogaster. 

Plotus melanoffaster (Pcnn.) ; Salvad. Ucc. Born. p. 367 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 188. 

I found the Darters nesting in rookeries in Loagantujoh, 
where numbers of white-coated young were sitting in the 
nests ; the latter were placed on the trees surroimding the 
lake at a height of about 30 feet. 

Family ARDEiDiE. 

239. Ardea sumatrana. 

Ardea sumatrana, Raffl. ; Salvad. Ucc. Born. p. 344 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 188. 

Found along the coast and in the mouths of rivers. Native 
name " Burong raia.^^ 

240. Ardea purpurea. 

Ardea purpurea, L. ; Salvad. Ucc. Born. ]). 345 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 188. 

The " Kuju^' is found along the banks of the rivers, and 
extends quite a hundred miles inland. 

241. Nycticorax griseus. 

Nijcticorax griseus (L.) ; Salvad. Ucc. Born. p. 356; 
Everett, t. c. p. 190. 

The Night Heron nests with us on Lake Ansok. 

Family CoLUMBiDiE. 

242. TURTUR TIGRINUS. 

Turtur tigrina (T.) ; Everett, t. c. p. 193. 
Spilopelia tigrina, Salvad. Ucc. Born. p. 296. 
This is a common Turtle Dove, found on all the native 
farms and clearings. Native name '' Tekukor." 



Mount Dulit and the Bar am District. 421 

243. Macropygia ruficeps. 

Macropygia ruficeps (T.) ; Salvad. Ucc. Born. p. 298 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 193. 

Occurs on Mount Dulit from 2000 to 4000 feet. 

244. Chalcophaps lndica. 

Chalcophaps indica (L.) ; Salvad. Ucc. Born. p. 299 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 194. 

This little Ground Pigeon is common all thnjugli the 
low country and is found on Uulit up to 3000 feet. Native 
name "Embok.^^ 

245. Carpophaga ^nea. 

Carpophaga ceiiea (L.) ; Salvad. Ucc. Born. p. 290; Everett, 
t. c. p. 191. 

Tiie common Fruit-Pigeon of the country, ascending 
Dulit to 2000 feet. Native name '' Pergum.-" 

216. Carpophaga badia. 

Carpojjhaga badia (Raffl.) ; Salvad. U(!c. Born. p. 291 ; 
Everett, t. c. p. 195. 

This sjjccics occurs ou Dulit at 5000 feet. It is also found 
in the low country. 

247. Treron nasica. 

Treron nasica, Schl. ; Salvad. Ucc. Born. p. 283 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 196. 

Native name " Punai.'^ 

248. Treron vernans. 

Treron vernans (L.) ; Salvad. Ucc. Born. p. 286; Everett, 
t. c. p. 196. 

219. Treron olax. 

Treron olax (T.) ; Salvad. Ucc. Born. p. 289 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 196. 

250. Treron baramensis. 

T . fulvicollis baramensis, Meyer, J. f. O. 1891, p. 73. 

All these Pigeons occur in the low country, the only one 
ascending Dulit to any great height being T. olax, which 
was found at 4000 feet. 



422 Mr. C. Hose on the Avifauna of 

251. Treron capellei. 

Treron capellei (T.) ; Salvad. Ucc. Born. p. 285 ; Everett, 
t. c. p. 196. 

Only in the low country. 

252. Ptilopus jambu. 

Ptilopus jambu (Gm.) ; Everett, t. c. p. 197. 
Ptilonopus jambu, Salvad. Ucc. Born. p. 289. 
A low-country species, but found on Mount Dulit at 
5000 feet. 

Family Phasianid^e. 

253. Argusianus grayi. 

Argusianus grayi, Elliot j Salvad. Ucc. Born. p. 305; 
Everett, t. c. p. 197. 

Found on Mount Dulit up to 2000 feet and on the hills 
in the low country. 

254. LOBIOPHASIS BULWERI. 

Lobiophasis bulweri, Sharpe ; Everett, t. c. p. 198. 

Bulwer's Pheasant is only found on the mountains, though 
it does not ascend very high, not extending beyond 2000 feet 
as far as I know. The actions of this bird are entirely 
Fowl-like, and it is much more like a Jungle-fowl in its 
ways than a Pheasant. The picture in the ' Birds of Asia ' 
gives a wrong idea of the carriage of the bird, and I very 
much doubt whether it ever sits up in the way there depicted. 
On the contrary, it skulks along through the jungle, carrying 
its tail in a curve like a fowl. It is often trapped by the 
natives and is essentially a ground-bird, seldom taking flight, 
but preferring to run through the jungle to save itself. I 
believe that it takes quite three years before the full white 
tail is assumed. Native name " Bagier.^' 

255. EuPLocAMUs IGNITUS, Shaw. 
Euplocamus nobilis, Scl. ; Everett, t. c. p. 199. 

This Fireback is a bird of the low country. Native name 
" Sempidan." 

256. Euplocamus pyronotus. 

Euplocamus pyronotus (Gray); Everett, t. c. p. 199. 



Mount Dalit and the Baram District. 423 

This Pheasant is a low-country bird, but is decidedly 
rare. Native name " Singgier/^ 

257. Melanoperdix nigRxY. 

Melanoperdix niger (Vig.) ; Everett, t. c. p. 199. 

Not a common bird with us. Found in the low country, 
but does not ascend the mountain. Native name " Pipit 
hantu." I have found three nests, each containing five 
eggs. 

258. ROLLULUS ROULROUL. 

Rollulus roulroul (Scop.) ; Everett^ t, c. p. 200. 
Common everywhere^ going in coveys. Native name 
'' Sengayan.'^ 

259. Caloperdix borneensis. 

Caloperdix borneensis, Ogilvie Grant, Bull. B. O. C. ii. p. v ; 
Ibis, 1893, p. 117. 

I found this new species on Mount Dulit at a height of 
5000 feet in the moss. Only one specimen was obtained. 

260. H^MATORTYX SANGUINICEPS. 

Hcematortyx sangulniceps, Sharpe ; Everett, t. c. p. 200. 
Found in the same locality as the former, and under the 
same conditions. 

261. EXCALFACTORIA CHINENSIS. 

Excalfadoria chinensis (L.) ; Everett, t. c. p. 200. 
Only in the low country in the grass and low scrub. 
Native name " Empitu."^ 

Family Rallid^e. 

262. Erythra phcenicura. 

Erythra phoenicura (Penn.) ; Everett, t. c. p. 202. 
A low-country bird, frequenting the sides of rivers and 
marshes. Native name " Kruak." 

Family Glareolid.e. 

263. Glareola orientalis. 

Glareola orientalis, Leach ; Everett, t. c. p. 204. 
This Pratincole occurs during the N.E. monsoon in con- 
siderable numbers all over the low country, and is often 



424 Mr. F. W. Styan on the 

found sixty miles inland, not frequenting merely tlie rivers, 
but even the interior parts, such as the clearings. 

Family CHARADRiiDiE, 

264. (Edicnemus magnirostris. 

(Edicnemus magnirostris, Geoffr. ; Everett, t. c. p. 203. 
Found on the coast at Baram mouth during the N.E. 
monsoon. 

265. Charadrius fulvus. 

Charadrius fulvus (Gm.) ; Everett, t. c. p. 204. 

The Golden Plover comes in the monsoon. It spends the 
winter with us, and changes to summer plumage before it 
leaves. 

266. Squatarola helvetica. 

Squatarola helvetica (L.) ; Everett, t. c. p. 204. 
The Grey Plover also spends the winter with us. 



XXXIX.— 0^1 the Birds of Hainan. By F. W. Styan, 
F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 

(Plate XII.) 

The island of Hainan lies opposite the extreme southern 
point of the mainland of China, from which it is separated 
by a channel only a few miles in breadth. It is about 150 
miles long and 50 broad, and is well within the tropics, the 
20th parallel passing through its northern extremity. The 
coast-line is flat, but mountains rise in the interior, forming 
a high mass in the south-west, from which extend ranges in 
every direction; one long straight ridge runs north-east 
through almost the whole length of the island. A consider- 
able part of this mountainous region is inhabited by the 
Les, an independent aboriginal tribe, who appear to be 
friendly enough to strangers, but to have little hking for the 
Chinese, with whom they trade in a small way, but to whom 
they acknowledge no allegiance. 

The island has hardly been explored beyond the coast-line. 



Birds of Hainan. _ 425 

and but for Swinhoe^'s researches (see Ibis, 1870^ pp. 77, 230, 
342) next to nothing would be known of its fauna. When 
Consul at Kiungchow Swinhoe worked with his well-known 
activity, and through his native collectors obtained examples 
of a large number of the birds inhabiting the island, among 
which were an astonishing number of novelties. An interest- 
ing account of a trip through a great part of the interior, 
embracing much of the country of the aboriginals, will be 
found in a book published in 1886, 'Ling-Nam, or Interior 
Views of Southern Chiua,^ by B. C. Henry. 

Since the days of Swinhoe's discoveries, I believe I am 
right in saying that no one has visited the island with a view 
of studying its avifauna; aud the collections made by Mr. B. 
Schmacker through his Japanese hunter Tetsu are therefore 
of great interest. Tetsu has paid two visits to the island, 
and the results of the first were examined and reported on 
by Dr. G. Hartlaub ^ . These, I believe, were mainly col- 
lected near Hoihow on the northern coast. The second 
collection, the result of two trips to the mountainous regions 
of the south-west, made between May 1891 and January 
1892, was kindly put into my hands by Mr, Schmacker. 

In the 'Bulletin of the British Ornithologists" Club" for 
November 1892, I described as apparently new five species, 
but with regard to some of these I regret to say I was 
mistaken. The others and several of doubtful identity I 
sent to Dr. Bowdler Sharpe to examine, and his report on 
these birds will be found in the ' Bulletin of the British 
Ornithologists' Club"t foi' December 1892. 

The total number of species of which examples were 
obtained by Mr. Schmacker's collector was about 40 — a good 
result, considering that little attention was paid to sea-birds 
or Avaterfovvl, and that the real object of his visits was Concho- 
logy. This raises the total number of Hainan species to 159. 

Of these 159 species, 17 are, so far as is known, 
confined to Hainan — an astonishingly large number, seeing 

* " Ein Beitrag zur Ornithologie Chinas," Abhandliingeu cles natur- 
wissenschaftlichen Vereius zu Bremen, 1892. 
t Bull. B. 0. C. no. iv. j). xix. 



426 Mr. F. W. Styan on the 

that the distance from the mainland is so little^ that to all 
intents and purposes the island is no more than a peninsula, 
and there could be no difficulty in birds of very weak flight 
crossing over the strait. These 17 peculiar species are : — 

Dryonastes monachus. ^thopyga christinse. 

Pomatorhinus nigrostellatus. Oinnyris rhizophorse. 

Graminicola striata. Temnurus sclimackeri. 

PycDonotus haniauus. Micropternus holroydi. 

Plemixus castanonotus. Cyanops faber. 

Hypsipetes perniger. Osmotreron domvilii. 

Cliloropsi? lazulina. Macropygia swiuhoei. 

Psarophohis nigellicauda. Arboricola ardens. 
Campopliaga saturata. 

Possibly, when more is known of the birds of Tongking 
and Yunnan, some of these species may be found to inhabit 
the mainland. 

Eight other species appear not to have been previously 
met with in China, viz. : — 

Gai'i'ulax moniliger, Merops sumatraniis, 

Siphia pallidipes, Harpactes erythrocephalus, 

Rhipidura albicollis, Treron nipalensis, 

Lepocestes pyrrhotis, Alsocomus pimiceus, 

and not improbably some of these may be found to differ 
from the typical forms. 

The general facies of the avifauna of Hainan is tropical, 
being allied in many ways to that of the Malay Peninsula, 
and, through Cochin China and Burmah, to that of India; 
several species, not found on the mainland of China, connect 
it with Formosa. 

In the appended list the species in brackets are those 
which were identified by Dr. Hartlaub, but are not repre- 
sented in the later collections. 

As regards localities mentioned, Hoihow is the main port 
of the island, on the northern coast opposite the mainland ; 
the Hummocks are volcanic peaks not far from Hoihow; 
Nodouha (No Tai) and Nam Fung are in the interior, in a 
valley opening northwards from the great central highlands ; 
Ting On, Liuwowan, and Leimumon (Leimoi) are on the 



Birds of Hainan. 427 

north of the long range running N.E., Ting On being on the 
river which runs down to Hoihow, and the other two places 
are apparently small villages on the northern slope of the 
range. 

1. Merula cardis (Temm.). 

2. [Merula mandarina, Bp.] 

3. MONTICOLA SOLITARIUS (P. L. S. Miill.) . 

4. [MONTICOLA CYANUS (L.).] 

5. COPSYCHUS SAULARIS (L.). 

6. CiTTACiNCLA TRICOLOR (VieilL). 
^ ? , Nodouha, May. 

These specimens belong to the Javan race, with black bases 
to the outer rectrices. The female resembles the male, but 
has a much shorter tail, and is paler on the belly and under 
tail-coverts ; the primaries are edged with brown. 

7. Garrulax moniliger (Hodgson). 

(^ , one specimen from Liuvvowan. Neither Swinhoe nor 
David records this species; a near ally, G.pector^alis, is found 
on the mainland. 

8. Dryonastes mOxNachus (Swinhoe). 
Peculiar to Hainan. Several specimens. 

9. Trochalopterum canorum (L.). 

10. POMATORHINUS NIGRO-STELLATUS, SwiuhoC. 

This species, which is peculiar to Hainan, belongs to the 
same group as P. ruficollis, P. st7'idulus, P. styani, and 
P. musicus. In the specimen procured the centres of all the 
feathers on the fore neck and throat are chestnut, bordered 
with blackish and edged with white. 

11. BURNESIA SONITANS (Swiuhoc). 

12. Prinia inornata, Sykes. 

13. [SuTORiA sutoria (Forstcr).] 

14. Graminicola STRIATA, Styan, Bull. B. O. C. ii. p. vi ; 
Ibis, 1893, p. 54. 

The two typical specimens were obtained at Leimumon or 
Leimoi. 



428 Mr. F. W. Styan on the 

15. [CisTicoLA cisTicoLA (Temm.).j 

16. PrATINCOLA MAURA (Pall.). 

17. [RuTiciLLA RUFivENTRis, Jerd.] 

18. Erithacus calliope (Pall.). 

19. [Erithacus sibilans (Swinhoe).] 

20. [Phylloscopus suPERCiLiosus (Gra.).] 

21. [LUSCINIOLA FUSCATA (Blyth).] 

22. MoTAciLLA'LEucoPsis, Gould. 

23. MOTACILLA MELANOPE, Pall. 

24. Anthus richardi, Vieill. 

25. Anthus cervinus (Pall.). 

26. [Anthus maculatus (Hodgson).] 

27. Alcippe morrisonia^ Swinhoe. 

A single specimen with ashy grey head. I cannot dis- 
tinguish between the Formosan and Chinese continental 
forms of this species. 

28. Herpornis tyrannulus, Swinhoe. 

Cryptolopha hicolor, Styan, Bull. B. O. C. ii. p. vi (1892) ; 
Ibis, 1893, p. 55. 

Herpornis tyrannulus, Sharpe, Bull. B. O. C. iv. p. xix. 

I have lately met with a description of this bird, and have 
no doubt that my supposed Cryptolopha is nothing but this 
species. 

29. Pycnonotus hainanus, Swinhoe. 

A single specimen. This species is peculiar to Hainan. 

30. Hemixus castanonotus, Swinhoe. 

The figure in P. Z. S. (1890, p. 346, pi. xxvii.) is misleading, 
the type from which it was taken having been either abraded 
or dirty. In perfect specimens the underparts are quite as 
pure as in H. canipennis ; the breast in both species is suffused 
with a wash of bluish grey ; but in only one specimen — an 
abraded one — is there any trace of smoky brown on the 
underparts, and then it is confined to the breast. In good 
skins the basal half of the rectrices is externally edged with 
yellow ; in the male the chestnut back is deeper coloured 
than in the female. This species is peculiar to Hainan. 

31. [Spizixus cinereicapillus, Swinhoe.] 



Birds of Hainan. 429 

32. Hypstpetes perniger, Swinhoe. 

Peculiar to Hainan. Several specimens from the Hum- 
mocks, 

33. Criniger pallidus, Swinhoe. 

Pinarocichla schmackeri, Styan, Bull. B. 0. C. ii. p. vi 
(1892) ; Ibis, 1893, p. 54. 

Criniger p alii dus, Sharpe, Bull. B. O. C. iv. p. xix. 

Specimens from Nodouha in May, and from Liuwowan in 
December. 

34. Chloropsis lazulina, Swinhoe. 

Peculiar to Hainan. Specimens from Nodouha and 
Leimumon. 

35. Oriolus diffusus, Sharpe. 

36. [PSAROPHOLUS NIGELLICAUDA, SwinhoC.] 

37. BUCHANGA LEUCOGENYS, WaldcU. 

38. BucHANGA ATRA (Hermann). 

39. [BuCHANGA CINERACEA (Horsf.).j 

40. Tephrodornis pelvicus (Hodgson). 
Nodouha in May ; Liuwowan in December. 

41. Campophaga saturata, Swinhoe. 

One 2 from Leimumon. Peculiar to Hainan. 

42. Graucalus maciIj Lesson. 

43. Pericrocotus elegans, M'Clell. 

In a series of 13 males, 5 have red on the central tail- 
feathers, 8 have none. This would point to their being 
P. speciosus ; it is, however, a very uncertain and unsatis- 
factory mark of distinction, for specimens shot at the same 
time and locality differ inter se. I prefer, therefore, to judge 
these by wing-measurements, which are 3'6 in. to 38 in. 
It seems, however, very doubtful whether the two species 
are really distinct. 

44. Lanius fuscatus. Lesson, 

A single abraded female, Nodouha, 15th May, 

45. Lanius superciliosus, Latham. 

46. [Lanius schach, L.] 



430 Mr. F. W. Sty an on the 

47. Hypothymis occipitalis (Vigors). 

Lower parts washed with purplish grey, but only lightly ; 
doubtfully distinct from H. azurea. 

48. [NiLTAVA CYANOMEL^NA (Tcmm.).] 

49. SiPHiA PALLiDiPEs (Jerdon) ? 

Three specimens from Leimumon (Dec. and Jan.) and 
Nodouha (May). These belong either to this species or to 
one closely allied to it ; they appear to be much smaller than 
the Indian bird. 

Length. Wing. Tail, 

in. in. in. 

Indian 5-7 2'9 2-5 

Hainan 5-3 2-55/2-65 2-5 

The sides of the breast are deep blue like the throat and 
chest, but the centre of the breast is mottled with white 
tips to the feathers ; below that the feathers are mottled 
grey and white, flanks washed with grey, only the abdomen 
and under tail-coverts pure white. In two specimens the 
underparts and under wing-coverts are partly washed with 
pale orange-buff*, which seems due to immaturity. As the 
Indian bird has not been met with in Burmah, it was not 
unlikely that this would have proved to be a new species, but 
Dr. Sharpe tells me that he cannot distinguish it. 

50. Terpsiphone princeps (Temm.). 
Hoihow, lOtli October, a single male. 

51. MUSCICAPA ALBICILLA, Pall. 

52. Alseonax latirostris (Raffl.). 

53. Rhipidura albicollis (Vieill.). 

Two specimens. An Indian and Burmese species not yet 
recorded from China. 

54. ^THOPYGA CHRISTINiE, Swiuhoc. 

Liuwowan, December. 

55. CiNNYRIS RHIZOPHOR^ (Swiuhoc). 

One male, Hoihow, 15th November ; in winter plumage. 
There are no metallic feathers on the forehead, no traces of 



Birds of Hainan. 431 

maroon on the underparts, only a broad gular streak of 
purple ; a few stray metallic-green feathers on the sides 
of the neck will probably be dropped. 

56. Dictum cruentatum (L.). 

57. Emberiza fucata. Pall. 

58. [Emberiza aureola^ Pall.] 

59. MuNiA TOPELA^ Swinhoc. 

60. Alauda wattersi, Swinhoe. 

Two very dark specimens apparently belong to this race of 
A. galgula. 

61. Stubnia sinensis (Gm.). 

62. [Spodiopsar sericeus (Gm.).] 

63. [Spodiopsar cineraceus (Temm.).] 

64. [CORVUS LEVAILLANTI, L.] 

65. [CoRVUS TORQUATUS, LcSS.] 

66. Pica pica (L.). 

67. [UrOCISSA ERYTHRORHYNCHA (Gm.) .] 

68. Dendrocitta sinensis (Latham). 

69. TeMNURUS NIGER. 

Crypsirhina nigra, Styan, Bull. B. O. C. ii. p. vi; Ibis, 
1893, p. 55. 

Temnurus niger, Sharpe, Bull. B. O. C. iv. p. xix (1892). 

A single specimen from Liuwowan, 22nd December. 
Colour of eyes given as " magenta.^' 

70. Micropternus holroydi, Swinhoe. 

Nine specimens, eight of which were shot in May at 
Nodouha. The breast is more rufous than the throat or 
lower parts, and this tint extends in the form of a collar 
round the hind neck. These birds seem very careless of 
their plumage ; most of them are stained about the head with 
pitch or resin, and one female is covered with it all over; 
they were probably nesting in pine-trees. Peculiar to 
Hainan. 

71. Iyngipicus kaleensis, Swinhoe. 

72. Dendbocopus cabanisi, Malh. 

73. Lepocestes pyrrhotis (Hodgson). 
One male from Liuwowan, 12th December. 



432 Mr. F. W. Styan 07i the 

Not previously recorded from China proper or from 
Hainan. 

74. Upupa indica, Reiclienb. 

One specimen, dated " Liuwowan, 1st December." 
Bill, measured along culmen, 2 inches. 

75. Merops sumatranus. 

Two small Bee-eaters from the Hummocks (18th Sept.) 
seem to belong to this species, but neither of them is in full 
plumage, and it is impossible to decide the question without 
other skins to compare them with. 

Specimen a. Uusexed. General colour above dark green 
washed with blue on wings and tail ; rump brilliant pale 
blue ; throat grass-green washed with pale blue ; breast 
grass-green, paler towards the abdomen, where it is almost 
white and is washed with pale blue, more so on under 
tail-coverts ; a black stripe through the eye. The two 
central tail-feathers extend ()"3 inch beyond the others, 
but are worn and should perhaps be longer. Over the 
crown and mantle a number of chestnut feathers are 
appearing. Under surface of wing chestnut. Probably in 
full plumage this bird would have chestnut head and mantle 
and a bright blue throat. Length (including worn feathers) 
8'4 in., wing 4'3 ; tail, outer feathers, 4 ; bill from gape 1*7. 

Specimen /3. ^J . Apparently younger. Central tail- 
feathers partially grown. No signs of chestnut on the 
mantle. Throat very faintly washed with blue. Tail washed 
with blue, but wings green like the back. Bill only 1-3 in. 

76. EuRYSTOMUs CALONYX, Sharpc. 

? . Hoihow, 29th Sept. Head, back, throat, and breast 
very dusky ; throat-spot not very bright. Tail-feathers 
washed with blue for their whole length, tipped with greenish. 
Wing 7'5 in. 

77. Cyanops faber, Swinhoe. 

Peculiar to Hainan. Specimens from Nodouha. 
Forehead and crown black ; a broad scarlet band across 
the occiput ; in some specimens this is separated from the 



Birds of Hainan. 433 

green back by a narrow band of bright blue continued from 
the ear-coverts ; in other specimens this band is very faint 
or obsolete. There is also a faint indication of a yellow or 
green band between the scarlet and the black crown. 

78. Harpactes erythrocephalus^ Gould. 

Three specimens from Leimumon, 6th Dec. They agree 
well with Mr. Oates^s careful description of this bird, which 
has not hitherto been discovered in any part of China. 
A comparison of skins does not show any difference in this 
island species. 

79. CucuLus MicROPTERUs, Gould. 

80. Rhopodytes TRisTis (Less.). 
One specimen from Leimumon. 

81. [CaCOMANTIS MERUL.INUS (Scop.).] 

82. EUDYNAMIS HONORATA (L.). 

83. Centropus bengalensis (Gm.). 

84. [Centropus sinensis (Steph.). 

85. Ceryle guttata. Vigors. 

86. Ceryle rudis (L.). 

87. Halcyon pileatus (Bodd.). 

88. Halcyon smyrnensis (L.). 

89. Pal^ornis fasciata (Miill.). 

Ting On, 13th Jan. ; Nam Fung (26th May) ; Leimumon. 

90. [Otus accipitrinus (Pall.).] 

91. Circus .eruginosus (L.). 

92. Circus spilonotus, Kaup. 

93. [Circus MACRURus (Gm.).] 

94. [Circus melanoleucus (Forster).] 

95. BuTEo plumipes (Hodgs.). 

96. [Buteo hemilasius, T. & S.] 

97. [AsTUR poLiopsis, Hume.] 

98. [Falco communis (Gm.).] 

99. Spilornis melanotis, Jerdon. 

A female from Liuwowau (19th Dec.) apparently belongs 
to this small race of /Sf. cheela. The breast is uniform, 
SER. VI. VOL. v. 2h 



434 Mr. F. W. Sty an on the 

strongly barred. Length 24 in., wing 16-75, tail 11, tarsus 
3-7. 

100. POLIOAETUS PLUMBEUS (Horsf.). 

One female, Liuwowan, 15th Dec. General colour above 
earthy brown, with indistinct pale margins and faint dark 
shaft-streaks , paler towards the head and neck, which are ashy 
brown; this colour deepens again on the breast, and becomes 
dark earthy brown on the lower breast ; below this the 
underparts, including the thighs and under tail-coverts, are 
pure white. Quills black, the bases slightly mottled with 
white ; secondaries brownish on outer web. Tail, upper 
aspect dark brown, an indistinct broad subterminal bar 
blackish, tipped with pale brown ; under aspect, subterminal 
bar blackish brown, below that finely mottled blackish and 
white. Under wing-coverts and axillaries dark earthy brown 
like the breast. Length 23 in., wing 18, tail 9'8, tarsus 3. 

This specimen is very small, yet I cannot think it is a 
bird of the year. 

101. PeLECANUS MANILLENSIS, Gm. 

102. Phalacrocorax carbo (L.). 

103. [Ardea cinerea, L.] 

104. [Herodias garzetta (L.).] 

105. Ardeola prasinosceles, Swinhoe. 

106. Ardetta sinensis (Gm.). 

107. Ardetta flavicollis (Lath.). 

108. Nycticorax griseus (L.). 

109. Ibis melanocephala (Lath.). 

a. Unsexed, Hoihow, 10th November. Wing 12*75 in,, 
tarsus 3*75, tail 5, bill from gape to tip in straight line 5|. 
Entire plumage white; a narrow black line in centre of 
primary shafts towards the tip. Tertiaries one inch shorter 
than primaries, and not much broken. Feathers of lower 
neck broken but not lengthened. Neck bare 4 inches from 
crown behind, 1^^ in. lower in front. 

/8. ? , Hoihow, 7th September. Much larger. Wing 
14*25 in., tarsus 4' 1, bill 6*5, tail 6. Shafts of primaries 
entirely black towards extremity. A good deal of blackish 



Birds of Hainan. 435 

brown on the outer webs, tips, and some on inner webs of 
primaries. Tertiaries equal to primaries, greyisli brown and 
broken. Bare skin on head only extends to just behind the 
eye ; the rest of head and neck covered with short downy 
feathers, white in front, brownish black on head and hind 
neck. 

These two birds I believe to be of one species, though at 
first sight they do not appear to be so. The one with 
feathered head I take to be immature, though it is a very 
much larger bird than the other. 

110. Nettapus coromandelianus (Gm.). 

111. QUERQUEDULA CIRCIA (L.). 

A female in late summer plumage; lower parts deeji rust- 
colour. 

112. TURTUR RUPICOLA (Pall.). 

113. TuRTUR HUMiLis, Tcmm. 

114. [TuRTUR CHINENSIS (ScOp.).] 

115. Treron nipalensis (Hodgson). 

Count Salvadori considers the specimens I sent home to 
be identical with the typical form. 

116. OsMOTRERON DOMviLii, Swiuhoc, Ibis, 1870, p. 354. 
Nam Fung and Liuwowan. Very similar to 0. bicincta. 

117. Chalcophaps indica (L.) 
Liuwowan, Nodouha, Hummocks. 

118. Macropygia swinhoei, Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1890, 
p. 218. 

M. minor, Swinhoe. 

Nam Fung in May. Peculiar to Hainan. 

119. Alsocomus puniceus (Tickell). 

Three specimens from Nam Fung. Mantle chestnut, 
sides of neck bright brown. Not yet recorded from China, 
and a comparison with Burmese skins may show some 
differences in plumage. 

120. Gallus perrugineus (Gm.). 

121. Francolinus CHINENSIS (Osbcck). 

O H o 



436 On the Birds of Hainan. 

122. Arboricola ardens. (Plate XII.) 

Arboricola ardens, Styan, Bull. B. O. C. ii. p. vi (1892); 
Ibis, 1893, p. 56. 

This species is most nearly allied to A. atrogularis from 
Upper Burraah and A. crudigularis from Formosa, but differs 
widely from botli, as well as from all the other members of 
the genus, in having an orange-scarlet patch of feathers on the 
fore part of the neck and middle of the chest. This striking 
departure from the olive-brown, black, and rufous colours 
ordinarily found in these birds is most surprising, and would 
at the first glance incline one to believe that the unscrupulous 
" Chinee ^^ had been improving on nature, and that this orange- 
scarlet patch had been artificially produced. But after a 
very careful examination it seems certain that this is not the 
case, and that the tint is natural. The texture of this patch of 
brightly-coloured feathers bears a peculiar resemblance to 
spun glass, the vanes being rather stifi', hair-like, and shining. 
It reminds one strongly, both as regards colour and texture, 
of a similar patch met with in some of the Horned Pheasants, 
such as Tragopan satyra and T. melanocephala. 

The only specimen yet obtained of this remarkable bird 
was met with at Liuwowan in December. 

123. [CoTURNix COMMUNIS, Bonu.] 

124. [TuRNix DUSsuMiERi (Tcmm.).] 

125. Gallicrex cinereus (Lath.) . 

126. [Gallinula chloropus (L.).] 

127. [FULICA ATRA, L.] 

128. Charadrius fulvus, Gm. 

129. Charadrius helveticus (L.) . 
130,. Charadrius geoffroyi, Wagl. 

131. Charadrius mongolicus. Pall. 

132. Charadrius cantianus, Lath. 

133. Strepsilas interpres (L.). 

134. SCOLOPAX rusticula, L. 

135. [Gallinago stenura (Bp.).] 

136. RhYNCH^EA CAPENSIS (L.). 

137. Tringa crassirostris, Temm. et Schl. 

138. [Tringa canutus, L.] 



Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. 437 

139. Tringa cinclus^ L. 

140. Tringa subarcuata, L. 

141. Tringa platyrhyncha, Temm. 

142. Tringa ruficollis^ Pall. 

143. [Tringa temmincki, Leisl.] 

144. eurynorhynchus pygm^eus (l.). 

145. Calidris arenaria (L.). 

146. [Tringoides hypoleucus (L.).] 

147. totanus fuscus (l.). 

148. [ToTANUS CALIDRIS (L.).] 

149. [ToTANUS GL AREOLA (L.).] 

150. ToTANUS GLOTTISj L. 

151. ToTANUS STAGNATILIS, Bech. 

152. [Terekia cinerea (Gm.).] 

153. LiMosA melanuroides, Gould. 

154. Numenius variegatus (Scop.). 

155. [Numenius lineatus, Cuv.] 

156. Larus saundersi, Swinlioe. 

157. Sterna sinensis (Gm.). 

158. [Sterna CASPiA (Pall.) .] 

159. [Tachybaptes fluviatilis (Tunst.). 



XL. — Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. 
Nos. VII.-IX. 

No. VII. (March 28th, 1893.) 
The sixth meeting of the Club was held at the Hestaurant 
Frascati, 32 Oxford Street, on Wednesday, the 15th of 
March, 1893. 

Chairman : St. George Mivart, F.R.S. 

Members present : — E. Bidwell, P. Crowley, H. E. 
Dresser, W. R. Ogilvie-Grant, F. Penrose, Robert H. 
Read, P. L. Sclateb, F.R.S. , J. T. Tristram-Valentine. 

Guests : E. Hartert, C. Hose, Prof. G. Martorelli. 

On behalf of the Hon. Walter Rothschild, Mr. E. Hartert 
exhibited the type specimens of a new genus and species of 



438 Bulletin of the British 

Fringilline bird from the Sandwich Islands. Mr. Rothschild 
had proposed for it the name of Pseudonestor xanthophrys, 
and had prepared the following description : — 

Pseudonestor, gen. nov. 
This genus is nearest allied to Psittacirostra, but differs in 
the following points : — 

1. Male and female are similar in colour and markings, 
whereas they are quite differently coloured in Psittacirostra. 

2. The female is considerably smaller than the male, 
whereas the sexes are similar in size in Psittacirostra. 

3. The principal difference is that, whereas the female of 
Pseudonestor has a beak similar to that of Psittacirostra 
though much more curved, the male of Pseudonestor has an 
enormously hooked bill, much resembling in shape that of a 
Nestor Parrot, the maxilla being nearly twice the length of 
the mandible. In Psittacirostra, on the other hand, the 
bills of the sexes are the same. 

Pseudonestor xanthophrys, sp. nov. 

Adidt male. Top of head and whole upper surface bright 
olive-green. Lores and superciliary stripe golden yellow. 
Throat and breast dull yellow, with an olive tinge, which 
is strongly pronounced on the flanks ; under tail-coverts 
yellow, under wing-coverts yellowish white. Wings and 
tail blackish brown, each feather bordered with olive-green. 
Wing 3 inches, tail 1*9, culmen 1*1, lower mandible 0*5, 
tarsus 0'9. 

Adult female. Similar to the male in colour, but much 
more grey on the back and the abdomen much more tinged 
with olive. Wing 2"6 to 2 7 inches, tail 1*6, culmen 0"65, 
lower mandible 04, tarsus 0*8. 

" Iris dark hazel ; upper mandible dark grey^ basal half 
paler ; feet slate-colour, soles orange " {Palmer) . 

Hah. Island of Mauai, Sandwich Islands. 

Mr. Hartert also exhibited some interesting specimens of 
birds from the Sandwich Islands and Laysau : — Rhodacanthis 
palmeri and R. flaviceps,l^oih^ch.,ivom Hawaii; Telespiza 
cantans, Wilson, aud T. jlavissima, Rothsch., from Laysan ; 



Ornithologists' Club. 439 

Chloridops kona, Wilson^ from Hawaii ; Loxioides bailleui, 
Oust., from Hawaii. 

A communication from Dr. Bowdler Sharpe referred to 
the distribution of the Fin-feet {Heliornithidce). He pointed 
out that the Burmese Podica personata had hitherto been 
considered to be congeneric with P. senegalensis of Africa. 
Dr. Sharpe showed, however, that its affinities lay with 
the American Heliornis fulica, which had the same-shaped 
bill and wings and the same soft tail, very different 
from the stiff-ribbed rectrices of P. senegalensis. The 
webbing of the toes was different in the two genera, and 
Dr. Sharpe proposed for the Burmese species the new 
generic name of 

Heliopais, gen. n. 

H. similis generi ' Heliornis ' dicto, sed digitis tantum ad 

basin palmatis, nee flavo fasciatis distinguendus. 
Typus. Podica personata, Gray. 

Dr. Sharpe also communicated the diagnoses of some 
apparently new genera of Cranes {Gruidce), as follows : — 

-*-■ 1. LiMNOGERANUs, gen. n. 

Genus simile generi ' Grus ' dicto, sed genis anticis nudis, 
pileo usque ad nuoham nudo, loris nudis, regione sub- 
oculari et postoculari plumosa distinguendum. 

Typus. Limnogeranus americanus (L.), 

2. Sarcogeranus, gen. n. 

Genus simile prsecedenti, sed pileo antico tantum nudo, pileo 
postico plumoso, genis posticis quoque plumosis, loris 
et regione oculari nudis distinguendum. 

Typus. Sarcogeranus leucogeranus (Pall.). 

3. Pseudogeranus, gen. n. 

Genus simile generi ' Antigone ' dicto, sed regione parotica 
genisque plumosis, regione supra- et infra-ocuiari et 
. faciei lateribus nudis, collo postico plumoso, usque ad 
verticeui anticam producto, distinguendum. 

Typus. Pseudogeranus leucauchen (T.). 



440 Bulletin of the British 

Mr. Hartert laid on the table some specimens of a new 
Finch which he had discovered during his recent visit to the 
Dutch West India Islands. He proposed to call it 

f EUETHEIA SHARPEI, Sp. nOV. 

d . E. bicolori affinis, differt colore nigro supra ad frontem 
restrictOj nee ad occiput extensOj notsei colore pallidiore, 
pectore nigro minus clariore. 
2 . E. bicolori simillima. 
Al. 2 ad 2-15 poll. 
Hab. Bonaire, Cura9ao, Aruba. 

Mr. E. BiDWELL exhibited the humerus of a Coot, which 
showed a comminuted fracture afterwards completely healed. 

Mr. Robert Read made some remarks on the changes of 
plumage in the Black-headed Gull {Larus ridibundus) , and 
exhibited the head of a recently killed specimen which 
clearly proved that the black hood was gained in the spring 
by a change of colour in some of the feathers as well as by 
a complete moult in others. 



No. VIII. (May 1st, 1893.) 

The seventh meeting of the Club was held at the Restaurant 
Frascati, 32 Oxford Street, on Wednesday, the 19th of 
April, 1893. 

Chairman: P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. 

Members present : — E. Bidwell, P. Crowley, H. E. 
Dresser, W. R. Ogilvie-Grant, St. George Mivart, 
F.R.S., H. J. Pearson, F. Penrose, Robert H. Read, 
Howard Saunders {Treasurer), Henry Seebohm, R. Bowd- 
ler Sharpe, G. E. Shelley, J. Stoneham, J. T. Tristram- 
Valentine. 

Guests : E. Hartert, W. Hartmann, R. B. Newton, 
Hon. Walter Rothschild, W. H. Simpson. 



Ornithologists' Club. 441 

Mr. W. R. Ogilvie-Grant exhibited some skins of rare 
species of Game-Birds^ the principal being Caccahis magna, 
Prjev., and Phasianus satscheunensis, Prjev., specimens of 
which had recently been sent in exchange to the British 
Museum by Dr. Pleske. 

Mr. Ernst Hartert exliibited a new Scops-Owl, which he 
characterized as follows : — 

PiSORHINA SOLOKENSIS, Sp. U. 

Top of head and neck deep brown, nearly blackish ; ear- 
tufts white, with black on the tips and outer webs of the 
feathers; a white line, varied with some small blackish spots, 
extending from the ear-tufts over the eyes, and meeting on 
the forehead ; a white spot on the occiput ; a broad, whitish, 
nuchal band and another one on the lower hind neck. Back 
and rump blackish brown, with pale rusty brown spots and 
blotches. Rectrices similar in colour to the back, but some- 
what duller. Primaries deep brown, with very pale brown, 
almost whitish, spots along the outer webs ; secondaries 
spotted on both webs. Wing-coverts deep blackish brown, 
with very large white spots on the outer webs. Throat and 
breast mixed pale brown, rusty, blackish, and whitish, more 
albescent towards the abdomen. Lower abdomen, vent, and 
under tail-coverts white. Tarsal plumes nearly white. 
Under wing-coverts brown and white. Toes entirely bare 
up to the tarsus, which is thickly feathered, yellowish brown 
(in skin). Bill whitish horn- colour (in skin). Total length 
about 10 inches, wing 6'7, tail 3'1, tarsus 1*2, middle toeO'9. 
culmen 1'2. 

Hub. Hills of Solok, west coast of Sumatra. 

Remarks. The type-specimen belongs to the Stuttgart 
Museum, and was sent me for comparison by Count von 
Berlepsch, who believed it to be new to science. Its nearest 
ally is Scops everetti, from which it is chiefly distinguished 
by the great amount of white on the ear-tufts and wing- 
coverts and by the white bands on the neck, as well as by 
the pure white lower abdomen and whitish tarsal plumes. 

I am indebted to Professor Lamport, of the Stuttgart 



442 Bulletin of the British 

Museum, and to Count Berlepsch, for the opportunity of de- 
scribing this new species from an island in the natural 
history of which I am particularly interested. 

The Hon. Walter Rothschild exhibited an example of a 
new species of Rail, which he described as follows : — 

Rallus muelleri, sp. n. 

Upper surface of head, occiput, and neck brownish red, 
faintly and irregularly striated with black ; back and rump 
bright chestnut, with the centres of the feathers black ; wings 
brownish black, faintly edged with rufous grey ; cheeks red- 
dish grey ; centre of the throat reddish white ; lower part of 
throat and breast rufous grey; flanks, abdomen, and under 
tail-coverts black, each feather tipped with pale rufous, and 
with two white bands ; tail rufous, with indistinct grey bands. 
Wing 3'3 inches, culmen Tl, tarsus 1*1, central toe with 
claw 1-3, tail 1-3. 

Hab. Auckland Island, south of New Zealand. 

Remarks. This little Rail in general appearance resembles 
Rallus lewini from Australia, but on comparison presents so 
many important diff'erences that it might almost be separated 
generically. The chief distinguishing feature of the new 
species is the enormous development of the feathers on the 
back and rump, which have become a huge bunch like that 
of the Pufl'-birds [Bucco) of South America. 

The single specimen was sent to me for description by Count 
Berlepsch, who considered it to belong to a new species. It 
is the property of the Stuttgart Museum. It is named in 
honour of the famous botanist. Baron von Miiller, of Mel- 
bourne, who presented the specimen. 

The Hon. Walter Rothschild exhibited three new birds 
which he had lately received from his collector in the Sand- 
wich Islands, and characterized them as follows : — 

Acrulocercus bishopi, sp. n. 

Adult male. Head and occiput black, with a slight gloss ; 
shafts of the feathers rather paler. Rest of the upper and 



Ornithologists' Club. 443 

entire under surface smoky black, with narrow white shaft- 
lines to the feathers. Axillary tufts smaller than in A. nobilis, 
but also bright yellow. Ear-coverts with an elongated tuft 
of very narrow feathers about an inch long and of a deep 
golden yellow. Under tail-coverts golden yellow. Under 
wing-coverts sooty black, with indistinct white patches. 
Tail shorter than in A. nobilis, but more pointed, as in 
A. apicalis. Total length about 11 inches, wing 4*5, tail6"5, 
tarsus 1*5, culmen 1'4. 

Adult female. Similar to the male, but considerably smaller. 
Wing 4 inches, tail 5, tarsus 1"35, culmen 1*2. 

Hab. Island of Molokai. 

Named in honour of Mr. Bishop, of Honolulu. 

HiMATIONE NEWTONI, Sp. n. 

Closely allied to H. montana of Lanai, but has the upper 
surface dark olive-green instead of olive-yellow. Rump 
and upper tail-coverts green instead of bright yellow. The 
yellow on the forehead is much less extended. The under- 
parts, instead of being entirely yellow, are only yellow in the 
central area; flanks and sides of body olive-green. Under 
tail-coverts yellowish white instead of yellow as in H. mon- 
tana. Wing 2" 5 to 2'6 inches, tail 2 (2" 75 in H. montana, 
according to Mr. Scott Wilson), tarsus 0"87, culmen 4*75. 

Hab. Island of Mauai. 

HiMATIONE WILSONI, Sp. U. 

Similar to H. stejnegeri of Kauai, but smaller, the beak 
considerably less and straighter, in this respect resembling 
H. virens of Hawaii. General colour more yellowish, espe- 
cially on the rump and under surface. Female paler than 
the male. Wing 2*45 inches, tail 1*65 (nearly 2 inches in 
H. stejnegeri), culmen 0*55 (nearly or fully 0*8 in H. stejne- 
geri), tarsus 0"8. 

Hab. Island of Mauai. 

Dr. BowDLER Sharpe stated that during a recent visit to 
Leyden he had examined the type of Rallus sandwichensis 
of Latham, and wished to apologize to Dr. Hartlaub for 



444 Bulletin of the British 

having suggested that the bird was probably the same as 
Pennula ecaudata. The specimen had probably faded con- 
siderably from its original colour^ as appeared to be proved 
by the deep vinous chestnut of the lower abdomen and vent^ 
these parts having been more shaded from the lights and 
here the colour of the under surface approximated to that 
of P. ecaudata. The rest of the under surface was of a 
rusty vinous colour, and seemed to be much as Latham 
described it originally. Nothing, however, could have altered 
the colour of the back, which still retained the streaked 
appearance indicated by Latham, 

Dr. Sharpe also stated that an examination of the type of 
Grus cinerea longirostris, T. & S., in the Ley den Museum, 
showed that this name applied to Grus mewicana and not to 
Grus canadensis, as was generally supposed to be the case. 

Mr. ScLATER made some remarks on the splendid series 
of mounted birds, illustrative of the Italian avifauna, which 
had been collected for the Museum of the Reale Istituto 
degli Studii Superior!, of Florence, by Dr. E. H. Giglioli. 
The most recent addition to the ornis of Italy was stated 
to be Lanius algeriensis. 

He also mentioned the migratory birds which had visited 
the s.s. ' Oruba,' between Gibraltar and Malta, from March 
29th to April 1st. He had been disappointed at the small 
numbers observed. Those recognized were the Swallow, hen 
Redstart, Song-Thrush, Wheatear, and Robin. A Nightjar 
was on the ship for several hours on April 1st, when nearing 
Naples. 

The Hon. Walter Rothschild exhibited a curious me- 
lanistic variety of a Razorbill {Alca tor da), and examples 
of some interesting Asiatic species, Merula kessleri, Ibido- 
rhynchus kaufmanni, &c. 

Mr. Robert Read exhibited a Black-headed Gull, which 
had nearly attained the plumage of the adult, but had the 
bill and feet of an orange colour. 



Ornithologists' Club, 445 

Dr. BowDLER Sharpe made some remarks illustrated by 
diagrams, on fossil birds, showing our present state of 
knowledge of extinct species. 



No. IX. (June 1st, 1893.) 

The eighth meeting of the Club was held at the Restaurant 
Frascati, 32 Oxford Street, on Wednesday, the 17th of 
May, 1893, 

Chairman : Henry Seebohm. 

Members present :— E. Bidwell, W. E. De Winton, H. E. 
Dresser, H. O. Forbes, W. Graham, E. Hartert, A, P. 
Lloyd, F. Penrose, Hon. Walter Rothschild, Howard 
Saunders [Treasurer), R. Bowdler Sharpe, Charles Ston- 
ham. Col. R. W. Studdy, J. T. Tristram-Valentine, H. M. 
Upcher. 

Mr. H. 0. Forbes exhibited the eggs of some rare species 
of birds from the Chatham Islands, amongst which were 
those of Thinornis novce zealandiie and Gallinago pusilla, of 
which birds the nestlings were also shown. He also exhibited 
the egg of Cabalus modestus, which had been obtained on 
Mangare, one of the Chatham group, by Mr. Hawkins. 
The egg was white, but its Ralline character was indicated by 
a faint double spotting of grey and rufous. It measured : — 
axis 1-45, diam. I'l. 

Mr. Forbes also exhibited adult males, females, and young 
birds of Cabalus modestus, and remarked that there could 
now be no question of the validity of this species, as distinct 
from C. dieffenbachii, and that he must retract his former 
opinion on this point (above, p. 253). 

Dr. Bowdler Sharpe observed that it was a singular fact 
that this little Rail should possess in its adult plumage the 



446 Bulletin of the British 

exact dress which might have been expected to characterize 
the young of C dieffenbachii ; and even with the evidence 
now before them it was difficult to believe that the birds 
were fully adult. Count Salvadori^s opinion (above^ p. 255) 
with regard to the specimen exhibited at the third meeting 
of the Club had now been proved to be the correct one. 

The Chairman read a paper on behalf of Canon Tristram, 
F.R.S., entitled ^^On an undescribed Species of Snipe from the 
New Zealand region/' in which the author made the following 
remarks : — 

In 1846 Mr. G. R. Gray, in the ' Birds of the Erebus and 
Terror/ described a Snipe from the Auckland Islands as 
Gallinago aucMandica. There is no evidence that this bird 
has ever occurred in New Zealand. In ' The Ibis ' for 1869, 
p. 41, Sir W. Buller described a second species from the 
Chatham Islands as Gallinago pusilla. Very few specimens 
have been received, but the species has twice been obtained in 
New Zealand (to which it is evidently an occasional wanderer) : 
once by Sir James Hector in the Gulf of Hauraki, and once 
by Mr. F. B. Hill on Little Barrier Island. All doubts as to 
its being a distinct species have recently been set at rest by 
the large number of specimens obtained in the Chatham 
Islands by the collectors of the Hon. Walter Rothschild and 
Mr. H. O. Forbes. I have examined more than twenty 
specimens, and find that all of them agree in every respect, 
and cannot be confused with the Auckland Island species. 
But when Sir W. Buller published his second edition of the 
' Birds of New Zealand,' he had unfortunately sent back to 
New Zealand his only specimen from the Chatham Islands, 
and borrowed from me a sj)ecimen which had been obtained 
by Baron A. von Hiigel on the Snares, seventy miles south 
of the southern extremity of New Zealand. This I had put 
down as Gallinago pusilla, having at that time never seen a 
Chatham Island specimen. It is very accurately figured and 
coloured in BuUer's second edition ; but it proves to be very 
different from the true G. pusilla. The only other example 
in existence, so far as I am aware, is a second specimen 
obtained on the Snares at the same time by Baron A. von 



Ornithologists' Club. ^4i7 

Hiige], and in the collection of the Hon. Walter Rothschild. 
I propose to discriminate it as 

Gallinago huegeli, sp. nov. 
G. pileo et loris nigro-fuscis ; corpore supra rufescente cer- 
vino variegato; plurais rufo stricte marginatis ; cervice 
rufescente, brunneo dense striata; pectore et abdomine 
castaneis brunneo dense f asciatis ; remigibus brunneis ; 
rectricibus quatuordecim, tribus externis perangustis, 
margine albo; tarsis et pedibus albidis. Long, alse 4"1, 
rostri 2, tarsi "9. 
Hab. Snares Islands. 

This species may at once be distinguished from its coii- 
geners by its much redder hue, and especially by the 
remarkable fineness and delicacy of its markings, the 
edgings of the upper plumage and the striation and bands 
on the lower surface being very much smaller, closer, and 
more distinct. In the other two species the abdomen and 
thighs are whitish, while in this they are thickly barred. 
In this species the three outer tail-feathers on each side are 
attenuated with a white edging ; in the others only the 
two outer pairs of tail-feathers appear to be so attenuated. 

There would therefore appear to be three species of 
Gallinago in the islands round New Zealand : — G. auck- 
landica in the Aucklands, G. pusilla in the Chathams, and 
G. huegeli in the Snares, all being sedentary, or nearly so, in 
their several localities. To these further research will 
probably add a fourth from Antipodes Island, whence a 
single specimen has been received by Sir Jas. Hector, who 
states it to be larger, darker in plumage, and with a more 
curved bill than the Auckland species. Unfortunately he 
has not described it. 

I subjoin the measurements of the three species : — 

Bill. Wiug. Tarsus, 

inch. inch. inch. 

Gallinago aucklandica 22 4'2 TO 

4-1 1-0 

G. huegeli 2-0 4-1 -9 

G. pusilla 17 3-6 -8 

„ 1-5 3-5 -8 

„ 1-7 3-5 -8 

, 1-6 3-7 -8 



448 Bulletin of the British 

The Hon. Walter Rothschild exhibited and described a 
new species of Albatross : — 

^^ DlOMEDEA IMMUTABILIS, Sp. n. 

^ Adult. Head, neck, lower rump, and entire nnder surface 
pure white ; space in front of the eye sooty black ; wings 
and wing-coverts blackish brown; interscapular region, 
back, and upper part of rump paler and more smoky brown ; 
tail black, fading into white at the bases ; under wing-coverts 
mixed, blackish brown and white : " bill grey, darker at 
base, tip blackish brown ; base of under mandible pale 
yellow ; iris brown ; tarsi and feet fleshy pink " {H. C. 
Palmer). Wing 19 inches, bill 4, tarsus 3-2, middle toe 
with claw 4'3. 

Remarks. This Albatross belongs to the typical section of 
Diomedea as limited by Mr. Salvin, and is at once distin- 
guished by attaining the coloration of the adult bird in tlte 
first plumage. The young in down is pale brown with a 
blackish- brown bill. 

Hah. Laysan Island, North Pacific. 

Mr. Howard Saunders made some remarks upon the 
distribution of Birds in France, especially with reference to 
some species which passed beyond that country as far as 
Great Britain. He pointed out that a great part of France 
consisted of elevated table-land, and that one main line of 
migration passed along the Rhone Valley and across the 
Langres Plateau on the east ; while on the west side the 
line ran parallel with the coast until it was deflected east- 
ward by the high ground in Britanny and Manche — so that 
the Channel Islands received few visits from rarities. In 
Normandy, however, Tichodroma muraria, Gyps fulvtis, 
Larus melanocephalus, and many other unusual visitants to 
England had occurred several times; Passer petronia, 
Emberiza cia, yEgithalus pendulinus, and Vultur monachus 
had also been obtained, while Aquila pennata had even bred 
there. On the other hand, Picus martins, said — falsely as 
he believed — to have occurred in England, had never 
been met with in Normandy. He further remarked upon 



Ornithologists' Club. 4i9 

the Brenne district in the centre of France as promising 
an unusually fine field for ornithologists^ and mentioned 
some limestone cliffs in the Cevennes^ which were un- 
douhtedly frequented hy Vultures, although proof of their 
breeding there was as yet wanting. 

Mr. OsBERT Salvin, F.R.S., contributed descriptions of 
two supposed new species of Humming-birds of the genus 
Metallura from Ecuador, which he proposed to call : — 

f 1. Metallura atrigularis, sp. n. 

cJ ad. Similis M. primolinae sed gula media intense nigra, 
plumis ad basin castaneis et medialiter fascia transversa 
angusta amethystina notatis. Aliter fere ut in sp. cit. 
? . Gula inornata, rectricibus lateralibus albido terminatis. 
Long, alae 2*2 poll., caudse 15, rostri a rictu 0'65. 

Hub. Ecuador : Hills near Sigsig, not far from Cuenca, 
alt. 12,000 feet (O. T. Baron). 

'^- 2. Metallura baroni, sp. n. 

^ ad. Supra saturate cupreo-viridis, capite obscuriore ; subtus 
cum tectricibus subcaudalibus ejusdem coloris ; gula tota 
saturate amethystina micante ; cauda saturate viridi infra 
nitentiore. Long, alae 22 poll., caudse 1*4, rostri a rictu 
0-65. 

$ ad. Mari similis, sed subtus plumis omnibus ad basin 
cervinis, abdomine toto maculis discalibus obscure viri- 
dibus ; gula maculis saturate amethystinis notata ; rec- 
tricibus externis vix sordide albo-terminatis. 
Hah. Ecuador : Hills near Cuenca, alt. 12,000 feet 

(0. T. Baron). 

Mr. O. T. Baron had recently submitted to Mr. Salvin 
beautifully prepared specimens of both sexes of these species, 
which were quite distinct from any other species known to 
him. Both of them belonged to the same section of the 
genus as M. primolina. 

Dr. BowDLER Sharpe proposed the following new genera 
for the Otides or Bustards : — 

Heterotis, gen. n. Simile generi '' Compsotis " dicto, sed 

tarso brevi distinguendum. 
Typus est Heterotis vigorsi (Smith). 

SER. VI. VOL. V. 2 1 



450 Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. 

Otlier species belonging to this new genus -wereH. rueppelli 
(Wahlb.) andH. humilis (Blyth). 

Neotis, gen. n. Simile geueri " Lissotis " dicto, sed rostro 
longiorCj culmine digitum medium cum ungue excedente. 
Typus est Neotis ludivigi (Riipp). 

Other species of tins genus were N. burchelU (Heugl.), 
N. denhami (Childr.), N. caffra (Liclit.)^ and N. heuglini 
(Hartl.). 

HouBAROPsis, gen. n. Simile generi " Houbara" dicto, sed 
plumis jugularibus valde elongatis^ pileo nucliaque aliter 
cristatisj tarsis longissimis distinguendum. 

Typus est Houbaropsis bengalensis (Gm,). 

The Hon. Walter Rothschild exhibited a fine pair of 
Paradisea gulielmi-secundi from Kaiser Wilhelm^s Land in 
N.E. New Guiuea. 

Mr. H. O. Forbes wished to make a correction with 
reference to the genus he had described at a former Meeting 
of the B. O. C. as Diaphorapteryx (see above, p. 254). He 
had accepted the opinion of Prof. Newton that the remains 
from Mauritius and those from the Chatham Islands be- 
longed to distinct genera, and had adopted his suggestion 
of the name Diaphorapteryx ; but after personally examining 
the Mauritian remains at Cambridge, Mr. Forbes could 
not see his way to agree that the two forms were generi cally 
different. He was therefore constrained to discard his new 
genus and to reinstate that of Aphanapteryx for the Ocy- 
dromine remains from both the above-named islands. 

Mr. Forbes also exhibited the Dinornithine tibiae on which 
he had based a new genus, Palceocasuarius, and pointed out 
that the bone differed from the tibia of Dinornis (in its widest 
sense) in being straighter and less twisted on itself, so that 
the position of the ridge forming the inner wall of the 
groove for the tendons of the extensor muscles ran along the 
inner side of the bone, as in Casuarius. As in the latter 
genus also, it took a marked bend inwards and backwards 
before joining the epicnemial crest, while a line joining the 



Recently published Ornithological Works. 45 1 

centre point between the distal condyles and the epicnemial 
ridge left a considerable space between it and the wall of the 
groove. There was no intercondylar eminence in the inter- 
condylar channel, and the orifice of the extensor foramen 
opened more longitudinally than in Dinornis and pointed 
downwards. Mr. Forbes described two species, P. haasti 
and P. velox, distinguishing them by their size. 



XLI. — Notices of recent Ornithological Publications. 

[Continued from p. 275.] 

65. Agassiz on the Progress of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology. 

[Annual Report of the Curator of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 
at Harvard College to the President and Fellows of Harvard College for 
1891-92. Cambridge, U.S.A., 1892.] 

The IVIuseum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, 
Cambridge, has received a valuable contribution during the 
past Academic year by the donation to it of the " Greene- 
Smith Collection ^^ of about 1200 mounted North- American 
birds, " in many respects the most complete and valuable 
" that has ever been brought together, at least by private 
effort." An important addition has also been made by the 
purchase from IVIr. Scott B. Wilson of a series of birds from 
the Sandwich Islands. 

Prof. Agassiz complains, not without reason, we think, 
that in consequence of the great increase in size of the under- 
graduate classes at Harvard, the whole time of the Professors 
of the Museum is taken up by teaching, instead of being 
mainly devoted to original investigation, for which the 
Museum was primarily intended. It is not the province of 
the Museum, he alleges, to supply such instruction. This 
should be done by the University. 

66. Buttikofer on a Sjjecies of Rhipidura. 

[A Complementary Note to my Review on the Genus Rhipidura. "By 
J. Biittikofer. Notes Leyden Mas. xv. p. 113.] 

Mr. Biittikofer, referring to his recent review of the genus 

2 I 2 



452 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

of Flycatchers (see above, p. 265), is now able to distinguish 
a new species, Rhipidura meyeri, of the Arfak Mountains, 
from R. cinnamomea, of Eastern New Guinea. He had 
previously done this in MS., but had changed his views and 
had abolished the name which he now resuscitates. 

67. Biittikofer on Merula javanica and its allies. 

[On Merula javanica and its nearest Allies. By J. Biittikofer. Notes 
Leyden Mus. xv. p. 107.] 

The results of this paper have been already stated by 
Mr. Seebohm (above, p. 219). Mr. Biittikofer describes 
Merula celebensis as new, and vindicates the claims of Merula 
schlegeli, from Timor, to stand as distinct. 

68. Chapman on Cuban Birds and on the Origin of the 
Antillean Avifauna. 

[Notes on Birds and Mammals observed near Trinidad, Cuba, with 
Remarks on the Origin of West-Indian Bird-life. By Frank M. Chapman. 
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. iv. p. 279.] 

Mr. Chapman appears to have made a most pleasant and 
successful excursion to the south coast of Cuba in the spring 
of last year. The town of Trinidad, which he selected as his 
centre of operations, lies inland between 3 and 4 miles from 
the port ofCasilda, and is situated 400 miles from the eastern 
and 350 miles from the western extremity of the island. The 
fertile valley of Trinidad itself is mostly devoted to sugar-cane; 
but various spots in it and on the adjacent hills are good for 
collecting, and amongst these the valley of San Juan de 
Letran, eight miles north of Trinidad, at an elevation of 
2000 feet in the San Juan Mountains, is specified as the 
*' realization of a naturalist's dream of the Tropics. '^ En- 
sconced here in an " unoccupied thatched cabin,'^ the fortu- 
nate naturalist found birds "exceedingly abundant,^' attracted 
to a focus by the numerous fruit-trees in the adjacent clearing. 
On one occasion, sitting under a tree, Mr. Chapman observed 
examples of 18 species within a period of ten minutes. 

In the systematic part of the paper the author gives notes 



Recently published Ornithological Works. 453 

on 99 birds obtained or observed during his excursion, 
amongst which Conurus enops, Priotelus temnnrus, and Todus 
multicolor were " common." The following species and sub- 
species are described as new : — Rallus longirostris cubanus 
and Columbigallina pnsserina terrestris from Cuba ; Pitangus 
jamaicensis from Jamaica; and Dendroica petechia flaviceps 
from the Bahamas. Scolecophagus atro-violaceus is referred 
to a new genus of Icteridse called Ptiloxena, from the peculiar 
structure of its contour-feathers. The concluding section of 
the paper is devoted to remarks on the origin of West-Indian 
Bird-life, which it is rather difficult to follow without the 
aid of a map. It must suffice to say that the generally- 
recognized division of the Antilles into two groups, the 
Greater and Lesser Antilles, is fully recognized, as also that 
the zoological influence of the Lesser on the Greater Antilles 
is of comparatively recent date, the former having been raised, 
as Prof. A. Agassiz has shown, " long after the range of the 
greater West Indian Islands existed.^' The Greater Antilles 
were probably connected with the continent by land extending 
between the Mosquito coast and Jamaica at a time when 
sea-passages between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific were 
still open, and when the representatives of some 12 families 
now characteristic of the Central-American Ornis had not 
arrived from the south. For this reason these families are 
not represented in the Ornis of the Greater Antilles, which 
contains only survivors of the forms of the ancient fauna of 
Central America, " preserved through the isolation aflbrded 
by an insular life." 

69. Chapman and Buck's 'Wild Spain.' 

[Wild Spain (Espafia Agreste). Records of Sport with Rifle, Rod, 
and Gun, Natural History and Exploration. By Abel Chapman, F.Z.S., 
and Walter J. Buck, C.M.Z.S., of Jerez. With 174 illustrations, mostly 
by the Authors. Loudon : Guruey and Jackson, 1893.] 

Mr. Chapman's name is already well known to readers of 
' The Ibis,' and will not fail to call immediate attention to 
the present volume, in which he and his coadjutor, Mr. Buck, 
furnish us with a large quantity of most interesting informa- 



45 i Rfcently published Ornithohgicol J forks. 

tiou on the birds of tlie Peninsula and on other eognate 
subjects. Perliaps we may fairly say that the Bustanls, the 
Flamingoes, and the Kaptores of Spain are the heroes of the 
book, although the four-footed animals of the sierras and 
marismas have their shaiv of attention. Nor are the smaller 
Passerines overlooked, although, as we are informed, the work 
is planned essentially from the view of the '' sportsman- 
uatnralist." Besides the many references in the text, a List 
of Spring Migrants to Spain, with date of their arrivals in 
Andalueia, is given in the Appendix, and !Mr. A. C. Chapmau 
contributes some interesting " Spring-Xotcs " on the birds 
of Navarre. The numerous illustrations, taken nuistly from 
tlu^ authors' sketches, relate mainly to birds, ami arc. in the 
majority of cases, capital. Altogether, ' Wild Spain ' w ill 
be found to be a rare treat to the ornithologist. 



70. CoUett on Lanins excubitor and allied forms. 

[Dm Lanins excubitor, og dons forskjellige Fiirmers Optninlon i ^vorare. 
Af R. OoUett. .Vivhiv f. Mathom. ojr iSatiirv. Kristiaiiia, xvi. p. 50.] 

Prof. Collett writes on Lanius e.vctthitor and the various 
forms of it that occur in Norway, which he arranges \uulcr 
six heads. These exhibit a series of stages, beginning with 
extra-typical L. excubitor [i. e. the so-called L. /lonwt/tri) and 
passing through typical L. eJTubitor and several intermediate 
forms into L. major and nearly typical L. borealis. Kemarks 
on the distribution of L. excubitor in Norway, and its habits, 
are appended. 

71. Collett on Birds from the Xew Hebrides. 

[On a Collection of Birds from Tonga. New llebridei;. l\v E. Collett. 
Yidensk.-Selskabs Forbandl. Christiauia, 1S02. No. 18.] 

An accoiuit is given in tliis paper of a small collection of 
birds iu spirit made by Mr. O.Michelsen in the New Hebrides. 
The specimens ai*e referred to 20 species, amongst w Inch is 
a Rhipidura probably new, but the example is not iu a suf- 
ficiently perfect state to warrant description. 



Recently published Ornithological Works. 455 

72. Foster's Jiihlioyraphy of American Naturalists. 

[Bulletin of the United States National MuHeum. No. 40, liiblio- 
graphies of American Naturalints. IV. The I'ublJHhed Writings of George 
Newhold Lawrence, 1844-01. I>y 1^.8. Foster. 8vo. Washington: 

1802.] 

The 40th number of the Bulletin of the U.S. National 
Museum is occupied by a very thoroughly compiled index to 
the published writings of ^Mr, G. N. Lawrence, of Xew York, 
the Nestor of American ornithologists. This is prefaced by 
a biographical sketch and portrait of our much-esteemed 
Foreign Member, now nearly 87 years of age. His first 
ornithological paper was written in 1844, and his last in 1891. 
Altogether, his memoirs are 121 in number. In tbe case of 
all these, besides the full title, Mr. Foster gives a list of the 
species referred to in every paper, and the pages at which 
they are mentioned. This is followed by an alphabetical list 
of the new species and subspecies described by Mr. Lawrence, 
323 in all, which will be very useful to the working orni- 
thologist. The genus Lawrencia of Ridgway, of the family 
Tyrannidai, is called after his name, besides which 19 species, 
instituted by various authors, bear the specific term " lau)- 
rencii." Few of our craft, indeed, have accomplished such 
long and good service in the cause of Science. 

73. Giylioli and Manzella on Italian Birds. 

[Iconografia dell' Avifauna Italica, ovvero tavole illustranti le specie di 
Uccelli che, trovansi in Italia, con brevi descrizioni e note. Testo del Dott. 
Enrico Ilillyer Giglioli; tavole di Alberto Manzella. Fasc. xxviii.-l. 
Folio. Prato: 1885-92.] 

Since we last noticed this work, nearly seven years ago, 
considerable progress has been made, parts 28-.o0 having 
been issued ; and we are not without hopes that it may be 
brought ultimately to a conclusion within a reasonable 
period. It will be a j^reat satisfaction to the subscribers, and 
no doubt to Professor Giglioli also, to be able to arrange the 
plates and bind up the volumes. The figures of the ' Icono- 
grafia,' though not always above criticism, are mostly well 
drawn and nicely coloured, and render the species easily recog- 



456 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

nizable. The work, when complete, will form a lasting 
testimony to the zeal and energy of the Professor in accumu- 
lating the excellent collection of Italian birds in the '^ Reale 
Istituto '' in Florence^ upon which it has been mainly based. 
Among interesting species lately figured, we may call at- 
tention to Picus li/fordi from Dalmatia, Sitta whiteheadi 
from Corsica, Cypselus affinis and Ruticilln moussieri, two 
stragglers upon the Italian coast, and Caprimvlgus asiaticus, 
lately taken near Genoa. 

74. Gordon on ' Our Country's Birds.' 

[Our Country's Birds and How to Know Them. A Guide to all the 
Birds of Great Britain. By W. J. Gordon. With an Illustration in 
Colour of every Species and many original Diagrams by G. Willis and 
K. E. Holding. 8vo. London : 1892.] 

' Our Country^s Birds ' is certainly an ornithological 
multum in parvo of no ordinary description. All the 383 
" British Birds " are described in a small volume of 1 50 pages, 
and figured in 32 coloured plates. Moreover, chapters are 
given on " sortation,^^ ''identification,^' and "classification," 
and a great deal of useful information besides. Saunders's 
Manual^ is certainly more to our taste, but many of the 
figures in this little book are very nicely drawn, and its 
author is in many respects evidently quite " up to date.'' 

75. Harvie-Brown on the Birds of the Shetlands. 

[Contributions to a Fauna of the Shetland Isles. Autumn Notes. By 
J. A. Harvie-Brown, F.R.S.E., F.Z.S. Ann. Scottish Nat. Hist. 1893, 
p. 9.] 

Mr. Harvie-Brown has jjaid two visits to the southern 
portion of the Shetland group in the autumnal months, and 
gives us as the results a list of 84 species of birds met with, 
and notes upon them. The Raven [Corvus corax) was 
" often seen in dozens and half-dozens," the Merlin {Falco 
cesalon) was " very common," and several examples of the 
Spotted Crake [Porzana maruetta) are spoken of. 



Recently published Ornithological Works. 457 

7Q. Hudson's 'Idle Days in Patagonia.' 

[Idle Days in Patagonia. By W. H. Hudson, C.M.Z.S. London : 
Chapman and Hall, 1893.] 

This is not at all a " bird-book " in the ordinary accepta- 
tion of the ternij but it contains numerous allusions to and 
illustrations of birds, and will be read with pleasure by those 
who have appreciated the author's charming volume ' The 
Naturalist in La Plata.' 

The present work does not contain a complete account of 
the author's visit to the Rio Negro district of Patagonia 
(which took place as long ago as 1871), but is made up of a 
series of essays based on his experiences during that excursion. 
Some of these have been already published, more or less com- 
pletely, in certain Reviews and Magazines, but are now 
combined into a harmonious whole. As already stated, 
many allusions to our feathered favourites occur throughout 
the volume, and a whole chapter is devoted to bird-music in 
South America. In this essay the author endeavours to 
prove that the ordinary idea that tropical birds, though they 
doubtless excel those of temperate countries in beauty of 
plumage, are inferior in melody, is erroneous. It is shown, 
on the contrary, that South America at least is " not wanting 
in songsters," the fact being that its ornis comprehends some 
1200 Oscines — the section of Passerine birds in which the 
singing-organs are most highly developed. 

77. Koenig on the Birds of Tunis. 

[Zweiter Beitrag znr Avifauna von Tunis. Von Dr. A. Koenig. 8vo. 
Naumburg, 1893. (Separatabdruck, J. f . O. 1892-93.)] 

Dr. Koenig has kindly favoured us with a separate copy 
of his second essay on the birds of Tunis, extracted from the 
'Journal fiir Ornithologie ' for 1892 and 1893, the first 
article on the same subject having appeared in the same 
journal for 1888. During the intervening period the author 
has worked hard to make additions and corrections to his 
former account of this interesting avifauna, and in JVTay, 
1891, made a journey to the Beylik for the special purpose 



458 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

of augmenting his knowledge of this subject. The first part 
of the present article is devoted to an account of this 
journey, while the second contains a systematic list of birds 
of Tunis, with copious notes on the results arrived at. The 
route taken by Dr. Koenig on this occasion, which is illus- 
trated by a map, was from Susa to Gabes parallel to the 
coast, while excursions were also made from Susa north- 
wards. The systematic list contains the names of 228 
species, thus adding 28 to the author's former summary of 
the Tunisian avifauna. Upon some points in this list we 
will offer a few remarks. 

The occurrence of Cypselus affiais in Tunis is of great 
interest. Examples of this eastern species were obtained by 
Dr. Koenig on Djebel el Meda, near Gabes, in the month of 
]\Iarch. 

Specimens of Hirundo riifula, purchased from a dealer in 
Tunis, were stated to have been killed in the neighbour- 
hood. 

The Raven of Tunis is now recognized to be Corvus tingi- 
tanus, not C, corax. 

Dr. Koenig vindicates the claims of Galerita macro- 
rhyncha, Tristram, to be distinct from G. cristata, to which 
it has been recently united in the 'Catalogue of Birds' 
(xiii. p. 628), and considers G. random, Loche, to be the 
same species. He met with it in the vicinity of Gabes. 

One example of Clot-Bey's Lark {Rhamphocorys clot-bey) 
was obtained at Djebel el Meda. 

Dr. Koenig holds fast to the distinctness of his Ala>mon 
margaritce (described from specimens collected during his 
former journey), of which he again obtained examples in 
the desert near Gabes. Dr. Bowdler Sharpe (Cat. B. xiii. 
p. 526) has united it to Chersophilus duponti, from which, 
however, it would appear to be perhaps subspecifically 
different. 

It has hitherto been supposed that the Chaffinch {Fringilla 
ccelebs) is entirely replaced in North Africa by the nearly 
allied F. spodiogenys and similar forms. It would appear, 
however, that the European Chaffinch visits Tunis iu winter, 



Recently published Ornithological Works. 459 

and occasionally lingers there far into spring. Dr. Koenig 
met with it in flocks in March and April in two localities 
north of Susa. 

Three coloured plates^ illustrating Drymmca sahar<B, Saxi- 
cola mcesta, and Rhamphocoris clot-bey, are annexed to this 
essay, which is of great interest to students of the European 
Orais. We hope that Dr. Koenig will find means to visit 
Tunis again and bring home still further information on its 
attractive avifauna. 

7S. Le Souef on the Nesting of Ptilorhis victorise. 

[Nest and Egg of Queen Victoria's Rifle-bird {Ptilorhis victorice). By 
D. Le Souef. Proc. R. Soc. Victoria, 1892.] 

Mr. D. Le Souef now figures and describes the nest and 
egg of the Victorian Rifle-bird [Ptilorhis victoria), obtained 
by himself and Mr. H. Barnard in November, 1891, on one 
of the Barnard Islands [of. Ibis, 1892, p. 350). 

79. Lorenz on the Birds of Austro- Hungary. 

[Die Oruis von Oesterreicli-Ungarn und den Occupationslandern im k.k. 
naturhistorischen Hofmuseum zu "Wien. Zusammengestellt von 
Dr. Ludwig, Ritter Lorenz von Liburnau. Ann. d. k.k. uat. Hofmus. 
vii. p. 306, 1892.] 

This is a systematic list of the specimens contained in the 
separate collection of the new Vienna Museum, which is 
devoted to the illustration of the avifauna of the Austro- 
Hungarian Monarchy. It appears that the series contains 
about 1600 mounted and 10,900 unmounted specimens, of 
which the dates, localities, and authorities are given. In an 
appendix the desiderata are specified. 

A similar catalogue of the specimens in the British Collec- 
tion at South Kensington would be very desirable, and 
would, no doubt, lead to the acquisition of many additional 
specimens of our native birds. 

80. Meyer on Aquila rapax/ro;?i Astrachan. 

[^Aquila rapax (Temm.) von Astrachan, nebst Bemerkungen iiber ver- 
wandte Formen, besonders Aquila boeki, Horn. Von A. B. Meyer. 
Abhandl. Geseli. ' Isis ' in Dresden, Abh. 1892, p. G7.] 



460 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

Dr. A. B. Meyer discusses at some length the proper 
determination of the specimen of Aquila from Astrachan, 
obtained by Henke in 1874, and referred by Mr. Seebohm 
(Ibis^ 1882, p. 206) to A. rapax. Dr. Meyer finally comes 
to the conclusion that Mr, Seebohm was correct in his view^ 
though it necessitates an extension of the previously known 
range of this eagle into the delta of the Wolga, which, how- 
ever, is not very far from Turkey and Palestine, where it is 
certainly met with. Aquila boeki of Homeyer, after exami- 
nation of the type, is considered to be a young A. ncevia 
with a tendency to bright coloration. 

81. Salvadori on a neiv Fruit-Pigeon. 

[Descrizione di una nuova specie di Colombo del genere Ptilopus. Per 
Toramaso Salvadori. Boll, dei Mus. Zool. ed Anat. Comp. R. Univ. 
Torino, vii. no. 135.] 

Under the name Ptilopus tristrami, the author describes a 
new species of the numerous genus from Hivaoa, Marquesas 
grouj), based on a specimen in Canon Tristram^s collection. 
The species is allied to P. mercieri, with which it has been 
confounded by prior authorities. 

82. Satounine on the Birds of Moscow. 

[Congres Internationaux d'Anthropologie et d'Arch^ologie prehisto- 
rique et de Zoologie a Moscou, 1892. Materiaux r^anis par le Comite 
d'organisation des Congres concernant les expositions, les excursions et 
les rapports sur des questions touchant les congres. Primitige Faunae 
Mosquensis. Aves. Par K. Satounine. Royal 8vo. Moscou : 1892.] 

. The memoirs collected for the benefit of the attendants at 
the International Congress of Anthropology, Archaeology, and 
Zoology held at Moscow last August contain a nominal list 
of the birds of the surrounding district — 233 in number. 

The categories under which the species are classed in this 
list seem to us to be w^ell selected, and the abbreviations 
appropriate. We add a list of them : — 

s. = sedens, resident. 

n. = nidulans, breeding. 

tie. = rc'stivus, summer visitor. 



Recently published Ornithological WorJcs. 461 

h. = hyemalis, winter visitor, 

t. = tran&volans, on passage. 

e. = erraticus, accidental visitor. 

R. = rarus, rare, 

R.R. = rarissimus, very rare. 

83. Sharpens ' Monograph of the Paradiseidse.' 

[Monograph of the Paradi^eidce, or Birds of Paradise, and Ptilono- 
rhtjnchidce, or Bower-Birds. By R, Bowdler Sharpe, LL.D., F.L.S., &c. 
Part II. Folio. London : H. Sotheran & Co., 1893.] 

We are glad to see that Dr. Sharpe's ' Monograph of the 
Paradise-Birds ' is making progress. Part II. with ten 
beautiful plates is now before us. 

The following species are figured in it : — 

Ptilorhis paradisea. Rhipidornis gulielmi-tertii. 

Craspedophora intercedens. Manucodia chalybeata. 

Astrapia nigra. Lycocorax obiensis. 

Paradigalla carunculata. Amhlyornis inornata. 

Paradisornis rudolphi. uEluroedus stonii. 

Of these Paradisornis rudolphi is, as truly said by 
Dr. Sharpe, " among all the extraordinary birds that 
inhabit the earth, one of the most striking.^' Some of the 
plates will be recognized as old friends. 

84. Sharpe's ' Index ' to Gould's Bird-Books. 

[An Analytical Index to the Works of the late John Gould, F.R.S. 
By R. Bowd'ler Sharpe, LL.D., F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c. With a biographical 
memoir and portrait. 4to. London : Henry Sotheran & Co., 1893.] 

Indexes are quite in fashion now-a-days, and they are 
unquestionably of the greatest use to the literary " working- 
man '' of every description. When a job is to be done it is 
always assigned to the most hard- worked individual to do it. 
It therefore naturally became the duty of Dr. Bowdler 
Sharpe to make an index to Gould^s works ; and here it is, 
with a portrait and biographical memoir of the great " Bird- 
man" to set it off. This is followed by a complete list of 
Gould's published works, which has been copied by per- 



462 Recently published Ornithological Works. 

mission (with a few additions and corrections) from Count 
Salvadori's excellent memoir of Gould (Att. Ace. Sc. Torino, 
xxi. p. 1) . The list shows that GoukFs publications were 
altogether 320 in number, whereof 18 are illustrated folio 
works and the remainder 'opuscula/ The 'Analytical 
Index ' of names and references, which forms the main part 
of the volume, fills 376 quarto pages, and is stated to contain 
nearly 17,000 references, w^iich have been checked by the 
author with the aid of "his faithful attendant, Mr. Charles 
Chubb.'^ We can easily understand, therefore, that the labour 
involved in its production has been of no small amount. In 
fact, the author tells us it has taken as many years to finish 
as he expected it would have taken months. 

85. Stohmann on the Ornithology of Transcaspia. 

[Contribution a FOrnithologie de la Transcaspie, d'apres reclierches 
faites par M. Thomas Bary (1888-1801). Par Jean Stolzmann. Bull. 
Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 1892, p. 382.] 

M. Thomas Bary, a correspondent of the Branicki 
Museum at Warsaw, went to Transcaspia on a collecting 
expedition in 1889, and visited Askabad, Merv, Saraks, and 
other localities along the Persian and Afghan frontiers. 
The list of the birds obtained at Askabad has been already 
published (Mem. Soc. Zool. France, 1890, p. 88). A com- 
plete account of the results of M. Bary's expedition as 
regards birds is now given by M. Stolzmann. There are 
230 species represented in the collection, of which 17 are 
new to the avifauna of Transcaspia. Podoces panderi was 
obtained in many localities. M. Stolzmann is inclined to 
unite Sitta rupicola, Blanford, to S. syriaca, and shows how 
variable this species is, even in the same district. The 
name of '' Phasianus principalis," of which a fine series of 
19 examples was obtained by M. Bary on the Afghan 
frontier, is attributed to " Condie Stephen " ! It was, how- 
ever, invented by the Editor of this Journal, though based 
on specimens transmitted by Mr. Condie Stephen to the 
Prince of Wales. See P. Z. S. 1885, p. 324. 



Letters, Extracts, Notices, ^c. 403 

86. Wilson and Evans's ' Aves Haivaiienses.' 

[Aves Ha-\vaiienses : the Birds of tlie Sandwich Islands. By Scott 
B. Wilson, F.Z.S., assisted by A. H. Evans, M.A., F.Z.S. Part IV., 
January 1893.* 4to. London: R. II. Porter.] 

We are much pleased to welcome the fourth part of the 
'Aves Hawaiienses,^ aud trust that the fifth and concluding 
part will quickly follow. Messrs. Wilson and Evans cannot 
expect to render their account of the birds of this highly 
interesting " Subregiou " perfect, as we know tliat the 
fertile avifauna of the Sandwich Islands is by no means yet 
exhausted. But they will at all events have established a 
solid base for future workers, and have given us^ in an 
excellently illustrated volume, sufficient materials to form 
accurate views as to the general character of the Hawaiian 
Avifauna, 

The following species are figured in this part : — 
Corvus tropicus, Chloridops kona, Ciridops amia, Himatione 
mana, Bernicla sandvicensis, Anas wyvilliana, Gallinula sand- 
vicensis, Oceanodroma cryptoleucura, Piiffinus cuneatus. 

XLII. — Letters, Extracts, Notices, ^c. 
The following letters, addressed to the Editor, have been 
received : — 

Sir, — I wish, with your kind permission, to record in your 
next issue the recent occurrence of a very rare visitor in this 
country, namely the Bohemian Waxwing [Ampelis garrula), a 
fine specimen of which was shot near Ballinderry, Co. Antrim, 
on 22nd February last. The bird has occurred in this locality 
before {vide Thompson, Watters, and others), but I have met 
with no recent record whatever of its appearance. 

Croft House, Holywood, Yours &c., 

Co. Down, 7th March, 1893. R. Lloyd Patterson. 



Sir, — The method of snaring Birds of Paradise in the 

interior of the Port Moresby district has been correctly 

described by Mr. Thomson, as cited in the last number of 

' The Ibis ^ (above, p. 274) . The " dancing-tree " there 

* For notice of Part III. see Ibis, 1892, p. 575. 



-iG-i Letters, Extracts, Notices, ^'C. 

mentioned corresponds with the " spel-tree " of the Caper- 
caillio, and such trees are well known to the native bird- 
catchers of New Guinea. They are frequented by the males 
during the pairing-season, in order to attract the hens by 
showing off their gorgeous plumage in numerous elegant 
motions towai'ds one another, as described by Mr. Thomson 
(/. c). These "plays of love^' have also been described by 
the Rev. James Chalmers in his interesting 'Work and 
Adventures in New Guinea, 1877 to 1885^*. As regards 
the mode of catching Birds of Paradise we find {op. cit. 
p. 246) the following notes : — " The inland natives kill them 
with arrows ; sometimes they catch them with gum smeared 
over the branches of the tree. The natives know their 
favourite resorts, and many are thus snared.^' 

AVhen in New Guinea I became acquainted only with the 
latter method of capture, which is used also by the natives 
of ]\lilne Bay, and to prevent error it is worth while to 
mention that the inland natives do not shoot Birds of 
Paradise with arrows. These weapons or hunting imple- 
ments have only a very limited use in New Guinea. Bows 
and arrows are unknown to the natives inland of Port 
Moresby, and to the tribes on the Astrolabe and Owen 
Stanley Mountains. The drawing in Chalmers's work {op. 
cit. p. 246), "^ Shooting Birds of Paradise," which shows a 
native hidden under a shelter of leaves on a tree aiming at 
these birds, is therefore quite misleading, and does not 
refer to New Guinea, but to the Aroo Islands. As has 
already been mentioned by met, this illustration is merely a 
book-maker's invention, having been copied from Wallace's 
* Travels' (frontispiece to vol. ii. p. 364, German edition). 
The birds there figured are also clearly of the Aroo-Island 
species — Paradisea apoda, and not P. raggiana, which is 
peculiar to the south-eastern portion of New Guinea. 

Delmenliorst (near Bremen), Yours &C., 

March 1893. Dr. Otto Finsch. 

* London, 1885. 

t Annalen d. k.-k. naturhistoriscten Hofinuseums, Bd. iii. Heft 4, 
p. 334 (120) (1888) (note). 



Letters, Extracts, Notices, t^c. 465 

Sir, — I dare say the following fact will interest you. 
Mr. Hudson, in the 'Argentine Ornithology ' (vol. ii. p. 115), 
says he believes there are two species of Roseate Spoonbills : 
one, tlie typical Ajaja rosea, with bare head, excrescences on 
the beak, yellow tail, crimson wing-marks, and breast-tuft ; 
and a second one with feathered head, pale-coloured plumage, 
smooth bill, rose-coloured tail, and no breast-tuft. 

Mr. Hudson's opinion was that the true A. rosea has all its 
characteristic marks &c. from its youth up, and that the 
pale-coloured birds do not undergo any change. 

I can now prove that these pale-coloured birds are not a 
distinct species, but are simply immature specimens of the 
bright-coloured Ajaja rosea. 

In June 1889 the Zoological Garden of Amsterdam 
acquired two Spoonbills answering exactly the description 
that Mr. Hudson gives of his pale-coloured species, as he 
calls it. 

I have observed these birds ever since their arrival ; they 
did not vary much until March of the present year (1893), 
when both birds completely changed their plumage into that 
of typical A. rosea. The heads have become bare, the excres- 
cences on the beak have appeared, the tails are yellow, and 
the bright wing-spots and the breast-tuft are also present. 

The fact that these birds have kept their immature plumage 
for four years sufficiently explains why on the pampas bright- 
coloured mature birds are comparatively rare. The immature 
bird Mr. Hudson shot must have been, not a bird just out of 
the nest, but a bird just acquiring the characters of the 
adult. This would explain the excrescences on the bill being 
soft. 

The pale-coloured bird of Mr. Hudson^s friend, which did 
not change for seven years, was probably not kept under 
favourable circumstances as to its food. This may have 
hindered its acquiring the fully adult plumage. 

So, for instance, I ha^e observed that specimens of Tantalus 
ibis fed on meat instead of fish never acquire their bright red 
wing-feathers. Perhaps also the number of years the bird 
was kept had not been accurately noted. 

SER. VI. VOL. v. 2 K 



466 Letters, Extracts, Notices, l^c. 

There remains still tlie different strueture of tlie trachea, 
but I do not see why that should not also acquire its new 
form only when the bird is fully adult. 

I am, 
'8 Graveland, Hilversum, Yours &C., 

Holland, April 1893. F. E. Blaauw. 



Sir, — In some "Oological Notes ^^ by Mr. Alfred North 
(Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. (2) vii. pp. 393-398, 1892), the 
author makes remarks on the eggs of Cyanorhamjihus rayneri, 
Gr., from Norfolk Island, and, after having alluded to my 
identification of this bird with C. cooki (Cat. B. Brit. Mus. 
XX. p. 585; see also Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) vii. p. 64), 
comes to the following conclusion : — " If C. rayneri of 
Norfolk Island is the same as C. cooki of New Zealand, as 
stated by Count Salvadori, I should not be surprised to find, 
upon the examination of a large series of skins of the Red- 
fronted Parrakeet of Norfolk Island, that it is only an 
occasional, and by no means constant, variety of C. nuvce- 
zealandiee, not meriting even subspecific distinction.^'' 

Mr. North, Avho does not seem to have ever seen a Cyano- 
rhamphus from Norfolk Island, is mistaken as regards my 
admitting that the type of C. cooki ever came from New 
Zealand. In fact, as the "habitat" of this species [op. cit. 
p. 585) I have given " Norfolk Island " only. The locality 
""New Zealand" to specimen a (the type of Platycercus 
cooki) is included between square brackets, which means 
that, according to my belief, it is wrong. In fact, the alleged 
locality is not supported by any reliable authority, the speci- 
men having belonged to the old " Bullock Collection." In 
conclusion I may say that I am quite persuaded that the type 
of C. cooki (like the type of C. rayneri) is a specimen from 
Norfolk Island, which has been wrongly labelled "New 
Zealand," and that C. cooki is a perfectly distinct species, 
quite different from C. nova-zealandia. 

If the Australian and New-Zealandian naturalists will take 
the trouble to bring together specimens of the genus Cyano- 



Letters, Extracts, Notices, ^c. 467 

rhamphus from the different islands, they will find that they 
belong to insular forms perfectly distinct from one another. 

I take this opportunity also to answer some remarks on 
the Cyayiurhamphus from Antipodes Island, made by Mr. H. O. 
Forbes in the last number of ' The Ibis ' (p. 280) . Whether 
this bird, which no doubt is C. hochstetteri, Reischek, is 
different, as I am inclined to believe, or not from C. erythrotis 
from the Macquarie Islands, is a question which must be left 
sub judice till we have a good series of specimens from both 
localities to be compared together. Till then I think it safer 
to consider the Antipodes-Island bird distinct, more especially 
as, besides some slight differences, C. hochstetteri and C ery- 
throtis have different habitats, a fact which warns us to be 
very cautious before we identify birds from different islands. 
In this particular case caution is the more necessary because 
the only available specimen from Antipodes Island (brought 
home by Mr. H. O. Forbes, and now in the British Museum) 
is imperfect and without a tail. 

I am, Sir, 
Zoological Museum, Turin, Yours &C., 

April 21st, 1893. T. Salvador:. 



Sir, — I should like to correspond with residents in this 
country who are interested in the subject of the migration 
of various birds. There are certainly many routes taken, 
but the greater part of these routes are indefinable, as the 
inland being so very uniform in character, the migrants, as 
a rule, travel direct, instead of following rivers or valleys. 
Why some birds, such as Atectrurus risorius, TcBnioptera 
dominicana, and Myiotheretes rufiventris, should only be found 
migrating due south-east and north-west, and breeding (except 
the last) 150 miles south and 100 miles west of Buenos Aires, 
and never appearing nearer to the capital, except as stragglers 
en route, is very puzzling. Agelaus flavus is also only found, 
though resident, beyond this same limit. In fact, one could 
draw a line beyond which certain species are never found, 
so that their occurrence would tell the traveller in which 
part of the country he was not, without other guides. 



468 



Letters, Extracts, Notices, ^c. 



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Letters, Extracts, Notices, li§c. 469 

I find that the localities mentioned in ' Argentine Orni- 
thology ' are often very misleading, such as, for example, 
" Buenos Aires." I£ this means the province, it is far too 
broad ; if the town, it should be so stated, and also whether the 
species is a " straggler," a " regular visitor," or a '' resident." 
For example, A(/elceus flavus, Alectrurus risorius, and a great 
many other species are absolutely unknown close to the 
town of Buenos Aires, but common in the west of the pro- 
vince of the same name. Again, there are birds that pass 
by the river to the neighbourhood of Buenos Aires (town), 
such as Tanagra bonariensis, which are only known there, 
and never seen further south. 

I give (see p. 468) a short list of a few of the commonest 
migrants which pass in March and April, according to my 
observations, and their resorts, so far as I can ascertain them 
from '^ Argentine Ornithology.' 

In the stream of migrants which arrived here on March 5th 
last, passing northwards, were some four hundred individuals 
of the following species, which also all departed together : — 
Mimus triurus, Troglodytes furvus, Poospiza torquata, Cata- 
menia analis, Ttenioptera coronata, Lichenops perspicillatus , 
Elainea albiceps, Pyrocephalus rubineus, Myiarchus ferox, 
Tyrannus melancholicus, Milvulus tyrannus, PJiytotoma rutila, 
Synallaxis albescens, S. hudsoni, and Coccyzus melunocory- 
phus. 

I am. Sir, 
Estancia Sta. Elena, Media Luna, Yours &c. 

Soler-F. C. al Pacifico, A. H. Holland. 

Argentine Republic, March 2oth, 1893. 



Sir, — Among some bird-skins obtained several years ago 
from Formosa, which I have not hitherto been able to 
examine carefully, I find a Bulbul which appears to be 
undescribed. In its olive-yellow wings and tail it much 
resembles Pycnonotus sinensis and P. hainanus, but differs 
from them in its greyer back and in the absence of yellow 
streaks both on back and lower parts. Its head, with plain 
black cap, black moustache, and scarlet spot at the gape, is 



470 Letters, Extracts, Notices, ^c. 

very like that of P. wanthorrhous but for the light ear- 
coverts. There is only a single example, undated and un- 
sexed, which may be described as follows : — 

Pycnonotus taivanuSj sp. nov. 

Crown of head and nape black ; lores and ear-coverts 
silvery huffish white ; throat white ; moustache black, with 
a small red spot at the base of the lower mandible. Hind 
neck light earthy brown; back, scapulars, lesser wing- 
coverts, and rump dull ashy brown, very lightly washed with 
olive. Greater coverts, remiges, and rectrices dark brown, 
washed externally with bright olive-yellow. Under surface 
huffish white, washed on flanks and thighs with ashy brown ; 
under tail-coverts edged with olive. Bill black. Legs and 
feet deep brown (in skin). Length apparently 7| inches, 
wing 3*4, tail 3-3. 

Two years ago my collector shot for me near Ichang three 
specimens of a Dicceum ( cJ J ? ) in which the upper parts of 
the male are of so much a deeper blue than in my specimens 
of D. ignipectus from South China that it would appear to be 
worthy of specific rank. The females I am unable to dis- 
tinguish. I propose to name this species 

DiCiEUM CYANONOTUM, Sp. UOV. 

Similar to D. ignipectus, but with the upper surface deep 
steel-blue instead of steel-green ; the lesser wing-coverts 
and rump are greenish. The pale olive edgings to the 
feathers of back and rump in D. ignipectus are wanting, also 
the olive edgings to the secondaries. The chest-spot is more 
orange, less crimson. 

I am. Sir, 

Kiukiang, Yours &C., 

April 20th, 1893. F. W. Styan. 



The Crocodile and its Bird. — The * Saturday Review ' of 
May 6th last contains an article on Crocodile-birds, based on 
Mr. J. M. Cook^s letter in our last number (above, p. 275). 
In reference to the Editorial remark that the story in ques- 
tion " had not been confirmed by eye-witness since the days 



Letters, Extracts, Notices, ^c. 471 

of Herodotus," the Saturday Reviewer writes as follows : — 
" No doubt, until Mr. Cook made his observation, the story 
had not ' been confirmed by recent observations ' ; but 
Giovanni Leone, perhaps better known as Leo Africanus, 
an author and traveller, who lived and wrote in the latter 
part of the fifteenth and the early part of the sixteenth 
century — i. e. at least 1300 years after yElian — and whose 
accounts of what he saw are singularly devoid of fable, tells 
the story in a manner which makes it hard to believe that he 
was not relating facts which actually came under his own 
observation. He tells us — we quote from the French trans- 
lation of his 'Description of Africa,' published in 1556 — that 
he was on the Nile, ' distant de Caire environ quatre cens 
mille,' when he saw several crocodiles upon some little 
islands in the middle of the river, ' qui estoyent etendus au 
Soleil, les gueules bees ; dans lesquelles aucuns oysillons de 
blanc panage, & grandeur d^une grive, entroyeut dedas, la 
ou ayans sejourne quelque espace de temps s'en retournoyent, 
dressans leur vol ailleurs. Dont estat curieus d'entendre la 
raison de cela, je m'eu enquis, & me fut dit, qu' cntre les 
dens du crocodile demeurent quelques files de chair, ou 
poisson pendaus ; Icsquels venans a se putrifier, se conver- 
tissent en vers, qui les molestent aucuuement, & estans 
aperceus remuer par ces petits oyseaus volas, viennent a 
entrer dans la gueule pour les mager, ce que ayans fait, 
crocodile ingrat taclie a les engloutir, mais se sentant pique 
au palais d'une dure & peignante epine (que Toyseau a sur 
le soramet de la tete) il est cotraint de desserrer, dounant 
lieu a la fuitte de Foyseau, & avenat q j'en puissc reeouvrer 
un, je raconteray cette histoire plus surement, & a la verite." 
Again, Paul Lucas, who wrote in 1719, though by no means 
an exact author or worthy to be too implicitly believed, 
distinctly says that he saw close to his boat some birds ' like 
a Lapwing, and near it in bigness,' which went 'into the 

crocodiles' mouths or throats, and after they had 

stayed a little while the crocodiles shut their mouths, and 
opened them again soon after to let them go out.' He was 
told by the people that the birds in question ' feed themselves 



472 Letters, Extracts, Notices, ^c. 

on what remains between this animars teeth by picking 
them, and as they have a kind of spur or very sharp thorn 
in the tops of their wings, they prick the crocodile, and 
torment him when he has shut his mouth, till he opens it 
again, and lets them out ; and thus they secure themselves 
from the danger they were in." And he adds the suggestion 
that " likely these are the birds which Pliny calls Trochilos." 



Anniversary Meeting of the British Ornithologists' Union, 
1893. — The Annual General Meeting of the British Orni- 
thologists' Union was held at the rooms of the Zoological 
Society of London, 3 Hanover Square^ on Wednesday, the 
3rd of May, at 6 p.m. In the absence of The President, 
Mr. Philip Lutley Sclatee, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., was in 
the Chair. The Minutes of the last Annual Meeting having 
been read and confirmed, the Report of the Committee 
was read. It stated that two Ordinary Members (Col. J. 
Biddulph and Mr. A. I, Muntz) had Avithdrawn, and two 
(Mr. W. Davison and Mr. G. M. Slaughter) had died since 
the last Anniversary. 

The number of the Members of the Union at the close of 
1892 was 261, consisting of 231 Ordinary, 1 Extra-ordinary, 
9 Honorary, and 20 Foreign Members. There were 18 
Candidates for the Ordinary Membership, and 1 for the 
Honorary Membership, now to be balloted for. 

The accounts for the year 1891 were then presented by the 
Secretary, and approved by the Meeting. 

The following Ordinary Members were balloted for and 
declared to be duly elected : — 

Major Ernest L. S. Anne, Blenkinsopp Castle, Green- 
head, Carlisle. 

Ernest W. H. Blagg, Greenhill, Cheadle, Staffordshire. 

George Bolam, F.Z.S., Castlegate, Berwick-on-Tweed. 

W. E. de Winton, Graftonbury, Hereford ; and 38 Great 
Russell Street, W.C. 

Ernst Hartert, The Museum, Tring, Herts. 

William Hartmann, Tangley Mere, Chilworth, Surrey. 

Charles Hose, F.Z.S., Baram, Sarawak, Borneo. 



Letters, Extracts, Notices, S^c. 473 

William Henry Hudson, C.M.Z.S., Tower House, St. 

Luke^s Eoad, Westbourne Park, W. 
Frederick Lewis, Assistant Conservator of Forests, 

Ratnapura, Ceylon. 
William H. Mullens, M.A., F.Z.S., Westfield Place, near 

Battle, Sussex. 
Tliomas Digby Pigott, C,B., 5 Ovington Gardens, S.W. 
W. P. Pycraft, University Museum, Oxford. 
Percy Kendall, M.D., F.Z.S., Eureka City, South African 

Republic. 
The Hon. L. Walter Rothschild, F.Z.S., Tring Park, 

Tring, Herts. 
Samuel S. Stanley, 3 Regent Grove, Leamington, 

Warwickshire. 
Charles Stonham, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., 4 Harley Street, 

Cavendish Square, W. 
Dixon L. Thorpe, 41 Aglionby Street, Carlisle. 
Aubyn B. R. Trevor-Battye, F.Z.S., St. Margaret's 
Mansions, 51 Victoria Street, S.W. 
Dr. Anton Reichenow, C.M.Z.S., of Berlin, was also bal- 
loted for and elected an Honorary Member. 

The outgoing President and Secretary were then re- 
elected, and Mr. Howard Saunders was chosen into the 
Committee in the place of Dr. R. Bowdler Sharpe, who 
retired by rotation. 

The Officers for the year 1893-94 are therefore as fol- 
lows : — 

President. 
The Right Hon. Lord Lilford. 

Secretary. 
F. D. GoDMAN, Esq., F.R.S. 

Editor. 
P. L. ScLATER, Esq., M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Committee. 
Henry Seebohm, Esq. 
OsBERT Salvin, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Howard Saunders, Esq. 
ser, vi. vol. v. 2 l 



474 Letters, Extracts, Notices, &^c. 

After a vote of thanks to the Chairman, the Meeting 
adjourned. 

The Annual Dinner, subsequently held at Limmer's Hotel, 
was attended by 32 Members and guests. 



Parus colletti, Stejneger. — In his 'Mindre Meddelelser 
vedrorende Norges Fuglefauna i Aarene 1881-1892' (now 
being printed), of which a set of the sheets has been 
forwarded to us. Prof. Collett makes (pp. 34, 35) the following 
remarks (which have been kindly translated for us by Mr. A. 
Heneage Cocks) on " Parus colletti," a " species " instituted 
by Dr. Stejneger in 1888, as being the representative of 
Parus borealis in Western Scandinavia : — 

'^n the Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1888, p. 71, Dr. Stejneger 
has sought to maintain that Parus borealis makes its ap- 
pearance in Scandinavia in two forms — a western form, which 
is stated in the main to inhabit Norway, and the typical 
form, which is more eastern and inhabits generally Sweden. 

"The western form, of which Dr. Stejneger had a pair of 
examples before him, shot near Bergen in June and August 
1887, differs, he says, from the eastern, of which he has six 
examples, shot in the winter months in Sweden, chiefly in the 
colour of the hood and of the edge of the secondaries, a dif- 
ference which he considers as constant, and so important that 
he sets up the western form as a peculiar species under the name 
of P. colletti, by the side of the typical (eastern) P. borealis. 

" The diagnosis of the two species is given as follows 

(p. 74) :- 

Parus colletti. Parus borealis. 

Top of head and nape pure black, without gloss. brownish black*. 

Back smoke-grey. pale bufFy grey. 

Outer margins of secondaries like the back, scarcely lighter, whitish. 

Under tail-coverts smoke-grey, like the back. whitish. 

* [In the original diagnosis the colour of the hood in the two forms is 
exchanged, which is obviously a misprint. Thus it is found (at the foot 
of p. 74) stated : — 

" In the Norwegian birds (P. colletti) the top of the head is deep black 
against brownish black in those from Sweden." 

Professor Collett has himself let slip an obvious misprint in copying the 
English diagnosis, "hand" being printed instead of "head." — A. H. C] 



Letters, Extracts, Notices, ^c. 475 

" In endeavouring to decide the question about these two 
forms^ I have examined the greater part of the material of 
P. borealis which is at the present time preserved in the dif- 
ferent museums o£ the country. The University Museum* 
possesses in all 39 examples, of which 26 are from the most 
southerly parts of Norway (the districts about Christiania, 
Drammen, Hamar, and Dovre), 3 from the west coast of 
the country (Sondfjord, in Bergen diocese), 2 from Fin- 
marken (Alten, Varanger), besides 8 from Mid-Sweden 
(Upsala). 

"Among all these examples, which come from the most 
easterly, the most north